Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Ammonia volatilization during storage of cattle and pig slurry: effect of surface cover

  • S. G. Sommer (a1), B. T. Christensen (a1), N. E. Nielsen (a2) and J. K. Schjφrring (a2)

Summary

Gaseous NH3 losses from pig and cattle slurry stored in eight storage tanks were measured simultaneously using wind-tunnels. The slurry was either stirred weekly (uncovered), or was allowed to develop a natural surface crust. Oil, peat, chopped cereal straw, PVC foil, leca® (pebbles of burned montmorillonitic clay) and a lid were tested as additional covers. Convective transport of ammonium to the surface layers caused NH3 volatilization losses of 3–5 g NH3-N/m2 per day from the stirred, uncovered tanks. The loss of NH3 from the stirred slurry was related to air temperature. The development of a natural surface crust reduced NH3 losses to 20% of those from stirred slurry. NH3 losses from slurry not developing a natural surface crust layer and left undisturbed were similar to the losses from stirred slurry. A 15 cm layer of straw was as effective as a surface crust layer in reducing NH3 losses. In one experiment, cracks developed in the oil cover and losses were therefore only reduced to 50% of those of uncovered slurry. Apart from this experiment, NH3 losses from slurry covered with oil, leca®, peat and foil were small.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Asman, W. A. H. & Vanjaarsveld, H. A. (1992). A variable resolution transport model applied for NHx in Europe. Atmospheric Environment 26A, 445464.
Bode, M. J. C. De (1991). Odour and ammonia emissions from manure storage. In Ammonia and Odour Emissions from Livestock Production (Eds Nielsen, V. C., Voorburg, J. H. & L'Hermite, P.), pp. 5966. London & New York: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers.
Buusman, E., Maas, H. F. M. & Asman, W. A. H. (1987). Anthropogenic NH3 emissions in Europe. Atmospheric Environment 21, 10091022.
Christensen, B. T. (1986). Ammonia volatilization loss from surface applied animal manure. In Efficient Land Use of Sludge and Manure (Eds Kofoed, A. D., Williams, J. H. & L'Hermite, P.), pp. 193203. London & New York: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers.
Crooke, W. M. & Simpson, W. E. (1971). Determination of ammonium in Kjeldahl digests of crops by an automated procedure. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 22, 910.
Dewes, T., Schmitt, L., Valentin, U. & Ahrens, E. (1990). Nitrogen losses during the storage of liquid livestock manures. Biological Wastes 31, 241250.
Hashimoto, A. G., Chen, Y. R. & Varel, V. H. (1980). Theoretical aspects of methane production: state-of-theart. Livestock Waste: A Renewable Resource, 8692.
Jarvis, S. C. & Pain, B. F. (1990). Ammonia volatilisation from agricultural land. Proceeding No. 298. Peterborough: The Fertilizer Society.
Leuning, R., Denmead, O. T., Simpson, J. R. & Freney, J. R. (1984). Processes of ammonia loss from shallow floodwater. Atmospheric Environment 18, 15831592.
Muck, R. E. & Steenhuis, T. S. (1982). Nitrogen losses from manure storages. Agricultural Wastes 4, 4154.
SChulze, E.-D., De Vries, W., Hauhs, M., Rosén, K., Rasmussen, L., Tamm, C.-O. & Nilsson, J. (1989). Critical loads for nitrogen deposition on forest ecosystems. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 48, 451456.
Sommer, S. G., Olesen, J. E. & Christensen, B. T. (1991). Effects of temperature, wind speed and air humidity on ammonia volatilization from surface applied cattle slurry. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 117, 91100.
Sommer, S. G., Kjellerup, V. & Kristjansen, O. (1992). Determination of total ammonium nitrogen in pig and cattle slurry: sample preparation and analysis. Ada Agriculturae Scandinavica 42, 146151.
Vlek, P. L. G. & Stumpe, J. M. (1978). Effects of solution chemistry and environmental conditions on ammonia volatilization losses from aqueous systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42, 416421.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Agricultural Science
  • ISSN: 0021-8596
  • EISSN: 1469-5146
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-agricultural-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed