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Historians and the Civil Rights Movement

  • Adam Fairclough (a1)
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1 Sitkoff, Harvard, A New Deal for Blacks: The Emergence of Civil Rights as a National Issue (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), 335; Norrell, Robert J., Reaping the Whirlwind: The Civil Rights Movement in Tuskegee (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1985), x; Korstad, Robert and Lichtenstein, Nelson, “Opportunities Lost and Found: Labor, Radicals, and the Early Civil Rights Movement,” Journal of American History, 75 (12 1988), 786811; Hine, Darlene Clark, Black Victory: The Rise and Fall of the White Primary in Texas (Millwood, NY: K.T.O. Press, 1979).

2 Cassimere, Raphael Jr., “Equalizing Teachers' Pay in Louisiana,” Integrated Education (0708 1977), 38; Carson, Clayborne, “Civil Rights Reform and the Black Freedom Struggle,” in Eagles, Charles W. (ed.), The Civil Rights Movement in America (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1986), 1937; Murray, Hugh, “Change in the South,” review essay, Journal of Ethnic Studies, 16 (Summer 1988), 119–35.

3 McNeil, Genna Rae, Groundwork: Charles Hamilton Houston and the Struggle for Civil Rights (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983); Kluger, Richard, Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976); Tushnet, Mark V., The NAACP's Legal Strategy Against Segregated Education, 1925–1950 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987).

4 Dalfiume, Richard M., “The ‘Forgotten Years’ of the Negro Revolution,” Journal of American History, 55 (06 1968), 90106, and Desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces: Fighting on Two Fronts, 1939–1953 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1969); Finkle, Lee, Forum for Protest: The Black Press During World War II (Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Press, 1975); Wynn, Neil A., The Afro-American and the Second World War (London: Paul Elek, 1976); Sitkoff, Harvard, “Racial Militancy and Interracial Violence in the Second World War,” Journal of American History, 58 (12 1971), 661–81.

5 Berman, William C., The Politics of Civil Rights in the Truman Administration (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1970); McCoy, Donald R. and Ruetten, Richard T., Quest and Response: Minority Rights and the Truman Administration (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1973).

6 Krueger, Thomas A., And Promises to Keep: A History of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1967); Dunbar, Anthony P., Against the Grain: Southern Radicals and Prophets, 1929–1959 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia, 1981); Sosna, Morton, In Search of the Silent South: Southern Liberals and the Race Issue (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977); Eagles, Charles W., Jonathan Daniels and Race Relations: The Evolution of a Southern Liberal (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1982).

7 Dalfiume, , “The ‘Forgotten Years’ of the Negro Revolution”; Wynn, , 122–27; McCoy, Donald R. and Ruetten, Richard T., “Towards Equality: Blacks in the United States During the Second World War,” in Hepburn, A. C. (ed.), Minorities in History (London: Edward Arnold, 1978), 135–53 (quotation on 136); Finkle, , 221–23; Sitkoff, , 675–81; Burran, James A., “Urban Racial Violence in the South During World War II: A Comparative Overview,” in Fraser, Walter J. Jr. and Moore, Winfred B. Jr. (eds.), From the Old South to the New (Westport, CT.: Greenwood Press, 1981), 167–77; Zangrando, Robert L., The NAACP Crusade Against Lynching, 1909–1950 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980), 201–13.

8 Marable, Manning, Race, Reform and Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction in America, 1945–1982 (London: Macmillan, 1984), 1735; Murray, Hugh T. Jr., Civil Rights History-Writing and Anti-Communism: A Critique (New York: American Institute for Marxist Studies, 1975); Home, Gerald, Communist front? The Civil Rights Congress, 1946–1956 (Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1988).

9 Home, , 99, 140, 225–24; Dunbar, , 258; Korstad, and Lichtenstein, , 811.

10 McAdam, Doug, Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930–1970 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982); Morris, Aldon D., The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organising for Change (New York: Free Press, 1984); Meier, August and Rudwick, Elliott, “The Origins of Nonviolent Direct Action in Afro-American Protest: A Note on Historical Discontinuities,” in Along the Color Line: Explorations in the Black Experience (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976), 307404.

11 Forman, James, The Making of Black Revolutionaries (New York: Macmillan, 1972), 2nd edn. rev. (Washington, D.C.: Open Hand Publishing Inc., 1985); Sellers, Cleveland and Terrell, Robert, The River of No Return (New York: William Morrow, 1973); King, Mary, Freedom Song (New York: William Morrow, 1987); Farmer, James, Lay Bare the Heart (New York: Arbor House, 1985); Wilkins, Roy, Standing Fast (New York: Viking Press, 1982); Good, Paul, The Trouble I've Seen: White Journalist/Black Movement (Washington: Howard University Press, 1975); Mars, Florence, Witness in Philadelphia (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977).

12 Meier, August and Rudwick, Elliott, CORE: A Study in the Civil Rights Movement, 1942–1968 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973); Carson, Clayborne, In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981); Fairclough, Adam, To Redeem the Soul of America: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King, Jr. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987).

13 Garrow, David J., Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (New York: William Morrow, 1986); Branch, Taylor, Parting the Waters: America In the King Years, 1954–1963 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988); Downing, Frederick L., To See the Promised Land: The Faith Pilgrimage of Martin Luther King, Jr. (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1986); Ansbro, John, Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Making of a Mind (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1982); Smith, Kenneth L. and Zepp, Ira G., Search for the Beloved Community: The Thinking of Martin Luther King, Jr. (Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 1974). See also Oates, Stephen B., Let The Trumpet Sound: The Life of Martin Luther King, Jr. (London: Search Press, 1982); and Fairclough, Adam, Martin Luther Luther King, Jr. (London: Sphere, forthcoming).

14 Colburn, David R., Racial Change and Community Crisis: St. Augustine, Florida, 1877–1980 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), which, despite its title, focuses on the years 1963–64; Garrow, David J., Protest at Selma: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978); Anderson, Alan B. and Pickering, George W., Confronting the Color Line: The Broken Promise of the Civil Rights Movement in Chicago (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1986); Beifuss, Joan T., At the River I Stand: Memphis, the 1968 Strike, and Martin Luther King, Jr. (Memphis, B & W Books, 1985); Thornton, J. Mills, “Challenge and Response in the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955–1956,” Alabama Review, 33 (07 1980), 163235; Fager, Charles E., Selma 1965: The March that Changed a Nation (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1974); Longnecker, Stephen E., Selma's Peacemaker: Ralph Smeltzer and Civil Rights Mediation (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987); Salter, John R., Jackson, Mississippi: An American Chronicle of Struggle and Schism (Hicksville, NY: Exposition Press, 1979).

15 Chafe, William H., Civilities and Civil Rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black Struggle for Freedom (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980); Norell, op. cit.; Corley, Robert G., “The Quest for Racial Harmony: Race Relations in Birmingham, Alabama, 1947–1963,” Ph.D., University of Virginia, 1979; Rogers, Kim Lacy, “Humanity and Desire: Civil Rights Leaders and the Desegregation of New Orleans, 1954–1966,” Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1982; Gaillard, Frye, The Dream Long Deferred (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988); Pride, Richard A. and Woodward, J. David, The Burden of Busing: The Politics of Desegregation in Nashville, Tennessee (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1985).

16 The best studies of Massive Resistance are Bartley, Numan V., The Rise of Massive Resistance: Race and Politics in the South During the 1950s (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969); McMillen, Neil R., The Citizen's Council: Organised Resistance to the Second Reconstruction (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971); and Ely, James W., The Crisis of Conservative Virginia: The Byrd Organisation and the Politics of Massive Resistance (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1976). Two works that do attempt to incorporate the black perspective are Jeansonne, Glen, Leander Perez: Boss of the Delta (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977); and Wagy, Tom R., LeRoy Collins of Florida: Spokesman of the New South (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1985).

17 Rogers, Kim Lacy, “Oral History and the History of the Civil Rights Movement,” Journal of American History, 75 (09 1988), 567–76; Raines, , My Soul is Rested: Movement Days in the Deep South Remembered (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1977) consists almost entirely of interview extracts. David J. Garrow's Bearing The Cross is perhaps the work that most successfully integrates extensive interviewing with mastery of the written sources. Lipsitz, George, A Life in the Struggle: Ivory Perry and the Culture of Opposition (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988) is an interesting attempt to use both oral history and documents to analyze the civil rights movement from the viewpoint of an obscure activist.

18 Dittmer, has anticipated some of his findings in “The Politics of the Mississippi Movement,” in Eagles, 6593.

19 Lawson, Steven F., “Commentary,” in Eagles, 3435.

20 Lubell, Samuel, The Future of American Politics (New York: Harper and Row, 1951), 118–20; Greenberg, Stanley B., Race and State in Capitalist Development: South Africa in Comparative Perspective (Johannesburg: Rowan Press, 1980); Cell, John W., The Highest Stage of White Supremacy: The Origins of Segregation in South Africa and the American South (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Jacoway, Elizabeth and Colburn, David R. (eds.), Southern Businessmen and Desegregation (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1882); Cobb, James C., The Selling of the South: The Southern Crusade for Industrial Development, 1936–1980 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982); Gelber, Steven M., Black Men and Businessmen: The Growing Awareness of a Social Responsibility (Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1974); Badger, Tony, “Segregation and the Southern Business Elite,” journal of American Studies, 18 (1984), 105–9.

21 Bass, Jack, Unlikely Heroes (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981); McGough, Lucy S. and Read, Frank T., Let Them Be Judged: The Judicial Integration of the Deep South (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1978); Wilkinson, J. Harvie III, From Brown to Bakke: The Supreme Court and School Integration, 1954–1978 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979); Charles V. Hamilton, “Federal Law and the Courts in the Civil Rights Movement,” and Tushnet, Mark V., “Commentary,” in Eagles, 97125.

22 Generally critical: Burk, Robert F., The Eisenhower Administration and Black Civil Rights (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1984); Navasky, Victor S., Kennedy Justice (New York: Atheneum, 1971); Herbers, John, The Lost Priority: What Happened to the Civil Rights Movement in America? (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1970) (Johnson); generally sympathetic: Duram, James C., A Moderate Among Extremists: Dwight D. Eisenhower and the School Desegregation Crisis (Chicago: 1981); Mayer, Michael S., “With Much Deliberation and Some Speed: Eisenhower and the Brown Decision,” Journal of Southern History, 52 (02 1986), 4376; Brauer, Carl M., John F. Kennedy and the Second Reconstruction (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977). For Congress see Garrow, , Protest at Selma; Charles, and Whalen, Barbara, The Longest Debate: A Legislative History of the 1964 Civil Rights Act (Cabin John, MD: Seven Locks Press, 1985).

23 Lawson, Steven F., Black Ballots: Voting Rights in the South, 1944–1969 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1976), and In Pursuit of Power: Southern Blacks and Electoral Politics, 1965–1982 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985); Barnes, Catherine A., Journey from Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Transit (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983); Belknap, Michal R., Federal Law and Southern Order: Racial Violence and Constitutional Conflict in the Post-Brown South (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987).

24 Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd, Revolt Against Chivalry: Jesse Daniel Ames and the Women's Campaign Against Lynching (New York: Columbia University Press, 1979); Zangrando, , The NAACP Crusade Against Lynching; McGovern, James R., Anatomy of a Lynching: The Killing of Claude Neal (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982); Smead, Howard, Blood Justice: The Lynching of Mack Charles Parker (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986); Whitfield, Stephen J., A Death in the Delta: The Story of Emmett Till (New York: Free Press, 1988). See also Shapiro, Herbert, White Violence and Black Response: From Reconstruction to Montgomery (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988). Shapiro has promised another volume covering the 1960s.

25 Ely, James W., “Demonstrations and the Law: Danville as a Test Case,” Vanderbilt Law Review, 27 (10 1974), 927–68; Barkan, Steven E., Protesters on Trial: Criminal Justice in the Southern Civil Rights and Vietnam Antiwar Movements (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1985).

26 In addition to the works cited above, see Wolters, Raymond, The Burden of Brown: Thirty Years of School Desegregation (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1984); Bartley, Numan V. and Graham, Hugh D., Southern Politics and the Second Reconstruction (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975); Lamis, Alexander P., The Two-Party South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984); Wade, Wyn Craig. The Fiery Cross: The Ku Klux Klan in America (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987). For more optimistic (and journalistic) assessments, see Gaillard, , The Dream Long Deferred; Bass, Jack and DeVries, Walter, The Transformation of Southern Politics (New York: Basic Books, 1976); Edds, Margaret, Free at Last (New York: Adler and Adler, 1987).

27 Rehin, George, “Of Marshalls, Myrdals and Kings: Some Recent Books about the Second Reconstruction,” Journal of American Studies, 22 (04 1988), 87103; Richard H. King, “Citizenship and Self-Respect: The Experience of Politics in the Civil Rights Movement,” ibid., 7–24; McAdam, Doug, Freedom Summer (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988); Garrow, David J. (ed.), The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Women Who Started It: The Memoir of Jo Ann Gibson Robinson (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1987); Brown, Cynthia S. (ed.), Ready From Within: Septima Clark and the Civil Rights Movement (Navarro, CA: Wild Trees Press, 1986); Guy, and Carawan, Candie, “‘Freedom in the Air’: An Overview of the Songs of the Civil Rights Movement”; Reagon, Bernice Johnson, “The Lined Hymn as a Song of Freedom,” both in Black Music Research Bulletin, 12 (Spring 1990), 18.

28 Garrow, David J., The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr.: From “Solo” to Memphis (New York: W. W. Norton, 1981); O'Reilly, Kenneth, “Racial Matters”: The FBI's Secret File on Black America, 1960–1972 (New York: Free Press, 1989); Sitkoff, Harvard, The Struggle for Black Equality, 1954–1980 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1981); Marable, , Race, Reform and Rebellion; Bloom, Jack M., Race, Class, and the Civil Rights Movement (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987); Weisbrot, Robert, Freedom Bound: A History of America's Civil Rights Movement (New York: W. W. Norton, 1990); Eagles, , The Civil Rights Movement in America.

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