Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Effect of melamine on in vitro rumen microbial growth, methane production and fermentation of Chinese wild rye hay and maize meal in binary mixtures

  • H. J. YANG (a1), H. ZHUANG (a1), X. K. MENG (a1), D. F. ZHANG (a1) and B. H. CAO (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 15 October 2013

The effects of melamine on gas production (GP) kinetics, methane (CH4) production and fermentation of diets differing in forage content (low-forage (LF) diet: 200 g/kg and high-forage (HF) diet: 800 g/kg) by rumen micro-organisms in vitro were studied using batch cultures. Rumen contents were collected from three Simmental×Luxi crossbred beef cattle. Melamine was added to the incubation bottles to achieve final concentration of 0 (control), 2, 6, 18, 54, 162 and 484 mg/kg of each diet. Cumulative GP was continuously measured in an automated gas recording instrument during 72 h of incubation, while fermentation gas end-products were collected to determine molar proportions of carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4 and hydrogen gas (H2) in manually operated batch cultures. Differences in GP kinetics and fermentation gases were observed in response to the nature of the diets incubated. Although melamine addition did not affect GP kinetics and fermentation gas pattern compared to the control, the increase of melamine addition stimulated the yield of CH4 by decreasing CO2, especially during the fermentation of the HF diet. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (N), amino acid N and microbial N in culture fluids were greater in the fermentation of LF- than HF diets, and these concentrations were increased by the increase of melamine addition after 72-h fermentation. The concentrations of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) were greater in HF than LF diets. The addition of melamine decreased total VFA concentrations and this response was greater in HF than LF diet fermentations. Melamine addition did not affect molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, propionate and valerate compared with the control; however, branched-chain VFA production, which was lower in the HF than the LF diet, was increased by the melamine addition, especially in the HF diet fermentation. The ratio of non-glucogenic to glucogenic acids was lower in the HF than the LF diet, but it was not affected by melamine addition. In brief, the greater reduction in the rate and extent of rumen fermentation found for the HF diet in comparison with the LF diet suggested that rumen fermentation rate and extent in vitro depended mainly on the nature of the incubated substrate, and that they could be further inhibited by the increase of melamine addition.

Corresponding author
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

C. A. Brown , K. S. Jeong , R. H. Poppenga , B. Puschner , D. M. Miller , A. E. Ellis , K. I. Kang , S. Sum , A. M. Cistola & S. A. Brown (2007). Outbreaks of renal failure associated with melamine and cyanuric acid in dogs and cats in 2004 and 2007. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 19, 525531.

M. A. Cotta & J. B. Russell (1982). Effect of peptides and amino acids onefficiency of rumen bacterial protein synthesis in continuous culture. Journal of Dairy Science 65, 226234.

D. I. Demeyer & H. K. Henderickx (1967) Methane production from glucose in vitro by mixed rumen bacteria. The Biochemical Journal 105, 271277.

J. R. Ingelfinger (2008). Melamine and the global implications of food contamination. New England Journal of Medicine 359, 27452747.

U. Krishnamoorthy , H. Soller , H. Steingass & K. H. Menke (1991). A comparative study on rumen fermentation of energy supplements in vitro. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 65, 2835.

T. G. Nagaraja , C. J. Newbold , C. J. Van Nevel & D. I. Demeyer (1997). Manipulation of ruminal fermentation. In The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem (Eds P. N. Hobson & C. S. Stewart), pp. 523632. London: Chapman & Hall.

E. R. Ørskov (1975). Manipulation of rumen fermentation for maximium food utilization. In World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 22 (Ed. G. H. Bourne), pp. 152182. Basel, Switzerland: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers.

S. M. Reynal & G. A. Broderick (2005). Effect of dietary level of rumen degraded protein on production and nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 88, 40454064.

S. M. Reynal , I. R. Ipharraguerre , M. Liñeiro , A. F. Brito , G. A. Broderick & J. H. Clark (2007). Omasal flow of soluble proteins, peptides and free amino acids in dairy cows fed diets supplemented with proteins of varying ruminal degradabilities. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 18871903.

J. B. Russell & C. J. Sniffen (1984). Effect of carbon-4 and carbon-5 volatile fatty acids on growth of mixed rumen bacteria in vitro. Journal of Dairy Science 67, 987994.

L. D. Satter & R. E. Roffler (1975). Nitrogen requirement and utilization in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 58, 12191224.

J. S. Shen , J. Q. Wang , H. Y. Wei , D. P. Bu , P. Sun & L. Y. Zhou (2010). Transfer efficiency of melamine from feed to milk in lactating dairy cows fed with different doses of melamine. Journal of Dairy Science 93, 20602066.

M. K. Song & J. J. Kennelly (1989). Effect of ammoniated barley silage on ruminal fermentation, nitrogen supply to the small intestine, ruminal and whole tract digestion and milk production of Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 72, 29812990.

P. J. Van Soest , J. B. Robertson & B. A. Lewis (1991). Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 35833597.

R. J. Wallace (1979). Effect of ammonia concentration on the composition, hydrolytic activity and nitrogen metabolism of the microbial flora of the rumen. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 47, 443449.

C. M. J. Yang (2002). Response of forage fiber degradation by ruminal microorganisms to branched-chain volatile fatty acids, amino acids and dipeptides. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 11831190.

D. F. Zhang & H. J. Yang (2011). In vitro ruminal methanogenesis of a hay-rich substrate in response to different combination supplements of nitrocompounds, pyromellitic diimideand, 2-bromoethanesulphonate. Animal Feed Science and Technology 163, 2032.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Agricultural Science
  • ISSN: 0021-8596
  • EISSN: 1469-5146
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-agricultural-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *