Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-z9m8x Total loading time: 0.418 Render date: 2022-09-30T06:57:13.776Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Modelling cross-species feed intake responses to thermal stress

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 November 2015

National Animal Nutrition Program, a National Research Support Project (NRSP-9), University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 Department of Dairy Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
Department of Dairy Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Email:


The objectives of the current study were to compare and model feed intake responses to ambient temperature across species and to assess opportunities to use cross-species (CS) data to parameterize models when species-specific (SS) data were limited. Literature searches were conducted to identify studies reporting intake during thermal stress compared with thermoneutral (TN) conditions. The resulting data set comprised 614 treatment means from 108 studies on livestock responses to thermal stress. An analysis of variance was conducted with the CS data set to identify the effects of species, temperature and species by temperature interactions on intake as (fractional feed intake; FFI). Four models were derived from the CS data set and root mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) of these models were compared with models of the same form derived from SS data sets. Models used explanatory variables for (1) duration of exposure; (2) mean temperature; (3) minimum and maximum temperatures; or (4) difference between minimum and maximum temperatures. An additional model accounting for temperature and stage of production was derived from the SS data. Analysis of variance demonstrated that the species by temperature interaction did not have a significant effect on FFI. Across species, intake decreased with temperature. Notably, all species demonstrated a constant decrease in intake across the TN zone indicating the previous assumption of constant intake during thermoneutrality may be not fully valid. When compared on a SS basis, SS-derived models had marginally lower RMSPE and higher CCC when compared with models derived from the CS data sets. The model fit with production data had the lowest RMSPE and highest CCC within the study. When compared over temperature ranges with minimal data available in some species (e.g., cold stress), using CS models often resulted in decreased RMSPE and improved CCC when compared with SS models. Although fitting models based on SS data allows for incorporating unique covariates, like level of production, fitting responses based on CS data can help to improve model estimates when knowledge gaps exist.

Modelling Animal Systems Research Papers
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Arrillaga, C. G., Henning, W. & Miller, R. (1952). The effects of environmental temperature and relative humidity on the acclimation of cattle to the tropics. Journal of Animal Science 11, 5060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aschoff, J. (1981). Thermal conductance in mammals and birds: its dependence on body size and circadian phase. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology 69, 611619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baile, C. A. & Forbes, J. M. (1974). Control of feed intake and regulation of energy balance in ruminants. Physiological Reviews 54, 160214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baldwin, R. L. (1995). Modeling Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
Becker, B. A., Klir, J. J., Matteri, R. L., Spiers, D. E., Ellersiek, M. & Misfeldt, M. L. (1997). Endocrine and thermoregulatory responses to acute thermal exposures in 6-month-old pigs reared in different neonatal environments. Journal of Thermal Biology 22, 8793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berman, A. (2011). Invited review: are adaptations present to support dairy cattle productivity in warm climates? Journal of Dairy Science 94, 21472158.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernabucci, U., Lacetera, N., Baumgard, L. H., Rhoads, R. P., Ronchi, B. & Nardone, A. (2010). Metabolic and hormonal acclimation to heat stress in domesticated ruminants. Animal 4, 11671183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berthon, D., Herpin, P. & Le Dividich, J. (1994). Shivering thermogenesis in the neonatal pig. Journal of Thermal Biology 19, 413418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brouček, J., Letkovičová, M. & Kovalčuj, K. (1991). Estimation of cold stress effect on dairy cows. International Journal of Biometeorology 35, 2932.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brobeck, J. R. (1948). Food intake as a mechanism of temperature regulation. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 20, 545552.Google ScholarPubMed
Bukowiecki, L., Collet, A. J., Follea, N., Guay, G. & Jahjah, L. (1982). Brown adipose tissue hyperplasia: a fundamental mechanism of adaptation to cold and hyperphagia. American Journal of Physiology 242, E353E359.Google ScholarPubMed
Chaffee, R. R. J. & Roberts, J. C. (1971). Temperature acclimation in birds and mammals. Annual Review of Physiology 33, 155202.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Close, W. H. & Mount, L. E. (1978). The effects of plane of nutrition and environmental temperature on the energy metabolism of the growing pig. 1. Heat loss and critical temperature. British Journal of Nutrition 40, 413421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cooper, M. A. & Washburn, K. W. (1998). The relationships of body temperature to weight gain, feed consumption, and feed utilization in broilers under heat stress. Poultry Science 77, 237242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dale, N. M. & Fuller, H. L. (1980). Effect of diet composition on feed intake and growth of chicks under heat stress. II. Constant vs. cycling temperatures. Poultry Science 59, 14341441.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Basilio, V., Vilarino, M., Yahav, S. & Picard, M. (2001). Early age thermal conditioning and a dual feeding program for male broilers challenged by heat stress. Poultry Science 80, 2936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Denbow, D. M. (1985). Food intake control in birds. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 9, 223232.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ford, A. (2009). Modeling the Environment, 2nd edn.Washington, DC: Island Press Publishing.Google Scholar
Franco-Jimenez, D. J., Scheideler, S. E., Kittok, R. J., Brown-Brandl, T. M., Robeson, L. R., Taira, H. & Beck, M. M. (2007). Differential effects of heat stress in three strains of laying hens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 16, 628634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, C. L. (1963). Interactions of food intake and temperature regulation in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 56, 476488.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hardy, J. D. & Du Bois, E. F. (1937 a). Basal metabolism, radiation, convection and vaporization at temperatures of 22 to 35 °C. Journal of Nutrition 15, 477497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hardy, J. D. & Du Bois, E. F. (1937 b). Regulation of heat loss from the human body. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 23, 624631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herreid, C. F. II & Kessel, B. (1967). Thermal conductance in birds and mammals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 21, 405414.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hicks, T. A., McGlone, J. J., Whisnant, C. S., Kattesh, H. G. & Norman, R. L. (1998). Behavioral, endocrine, immune, and performance measures for pigs exposed to acute stress. Journal of Animal Science 76, 474483.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hohtola, E. (2004). Shivering thermogenesis in birds and mammals. In Life in the Cold: Evolution, Mechanisms, Adaptation, and Application. 12th International Hibernation Symposium (Eds Barnes, B. M. & Carey, H. V.), pp. 241252. Biological Papers of the University of Alaska, no. 27. Fairbanks, Alaska: Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska.Google Scholar
Horowitz, K. A., Scott, N. R., Hillman, P. E. & van Tienhoven, A. (1978). Effects of feathers on instrumental thermoregulatory behavior in chickens. Physiology and Behavior 21, 233238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hurvich, C. M. & Tsai, C. L. (1993). A corrected akaike information criterion for vector autoregressive model selection. Journal of Time Series Analysis 14, 271279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kerr, B. J., Yen, J. T., Nienaber, J. A. & Easter, R. A. (2003). Influences of dietary protein level, amino acid supplementation and environmental temperature on performance, body composition, organ weights and total heat production of growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 81, 19982007.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ketelaars, J. J. M. H. & Tolkamp, B. J. (1992). Toward a new theory of feed intake regulation in ruminants 1. Causes of differences in voluntary feed intake: critique of current views. Livestock Production Science 30, 269296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kingma, B., Frijns, A. & van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. (2012). The thermoneutral zone: implications for metabolic studies. Frontiers in Bioscience 4, 19751985.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, L. I-K. (1989). A concordance correlation coefficient to evaluate reproducibility. Biometrics 45, 255268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lopez, J., Jesse, G. W., Becker, B. A. & Ellersieck, M. R. (1991). Effects of temperature on the performance of finishing swine: I. Effects of a hot, diurnal temperature on average daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency. Journal of Animal Science 69, 18431849.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGuire, M. A., Beede, D. K., Collier, R. J., Buonomo, F. C., DeLorenzo, M. A., Wilcox, C. J., Huntington, G. B. & Reynolds, C. K. (1991). Effects of acute thermal stress and amount of feed intake on concentrations of somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor (igf)-i and igf-ii, and thyroid hormones in plasma of lactating holstein cows. Journal of Animal Science 69, 20502056.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McMinn, J. E., Baskin, D. G. & Schwartz, M. W. (2000). Neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating food intake and body weight. Obesity Reviews 1, 3746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moraes, V. M. B., Malheiros, R. D., Bruggeman, V., Collin, A., Tona, K., Van As, P., Onagbesan, O. M., Buyse, J., Decuypere, E. & Macari, M. (2003). Effect of thermal conditioning during embryonic development on aspects of physiological responses of broilers to heat stress. Journal of Thermal Biology 28, 133140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagy, K. A., Girard, I. A. & Brown, T. K. (1999). Energetics of free-ranging mammals, reptiles, and birds. Annual Review of Nutrition 19, 247277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
National Animal Nutrition Program (2014 a). Animal Performance Information, Environmental Stress. NANP. Available from: (verified 22 September 2015).Google Scholar
National Animal Nutrition Program (2014 b). Code Examples, Statistical Analyses. NANP. Available online from: (verified 22 September 2015).Google Scholar
National Research Council (2000). Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 7th revised edn.Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
National Research Council (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 7th revised edn.Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
National Research Council (2012). Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 11th revised edn.Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
Nyachoti, C. M., Zijlstra, R. T., de Lange, C. F. M. & Patience, J. F. (2004). Voluntary feed intake in growing-finishing pigs: a review of the main determining factors and potential approaches for accurate predictions. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 84, 549566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patience, J. F., Umboh, J. F., Chaplin, R. K. & Nyachoti, C. M. (2005). Nutritional and physiological responses of growing pigs exposed to a diurnal pattern of heat stress. Livestock Production Science 96, 205214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearce, S. C., Gabler, N. K., Ross, J. W., Escobar, J., Patience, J. F., Rhoads, R. P. & Baumgard, L. H. (2013). The effects of heat stress and plane of nutrition on metabolism in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 91, 21082118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
R Development Core Team (2014). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, version 3.1.0. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
Renaudeau, D., Huc, E. & Noblet, J. (2007). Acclimation to high ambient temperature in large white and Caribbean creole growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 85, 779790.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Renaudeau, D., Collin, A., Yahav, S., de Basilio, V., Gourdine, J. L. & Collier, R. J. (2012). Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production. Animal 6, 707728.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rubner, M. (1982). The Laws of Energy Conservation in Nutrition. London: Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
Segura, J. C., Feddes, J. J. R. & Zuidhof, M. J. (2006). Midday and night time cooling of broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 15, 2839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sonna, L. A., Fujita, J., Gaffin, S. L. & Lilly, C. M. (2002). Invited review: effects of heat and cold stress on mammalian gene expression. Journal of Applied Physiology 92, 17251742.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spiers, D. E., Spain, J. N., Sampson, J. D. & Rhoads, R. P. (2004). Use of physiological parameters to predict milk yield and feed intake in heat-stressed dairy cows. Journal of Thermal Biology 29, 759764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stahly, T. S. & Cromwell, G. L. (1979). Effect of environmental temperature and dietary fat supplementation on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing and finishing swine. Journal of Animal Science 49, 14781488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tzschentke, B. (2007). Attainment of thermoregulation as affected by environmental factors. Poultry Science 86, 10251036.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verhagen, J. M. F. (1987). Acclimation of growing pigs to climatic environment. Ph.D. Thesis, Agricultural University Wageningen, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
Waterman, M. S. & Lander, E. S. (1995). Calculating the Secrets of Life: Contributions of the Mathematical Sciences to Molecular Biology. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
Wekstein, D. R. & Zolman, J. F. (1971). Cold stress regulation in young chickens. Poultry Science 50, 5661.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
White, R. R., Miller, P. S. & Hanigan, M. D. (First Look article). Evaluating equations estimating change in swine feed intake during heat and cold stress. Journal of Animal Science. doi: 10.2527/jas2015-9271.Google Scholar
Willmott, C. J. (1981). On the validation of models. Physical Geography 2, 184194.Google Scholar
Woods, S. C., Seeley, R. J., Porte, D. & Schwartz, M. W. (1998). Signals that regulate food intake and energy homeostasis. Science 280, 13781383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Xin, H. & DeShazer, J. A. (1991). Swine responses to constant and modified diurnal cyclic temperatures. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 34, 25332540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yahav, S. & Hurwitz, S. (1996). Induction of thermotolerance in male broiler chickens by temperature conditioning at an early age. Poultry Science 75, 402406.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, B. A. (1981). Cold stress as it affects animal production. Journal of Animal Science 52, 154163.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, B. A. (1983). Ruminant cold stress: effect on production. Journal of Animal Science 57, 16011607.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Modelling cross-species feed intake responses to thermal stress
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Modelling cross-species feed intake responses to thermal stress
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Modelling cross-species feed intake responses to thermal stress
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *