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Methods of applying fertilizers for herbage crops

  • G. W. Cooke (a1) and F. V. Widdowson (a1)

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Phosphate-potash fertilizer was drilled in bands 20 in. apart and 3 in. below the soil surface and compared with similar dressings broadcast on the surface for established crops of sainfoin. On unmanured plots yields were not reduced by cutting grooves for the fertilizer bands. Broadcasting fertilizer on the surface produced consistently more sainfoin hay than dressings placed in bands. In similar experiments on permanent grass broadcast fertilizer also gave consistently more hay than bands of fertilizer placed 10 in.apart. Intheabsence of fertilizer small decreases in yields of grass were caused by cutting grooves. The advantages of an equal supply of nutrients to all the plants in an established sward, obtained by broadcasting fertilizers, outweighs any disadvantage from confining the application to the soil surface.

Two experiments on lucerne in 1950–51 compared broadcast dressings of phosphate-potash fertilizer harrowed into the seed-bed with the same quantities of fertilizer placed in one band 2 in. to the side of the seed. Side-band placement did not give better early growth than broadcasting. Broadcast fertilizer gave higher yields of hay than placed fertilizer at one centre in the first year. There were no significant differences at either centre between yields of hay given by broadcast and placed fertilizer in the second year. When the dressings were divided, half being applied at sowing-time and the remainder in the spring of the following year, slightly lower yields were obtained than from dressings applied wholly at sowing.

A further experiment on lucerne was laid down in spring 1952. Superphosphate, muriate of potash and a mixture of the two fertilizers were compared both when broadcast and ploughed in and when broadcast on the seed-bed. All the dressings of broadcast fertilizer were tested in the presence and absence of a ‘starter-dose’ of superphosphate drilled directly beneath the seed. The ‘starter-dose’ gave much better early growth and higher yields of lucerne than any of the dressings of broadcast phosphate and potash. Broadcast fertilizer ploughed in tended to give higher yields at the first cutting than seedbed dressings. At the second cutting there was little difference between yields given by ploughed-in dressings and dressings broadcast on the seed-bed.

There is no case for introducing special equipment to place fertilizer in bands below the surface of established swards. For establishing lucerne and other ley crops, where fertilizers may be applied at or before sowing, there are no advantages from using special drills to place the full dressing of fertilizer at a safe distance to the side of the seed. Where combine-drills are used for sowing herbage crops they should be modified to place a small quantity of superphosphate directly beneath the seed and the remainder of the fertilizer should be broadcast before sowing.

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References

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Cooke, G. W. (1949). J. Agric. Sci. 39, 359.
Dodd, D. R. (1950). Proc. Nat. Comm. Fert. Appl. 26, 59.
Haynes, J. L. & Thatcher, L. E. (1950). Bull. Ohio Agric. Exp. Sta. (Farm & Home. Res.), 35, no. 262.
Jones, R. J. & Rogers, H. T. (1949). Advances in Agronomy, 1st ed. vol. I, p. 62. New York: Academic Press Inc.
Midgley, A. R. (1931). J. Amer. Soc. Agron. 23, 788.
Stewart, A. B. & Reith, J. W. S. (1945). Scot. J. Agric. 25, 167.

Methods of applying fertilizers for herbage crops

  • G. W. Cooke (a1) and F. V. Widdowson (a1)

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