Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Exploring the supply and demand factors of varietal turnover in Indian wheat

  • V. V. KRISHNA (a1), D. J. SPIELMAN (a2) and P. C. VEETTIL (a3)
Summary

Cultivar depreciation – the gradual decline in relative advantage of a cultivated variety over time – accentuates the vulnerability of resource-poor farmers to production risks. The current paper addresses constraints in combating cultivar depreciation of wheat in India. National level data on quoted demand for breeder seeds and breeder seed production indicated a slowdown in the rate of cultivar turnover of wheat, with average varietal age increasing from 9 years in 1997 to 12 years in 2009. Analysis of cultivar adoption patterns among farmer households of Haryana State also indicates that farmers prefer cultivars that were released a decade ago over the recent ones. Cultivar turnover rates are found to be particularly low among marginal farmers. While the structure of India's wheat breeding and seed delivery systems might be the primary cause of slow cultivar turnover, a number of social and economic factors at the micro-level are also responsible. Many of the constraints to technology adoption and wheat productivity growth, identified during the Green Revolution era, persist even today.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Email: vkrishn@gwdg.de
References
Hide All
AICRPNSP (2009). Annual Report 2008/09. All India Coordinated Research Project on National Seed Project (Crops). New Delhi: Government of India.
AICRPNSP (2010). Annual Report 2009/10. All India Coordinated Research Project on National Seed Project (Crops). New Delhi: Government of India.
Bandiera, O. & Rasul, I. (2006). Social networks and technology adoption in northern Mozambique. Economic Journal 116, 869902.
Battese, G. E. (1997). A note on the estimation of Cobb-Douglas production functions when some explanatory variables have zero values. Journal of Agricultural Economics 48, 250252.
Brennan, J. P. (1984). Measuring the contribution of new varieties to increasing wheat yields. Review of Marketing and Agricultural Economics 52, 175195.
Brennan, J. P. & Byerlee, D. (1991). The rate of crop varietal replacement on farms: measures and empirical results for wheat. Plant Varieties and Seeds 4, 99106.
Byerlee, D. & Heisey, P. W. (1990). Wheat varietal diversification over time and space as factors in yield gains and rust resistance in the Punjab. In Accelerating the Transfer of Wheat Breeding Gains to Farmers: a Study of the Dynamics of Varietal Replacement in Pakistan (Ed. Heisey, P. W.), pp. 524. CIMMYT Research Report No. 1. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
Chand, R. & Singh, H. (2011). The seeds bill 2011: some reflections. Economic and Political Weekly 46 (51), 2225.
Chauhan, B. S., Mahajan, G., Sardana, V., Timsina, J. & Jat, M. L. (2012). Productivity and sustainability of the rice-wheat cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of the Indian subcontinent: problems, opportunities, and strategies. Advances in Agronomy 117, 315369.
CIMMYT (2013). Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT. Available online from: http://csisa.cimmyt.org/ (accessed December 10, 2013).
Conley, T. G. & Udry, C. R. (2010). Learning about a new technology: pineapple in Ghana. American Economic Review 100, 3569.
Datt, R. & Sundharam, K. P. M. (2000). Indian Economy. New Delhi: S. Chand Limited.
Dixon, J., Nalley, L., Kosina, P., La Rovere, R., Hellin, J. & Aquino, P. (2006). Adoption and economic impact of improved wheat varieties in the developing world. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 144, 489502.
Doss, C. R. (2006). Analyzing technology adoption using microstudies: limitations, challenges, and opportunities for improvement. Agricultural Economics 34, 207219.
Duflo, E., Kremer, M. & Robinson, J. (2011). Nudging farmers to use fertilizer: theory and experimental evidence from Kenya. American Economic Review 101, 2350–90.
DWR (2011). Progress Report of the All India Coordinated Wheat and Barley Improvement Project 2010–11. Karnal, India: Directorate of Wheat Research.
DWR (2013). Annual Report 2012–13. Karnal, India: Directorate of Wheat Research.
Erenstein, O., Farooq, U., Malik, R. K. & Sharif, M. (2008). On-farm impacts of zero tillage wheat in South Asia's rice-wheat systems. Field Crops Research 105, 240252.
FAO (2013). FAOSTAT. Rome: FAO. Available online from: http://faostat3.fao.org/home/E (accessed March 2015).
Feder, G. & O'Mara, G. T. (1981). Farm size and the diffusion of green revolution technology. Economic Development and Cultural Change 30, 5976.
Foster, A. D. & Rosenzweig, M. R. (1995). Learning by doing and learning from others: human capital and technical change in agriculture. Journal of Political Economy 103, 11761209.
Foster, A. D. & Rosenzweig, M. R. (2010). Microeconomics of technology adoption. Annual Review of Economics 2, 395424.
GoI (2011). Key Indicators of Household Consumer Expenditure in India 2009–2010. National Sample Survey 66th round. New Delhi: Government of India.
GoI (2012 a). Nutritional Intake in India. Report No. 540. National Sample Survey 66th round. New Delhi: Government of India.
GoI (2012b). National Food Security Mission: Retrospect and Prospects. New Delhi: Government of India.
Heisey, P. W. (1990). Accelerating the Transfer of Wheat Breeding Gains to Farmers: A Study of the Dynamics of Varietal Replacement in Pakistan. Research Report No. 1. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
Heisey, P. W. & Brennan, J. P. (1991). An analytical model of farmers’ demand for replacement seed. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 73, 10441052.
Jack, B. K. (2011). Market Inefficiencies and the Adoption of Agricultural Technologies in Developing Countries. White paper, Agricultural Technology Adoption Initiative. Berkeley, CA, USA: J-PAL (MIT) & CEGA (UC Berkley).
Jain, K. B. L. & Byerlee, D. (1999). Investment efficiency at the national level: wheat improvement research in India. In The Global Wheat Improvement System: Prospects for Enhancing Efficiency in the Presence of Spillovers (Eds Maredia, M. K. & Byerlee, D.), pp. 85102. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
Johnson, D. G. & Gustafson, R. L. (1962). Grain Yields and the American Food Supply: An Analysis of Yield Changes and Possibilities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Joshi, A. K., Mishra, B., Chatrath, R., Ferrara, G. O. & Singh, R. P. (2007). Wheat improvement in India: present status, emerging challenges and future prospects. Euphytica 157, 431446.
Just, R. & Zilberman, D. (1983). Stochastic structure, farm size and technology adoption in developing agriculture. Oxford Economic Papers 35, 307328.
Karlan, D., Osei, R., Osei-Akoto, I. & Udry, C. (2014). Agricultural decisions after relaxing credit and risk constraints. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 129, 597652.
Krishna, V., Mehrotra, M. B., Teufel, N. & Bishnoi, D. K. (2012 a). Characterizing the Cereal Systems and Identifying the Potential of Conservation Agriculture in South Asia. Socio-Economics Working Paper 5. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
Krishna, V., Aravindakshan, S., Chowdhury, A. & Rudra, B. (2012b). Farmer Access and Differential Impacts of Zero Tillage Technology in the Subsistence Wheat Farming Systems of West Bengal, India. Socio-Economics Working Paper 7. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
Kundu, S., Singh, C., Shoran, J. & Singh, S. S. (2010). An Update on Released Wheat Varieties and Registered Genetic Stocks (Triticum L.). Technical Bulletin No. 13. Karnal, India: Directorate of Wheat Research.
Lipton, M. & Longhurst, R. (1985). Modern Varieties, International Agricultural Research, and the Poor. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Study Paper No. 2. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
Maertens, A. (2012). Who Cares What Others Think (or do)? Social Learning, Social Pressures, and Imitation in Cotton Farming in India. Working Paper. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh.
Manski, C. F. (1993). Identification of endogenous social effects: the reflection problem. The Review of Economic Studies 60, 531542.
Matuschke, I. & Qaim, M. (2009). The impact of social networks on hybrid seed adoption in India. Agricultural Economics 40, 493505.
McNiven, S. & Gilligan, D. (2012). Networks and Constraints on the Diffusion of a Biofortified Agricultural Technology: Evidence from a Partial Population Experiment. Working Paper. Davis, CA: University of California.
Mehla, R. S., Verma, J. K., Gupta, R. K. & Hobbs, P. R. (2000). Stagnation in the Productivity of Wheat in the Indo-Gangetic Plains: Zero-till-seed-cum-fertilizer Drill as an Integrated Solution. Rice-Wheat Consortium Paper Series 8. New Delhi, India: Rice-Wheat Consortium.
Mohan, D., Nagarajan, S., Singh, R. V. P. & Shoran, J. (2001). Is the national wheat breeding programme demand-driven? – an analysis. Current Science 81, 749753.
Munshi, K. (2004). Social learning in a heterogeneous population: technology diffusion in the Indian Green Revolution. Journal of Development Economics 73, 185213.
Nagarajan, S. (2005). Can India produce enough wheat even by 2020? Current Science 89, 14671471.
Nazli, H. & Smale, M. (2014). Dynamics of wheat variety adoption on farms in Pakistan: a duration model. In Agricultural & Applied Economics Association's 2014 AAEA Annual Meeting, July 27–29, 2014, Minneapolis, Minnesota, pp. 1–38. Minneapolis, MN: AAEA. Available online from: http://ageconsearch.umn.edu//handle/169982 (accessed January 2015).
NSP (1998–2008). Project Coordinator's Reports 1997/98 to 2007/08. National Seed Project. New Delhi: Government of India.
Pingali, P. L. (1999). World Wheat Facts and Trends 1998/99. Global Wheat Research in a Changing World: Challenges and Achievements. Mexico D.F: CIMMYT.
Rashid, S., Dorosh, P. A., Malek, M. & Lemma, S. (2013). Modern input promotion in sub-Saharan Africa: insights from Asian green revolution. Agricultural Economics 44 (Sp Issue), 705721.
Reynolds, M. P. & Borlaug, N. E. (2006). Impacts of breeding on international collaborative wheat improvement. The Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 144, 317.
Seednet India (2013). National Seed Plan. New Delhi: Seednet India http://seednet.gov.in/Material/National%20Seed%20Plan.pdf (accessed January 2015).
Smale, M., Singh, J., Di Falco, S. & Zambrano, P. (2008). Wheat breeding, productivity and slow variety change: evidence from the Punjab of India after the Green Revolution. The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 52, 419432.
Spielman, D. J., Kolady, D. E., Cavalieri, A. & Rao, N. C. (2014). The seed and agricultural biotechnology industries in India: an analysis of industry structure, competition, and policy options. Food Policy 45, 88100.
Timsina, J. & Connor, D. J. (2001). Productivity and management of rice-wheat cropping systems: issues and challenges. Field Crops Research 69, 93132.
Witcombe, J. R., Packwood, A. J., Raj, A. G. B. & Virk, D. S. (1998). The extent and rate of adoption of modern cultivars in India. In Seeds of Choice: Making the Most of New Varieties for Small Farmers (Eds Witcombe, J. R., Virk, D. S. & Farrington, J.), pp. 5368. New Delhi: Oxford IBH, New Delhi & London: Intermediate Technology Publications.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Agricultural Science
  • ISSN: 0021-8596
  • EISSN: 1469-5146
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-agricultural-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed