Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effect of yeast with bacteriocin from rumen bacteria on growth performance, caecal flora, caecal fermentation and immunity function of broiler chicks

  • C. Y. CHEN (a1), C. YU (a2), S. W. CHEN (a1), B. J. CHEN (a1) and H. T. WANG (a3)...


The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of bacteriocin of Ruminococcus albus 7 that is expressed by yeast on growth performance, caecal flora, caecal fermentation and immunity function of broilers. A total of 180, one-day-old healthy broiler chicks were randomly divided into three groups: control, bacteriocin (2·5 g/kg feed) and nosiheptide (NHT) (2·5 mg/kg, as antibiotic control). Growth performance, caecal flora, caecal fermentation products and immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration were determined when chicks were 21 and 35 days old. The gene expression of avian β-defensin (AvBD) and mucin (MUC2) were measured at 35 days old. The supplementation of bacteriocin and NHT had no significant effect on body weight gain (BWG) during the experimental period. Bacteriocin supplementation significantly enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus (P<0·05) and resulted in higher lactate concentration (P<0·01) in broiler caeca at 21 days old. Both bacteriocin and NHT supplementation resulted in lower Escherichia coil (P=0·072) and Enterococcus (P=0·038) counts than in the control group at 35 days old. The bacteriocin treatment group tended to increase bile IgA and showed higher bile IgA than the NHT treatment group (P=0·059) at 35 days old. Higher levels of AvBD1, AvBD4 and MUC2 gene expression were observed in the NHT treatment group (P<0·05), but expression of AvBD9 was significantly decreased in both bacteriocin and NHT treatment groups (P<0·05). In conclusion, bacteriocin supplementation elevated the caecal Lactobacillus counts and affected the immunity function. These benefits suggested that bacteriocin supplementation could be a potential alternative to antibiotics in broiler feed.


Corresponding author

*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Email:


Hide All
Arbor Acres Farm (1996). Arbor Acres Broiler Breeder Manual. Huntsville, AL, Canada: Arbor Acres Farm, Inc.
Akbari, M. R., Haghighi, H. R., Chambers, J. R., Brisbin, J., Read, L. R. & Sharif, S. (2008). Expression of antimicrobial peptides in cecal tonsils of chickens treated with probiotics and infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 15, 16891693.
Baurhoo, B., Ferket, P. R. & Zhao, X. (2009). Effects of diets containing different concentrations of mannanoligosaccharide or antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal development, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters of broilers. Poultry Science 88, 22622272.
Bryant, M. P. & Robinson, I. M. (1968). Effects of diet, time after feeding, and position sampled on numbers of viable bacteria in the bovine rumen. Journal of Dairy Science 51, 19501955.
Chassard, C. & Bernalier-Donadille, A. (2006). H2 and acetate transfers during xylan fermentation between a butyrate-producing xylanolytic species and hydrogenotrophic microorganisms from the human gut. FEMS Microbiology Letters 254, 116122.
COA (2002). Feed Control Act of Taiwan. Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C: Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan.
Corrier, D. E., Hinton, A., Ziprin, R. L. & Deloach, J. R. (1990). Effect of dietary lactose on Salmonella colonization of market-age broiler chickens. Avian Diseases 34, 668676.
Cromwell, G. L., Stahly, T. S., Speer, V. C. & O'Kelly, R. (1984). Efficacy of nosiheptide as a growth promotant for growing-finishing swine: a cooperative study. Journal of Animal Science 59, 11251128.
Derensy-Dron, D., Krzewinski, F., Brassart, C. & Bouquelet, S. (1999). Beta-1,3-galactosyl-N-acetylhexosamine phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium bifidum DSM 20082: characterization, partial purification and relation to mucin degradation. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 29, 310.
Dibner, J. J. & Richards, J. D. (2005). Antibiotic growth promoters in agriculture: history and mode of action. Poultry Science 84, 634643.
Ferket, P. R. (2004). Alternatives to antibiotics in poultry production: responses, practical experience and recommendations. In Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries (Eds Lyons, T. P. & Jacques, K. A.), pp. 5767. Nottingham, UK: Nottingham University Press.
Fernandez, F., Hinton, M. & Van Gils, B. (2002). Dietary mannan-oligosaccharides and their effect on chicken caecal microflora in relation to Salmonella enteritidis colonization. Avian Pathology 31, 4958.
Fuller, R. (1977). The importance of Lactobacilli in maintaining normal microbial balance in the crop. British Poultry Science 18, 8594.
Gálfi, P. & Neogrády, S. (1996). Short chain fatty acids (acidifiers) as probiotics in diets for piglets. In Fourth International Feed Production Conference, Piacenza (Ed. Piva, G.), pp. 2526. Milan, Italy: Bureau Veritas.
Hall, L. E., Shirley, R. B., Bakalli, R. I., Aggrey, S. E., Pesti, G. M. & Edwards, H. M. (2003). Power of two methods for the estimation of bone ash of broilers. Poultry Science 82, 414418.
Hsieh, Y. H., Wang, H. T., Chen, B. J. & Chen, C. Y. (2010). Effect of antibiotics and antibiotic-free feed additives on growth performance and intestinal absorption in broiler chickens. In The 14th Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies Animal Science Congress Proceedings (Ed. Chinese Society of Animal Science), Vol. 2, pp. 969972. Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies.
Karimi Torshizi, M. A., Moghaddam, A. R., Rahimi, S. & Mojgani, N. (2010). Assessing the effect of administering probiotics in water or as a feed supplement on broiler performance and immune response. British Poultry Science 51, 178184
Klaenhammer, T. R. (1993). Genetics of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 12, 3985.
Lee, D. N., Lyu, S. R., Wang, R. C., Weng, C. F. & Chen, B. J. (2011). Exhibit differential functions of various antibiotic growth promoters in broiler growth, immune response and gastrointestinal physiology. International Journal of Poultry Science 10, 216220.
Lehmann, U. & Kreipe, H. (2004). Real-time PCR-based assay for quantitative determination of methylation status. Methods in Molecular Biology 287, 207218.
Li, H. J. & Zou, X. T. (2005). Effects of nosiheptide on immunity function in broilers. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science 25, 534535.
Louis, P. & Flint, H. J. (2009). Diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine. FEMS Microbiology Letters 294, 18.
Mack, D. R., Ahrne, S., Hyde, L., Wei, S. & Hollingsworth, M. A. (2003). Extracellular MUC3 mucin secretion follows adherence of Lactobacillus strains to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Gut 52, 827833.
Mattar, A. F., Teitelbaum, D. H., Drongowski, R. A., Yongyi, F., Harmon, C. M. & Coran, A. G. (2002). Probiotics up-regulate MUC-2 mucin gene expression in a Caco-2 cell-culture model. Pediatric Surgery International 18, 586590.
McGinnis, C. H. Jr., Johnson, C. A. & Fox, J. E. (1978). The effect of nosiheptide, a new antibiotic, on body weight gain and feed efficiency in broiler chicks. Poultry Science 57, 16411645.
Menendez, A. S. & Finlay, B. B. (2007). Defensins in the immunology of bacterial infections. Current Opinion in Immunology 19, 385391.
Monsma, D. J. & Marlett, J. A. (1995). Rat cecal inocula produce different patterns of short-chain fatty acids than fecal inocula in in vitro fermentations. Journal of Nutrition 125, 24632470.
Mountzouris, K. C., Tsitrsikos, P., Palamidi, I., Arvaniti, A., Mohnl, M., Schatzmayr, G. & Fegeros, K. (2010). Effects of probiotic inclusion levels in broiler nutrition on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, plasma immunoglobulins, and cecal microflora composition. Poultry Science 89, 5867.
Nava, G. M., Bielke, L. R., Callaway, T. R. & Castañeda, M. P. (2005). Probiotic alternatives to reduce gastrointestinal infections: the poultry experience. Animal Health Research Review 6, 105118.
Niewold, T. A. (2007). The nonantibiotic anti-inflammatory effect of antimicrobial growth promoters, the real mode of action? A hypothesis. Poultry Science 86, 605609.
Nousiainen, J. T. (1991). Comparative observations on selected probiotics and olaquindox as feed additives for piglets around weaning. 2. Effect on villus length and crypt depth in the jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 66, 224230.
NRC (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry (9th revised edn). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Ricke, S. C. (2003). Perspectives on the use of organic acids and short chain fatty acids as antimicrobials. Poultry Science 82, 632639.
Roura, E., Homedes, J. & Klasing, K. C. (1992). Prevention of immunologic stress contributes to the growth-permitting ability of dietary antibiotics in chicks. Journal of Nutrition 122, 23832390.
Roush, W. B. & Tozer, P. R. (2004). The power of tests for bioequivalence in feed experiments with poultry. Journal of Animal Science 82 (E Suppl.), E110E118.
SAS Institute Inc. (1997). SAS/STAT User's Guide, Release 6.12. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc.
Savage, T. F., Cotter, P. F. & Zakrzewska, E. I. (1996). The effect of feeding a mannan oligosaccharide on Immunoglobulins, plasma IgG and bile IgA of Wrolstad MW male turkeys (abstract). Poultry Science 75 (Suppl. 1), 143.
Sklan, D., Melamed, D. & Friedman, A. (1994). The effect of varying levels of vitamin A on immune response in the chick. Poultry Science 73, 843847.
Smirnov, A., Perez, R., Amit-Romach, E., Sklan, D. & Uni, Z. (2005). Mucin dynamics and microbial populations in chicken small intestine are changed by dietary probiotic and antibiotic growth promoter supplementation. Journal of Nutrition 135, 187192.
Smirnov, A., Sklan, D. & Uni, Z. (2004). Mucin dynamics in the chick small intestine are altered by starvation. Journal of Nutrition 134, 736742.
Spring, P., Wenk, C., Dawson, K. A. & Newman, K. E. (2000). The effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharides on cecal parameters and the concentrations of enteric bacteria in the ceca of Salmonella-challenged broiler chicks. Poultry Science 79, 205211.
Van Der Wielen, P. W. J. J., Biesterveld, S., Notermans, S., Hofstra, H., Urlings, B. A. P. & Van Knapen, F. (2000). Role of volatile fatty acids in development of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens during growth. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66, 25362540.
Van Dijk, A., Veldhuizen, E. J. & Haagsman, H. P. (2008). Avian defensins. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 124, 118.
Van Immerseel, F., Ducatelle, R., De Vos, M., Boon, N., Van De Wiele, T., Verbeke, K., Rutgeerts, P., Sas, B., Louis, P. & Flint, H. J. (2010). Butyric acid-producing anaerobic bacteria as a novel probiotic treatment approach for inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Medical Microbiology 59, 141143.
Visek, W. J. (1984). Ammonia: its effects on biological systems, metabolic hormones, and reproduction. Journal of Dairy Science 67, 481498.
Wang, H. T., Yu, C., Hsieh, Y. H., Chen, S. W., Chen, B. J. & Chen, C. Y. (2011). Effects of albusin B (a bacteriocin) of Ruminococcus albus 7 expressed by yeast on growth performance and intestinal absorption of broiler chickens – its potential role as an alternative to feed antibiotics. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 91, 23382343.
Williams, B. A., Verstegen, M. W. A. & Tamminga, S. (2001). Fermentation in the large intestine of single-stomached animals and its relationship to animal health. Nutrition Research Review 14, 207227.
Yang, H. W. & Wang, H. T. (2008). The effect of adding rumen bacteriocin in feed on the growth performance and gut flora in broilers (abstract). Journal of Chinese Society Animal Science 37 (Suppl.), 117.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Agricultural Science
  • ISSN: 0021-8596
  • EISSN: 1469-5146
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-agricultural-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed