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“Howdy Partner!” Space Brotherhood, Detente and the Symbolism of the 1975 Apollo–Soyuz Test Project

  • THOMAS ELLIS (a1)

Abstract

In 1975 American and Soviet spacecraft docked together in orbit as part of the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), the world's first international crewed space mission. Focussing on the project's political symbolism, this article argues that the ASTP was an attempt by the Nixon and Ford administrations to advertise US–Soviet detente by harnessing the optimistic imagery of “space brotherhood,” an instinctive kinship supposedly shared by American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts. This was ultimately unsuccessful, as detente's critics appropriated the mission for their own symbolic use to attack US–Soviet detente as a fantastical escape from earthly problems.

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1 Ezell, Edward Clinton and Ezell, Linda Neuman, The Partnership: A History of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (Washington, DC: NASA, 1978), 114; Portree, David F., Thirty Years Together: A Chronology of U.S.–Soviet Space Cooperation (Houston, TX: Hernandez Engineering Inc., 1993), 923, available at http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19930010786.pdf, accessed 19 Oct. 2017.

2 Office of Technology Assessment, U.S.–Soviet Cooperation in Space (Washington, DC: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment OTA-TM-STI-27, July 1985), 2526, available at www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk2/1985/8533/8533.PDF, accessed 19 Oct. 2017.

3 McCurdy, Howard E., Space and the American Imagination, 2nd edn (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011). For the “New Aerospace History” and its relation to previous scholarship see Launius, Roger D., “The Historical Dimension of Space Exploration: Reflections and Possibilities,” Space Policy, 16 (2000), 2338; Neufeld, Michael J., “Creating a Memory of the German Rocket Program for the Cold War,” in Dick, Stephen J., ed., Remembering the Space Age (NASA SP-2008-4703) (Washington, DC: NASA History Division, 2008), 7187.

4 The essays within Neufeld's, Michael J. edited collection Spacefarers: Images of Astronauts and Cosmonauts in the Heroic Era of Spaceflight (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2013) testify to the scholarly interest in astronauts and cosmonauts; see also Launius, Roger D., “Heroes in a Vacuum: The Apollo Astronaut as Cultural Icon,” Florida Historical Quarterly, 87 (Fall 2008), 174209. The ways that cosmonauts sustained and shaped cosmic enthusiasm are explored in the following edited collections: Maurer, Eva, Richers, Julia, Ruthers, Monica and Scheide, Carmen, eds., Soviet Space Culture: Cosmic Enthusiasm in Socialist Societies (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011); and Andrews, James T. and Siddiqi, Asif, eds., Into the Cosmos: Space Exploration and Soviet Culture (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2011). Jenks, Andrew's biography of Gagarin, Yuri, The Cosmonaut Who Couldn't Stop Smiling: The Life and Legend of Yuri Gagarin (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2014), is a engrossing examination of the first cosmonaut's life and afterlife as an ideological exemplar for the Soviet, and later Russian, state.

5 William Barry at The Space Programs under Nixon and Ford, event at the National Archives, 13 June 2013, recording available at www.ustream.tv/recorded/34285199, accessed 19 Oct. 2017. For ASTP as an ending see Garthoff, Raymond, Detente and Confrontation: American–Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1994), 56; Wolfe, Audra, Competing with the Soviets: Science, Technology and the State in Cold War America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013), 102; Hersch, Matthew, Inventing the American Astronaut (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), 118; Burrows, William, This New Ocean: The Story of the First Space Age (New York: Modern Library, 1998), 450; Allen, Michael, Live from the Moon: Film, Television and the Space Race (London: I. B. Tauris, 2009), 189.

6 Oberg, James, Star-Crossed Orbits: Inside the US–Russian Space Alliance (London: McGraw-Hill, 2002), 7071; Bencke, Matthew Von, The Politics of Space: A History of US/Soviet/Russian Competition and Cooperation in Space (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997), 80.

7 Von Bencke; Karash, Yuri, The Superpower Odyssey: A Russian Perspective on Space Cooperation (Reston, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1999); Long-Callahan, Angelina, “Sustaining Soviet–American collaboration: 1957–1989,” in Krige, John, Long-Callahan, Angelina and Maharaj, Ashok, eds., NASA in the World: Fifty Years of International Collaboration in Space (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), 127–51.

8 McCurdy, 311–14, 319.

9 Kilgore, DeWitt Douglas, Astrofutrism: Science, Race and Visions of Utopia in Space (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003), 13.

10 Tribbe, Matthew J., No Requiem for the Space Age: The Apollo Moon Landings in American Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 110.

11 For the spacefarer as a component within a human–machine system see Gerovitch, Slava, “‘New Soviet Man’ inside Machine: Human Engineering, Spacecraft Design, and the Construction of Communism,” Osiris, 22, 1, (2007), 135–57.

12 Dolman, Everett C., Astropolitik: Classical Geopolitics in the Space Age (London: Frank Cass, 2002), 172.

13 Westfahl, Gary, The Spacesuit Film: A History 1918–1969 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company, 2012), 290–91; see also Margaret Weitekamp, “Setting the Scene: Men into Space and the Man and the Challenge,” in Neufeld, Spacefarers, 9–34.

14 For aviators as a quasi-knightly elite see Corn, Joseph, The Winged Gospel: America's Romance with Aviation, 1900–1950 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), 18; Paris, Michael, “The Rise of the Airmen: The Origins of Air Force Elitism, c.1890–1918,” Journal of Contemporary History, 28, 1 (Jan. 1993), 123–41; Palmer's, Scott W. article “On Wings of Courage: Public “Air-Mindedness” and National Identity in Late Imperial Russia,” Russian Review, 54, 2 (April 1995), 209–26, 218–20, on early Russian aviation and nationalism, details how Western success in aviation technology was seen as an ideal to be emulated and aviators were likened to the bogatyr, elite warrior heroes of Russian history and legend.

15 Gagarin, Yuri Alekseyevich, Road to the Stars: Notes by Soviet Cosmonaut No. 1, Yuri Gagarin (as told to Denisov, N. and Borzenko, S., ed. Kamanin, N., trans. Hanna, G. and D. Myshne) (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1962), 182.

16 Glenn, John and Taylor, Nick, John Glenn: A Memoir (London: Bantam Books, 2000), 380–85.

17 “Titov Leaves US Convinced That Americans Want Peace,” Washington Post, 12 May 1962, A5.

18 US Congress, Senate, Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Soviet Space Programs 1962–1965: Goals and Purposes, Achievements, Plans and International Implications (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1966), 75.

19 See Edwin, “Buzz” Aldrin with Wayne Warga, Return to Earth (New York: Random House, 1973), 279–80; Slayton, Donald K. with Cassut, Michael, Deke! US Manned Space from Mercury to the Shuttle (New York: Forge Publishers, 1994), 286–87; Cernan, Eugene with Davis, Don, Last Man on the Moon (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1999), 242–43; Collins, Michael, Carrying the Fire: An Astronaut's Journey (New York: Cooper Square Press, 2001), 279–80.

20 Scott, David and Leonov, Alexei, Two Sides of the Moon: Our Story of the Cold War Space Race (London: Simon and Schuster, 2004), 205; Tereshkova, Valentina and Lothian, A., Valentina: First Woman in Space, Conversations with A. Lothian (Durham: Pentland Press, 1993), 245.

21 Kay, W. D., Defining NASA: The Historical Debate over the Agency's Mission (New York: State University of New York, 2005), 103–4, argues that Cold War competition was central to NASA's self-image during the 1960s. Even as competitive rationales became less persuasive to legislators and the public during the latter half of the decade, the agency's budget justifications clung to the “anti-Russian theme.”

22 Scott and Leonov, 130, 202–3.

23 “The Ugly American,” Missiles And Rockets, 5 Oct. 1965, 55.

24 Sociologist Lewis Mumford's depiction of the space race as a contest between Soviet and American “megamachines” epitomized this anti-technocratic critique. Tribbe, Matthew D., No Requiem for the Space Age: The Apollo Moon Landings in American Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 112.

25 French, Francis and Burgess, Colin, Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961–65 (London: University of Nebraska Press, 2007), 183.

26 Shelton, William Roy, Soviet Space Exploration: The First Decade (New York: Washington Square Press, 1968), 180; Kendrick Oliver, To Touch the Face of God: The Sacred, the Profane, and the American Space Program, 1957–75 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press), 38–39, 97–101.

27 Poole, Robert, Earthrise: How Man First Saw the Earth (London: Yale University Press, 2008), 3743; White, Frank, The Overview Effect (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987), 35.

28 French, Francis and Burgess, Colin, In the Shadow of the Moon: A Challenging Journey to Tranquillity, 1965–1969 (London: University of Nebraska Press, 2007), 140–68.

29 Siddiqi, Asif, The Soviet Space Race with Apollo (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003), 576–90.

30 Kurt Vonnegut Jr., “Excelsior! We're going to the Moon! Excelsior!”, New York Times, 13 July 1969, SM9; transnational mourning for spacefarers is another case in which there are striking parallels with earlier romantic aviation discourses. See Schnürer, Florian, ‘But in Death He Has Found Victory’: The Funeral Ceremonies for the ‘Knights of the Sky’ during the Great War as Transnational Media Events,” European Review of History, 15, 6 (2008), 643–58.

31 Evening Bulletin, 25 April 1967; Washington Star, 25 April 1967; Christian Science Monitor, 25 April 1967; World Journal Tribune, 29 April 1967, facsimiles in Record Number 31092, “Digital Files: Cartoons,” NASA History Office Reference Collections, Washington DC (hereafter “NASA History Office”).

32 The OST itself is available at www.unoosa.org/pdf/gares/ARES_21_2222E.pdf, accessed 19 Oct. 2017. The 1968 UN Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Space is available at www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/spacelaw/treaties/introrescueagreement.html, accessed 19 Oct. 2017.

33 Lyndon B. Johnson, “Remarks at the Signing of the Treaty on Outer Space,” 27 Jan. 1967, The American Presidency Project, at www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=28205, accessed 19 Oct. 2017.

34 Teasel Muir-Harmony, “Project Apollo, Cold War Diplomacy and the Framing of Global Interdependence,” unpublished PhD dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2014, 173–76; Logsdon, John, After Apollo: Richard Nixon and the American Space Program (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), 1020.

35 John Logsdon refers to the idea of flying a foreign astronaut on a later Apollo mission as “Nixon's pet idea.” See ibid., 109–12.

36 Arnold W. Frutkin to Thomas O. Paine, “US/USSR Space Cooperation,” Memo, 2 Jan. 1969, Record Number 15590, “USSR Cooperation Documentation, 1963–1974,” NASA History Office.

37 Henry A. Kissinger to the President, “Letter from Dr. Paine on Increased International Participation in Space Programs,” 27 Aug. 1969, folder Space Programmes Foreign Cooperation (Feb. 1969–Nov. 1970), Box 392, NSC Subject Files, National Security Council (NSC), Files, Richard Nixon Presidential Library, Yorba Linda, CA (hereafter “Nixon Library”); Henry A. Kissinger to the President, “International Space Cooperation: US–Soviet Activities,” 6 July 1970, 2–3, folder Space Programs Foreign Cooperation 1970 [Feb. 1969–Nov. 1970] 1 of 3, Box 392, Subject Files, National Security Council (NSC), Files, Nixon Library.

38 Peter Flanigan to Henry A. Kissinger, memorandum, 7 Oct. 1970, EX OS 3 Space Flight 9/1/1970-10/31/1970, Box 7, subject files: Outer Space, White House Central Files, Nixon Library; Henry A. Kissinger to Peter Flanigan, “Space Cooperation with the USSR,” 22 Oct. 1970, folder Space Programs Foreign Cooperation 1970 [Feb. 1969–Nov. 1970] 1 of 3, Box 392, NSC Subject Files, National Security Council (NSC), Files, Nixon Library.

39 Logsdon, 17; Don Lesh to Henry A. Kissinger, “Soviet Invitation to Astronaut Borman,” 9 June 1969, folder USSR Vol. III Jun July 1969, 1 of 1, Box 710, NSC Country Files, Europe USSR, Nixon Library.

40 Borman, Frank with Serling, Robert J., Countdown: An Autobiography (New York: Silver Arrow Books, 1988), 237, 247–48.

41 Frank Borman to Henry A. Kissinger, folder EX OS Outer Space 1969–1970 (1 of 2); Box 1, subject files: Outer Space, White House Central Files, Nixon Library.

42 Richard Nixon, “Statement about Honouring American and Russian Space Heroes During the Apollo 11 Mission,” 17 July 1969, The American Presidency Project, at www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=2131, accessed 19 Oct. 2017.

43 Alan Barth, “Earthly Kinship of Men in Space,” Washington Post, 20 July 1969, 40.

44 Muir-Harmony, “Project Apollo,” 143.

45 “Memorandum to Dr. Henry Kissinger,” folder Space Programs Foreign Cooperation 1970 [Feb. 1969–Nov. 1970] 3 of 3, Box 392, Subject Files, National Security Council (NSC) Files, Nixon Library.

46 The list included the Apollo 1 astronauts, Vladimir Komarov, the Soyuz 11 crew, Yuri Gagarin and several astronauts who had also been killed in plane crashes during training exercises. Scott, and Leonov, , Two Sides of the Moon (2005), 313–14. For the Salyut 1 mission and the ensuing tragedy see Ivanovic, Grujica S., Salyut, The First Space Station: Triumph and Tragedy (Chichester: Springer Praxis, 2008).

47 Stafford, Thomas P. and Cassutt, Michael, We Have Capture: Tom Stafford and the Space Age (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books, 2002), 152–56.

48 Theodore L. Eliot Jr. to Henry A. Kissinger, “Astronaut Stafford's Trip to the Soviet Union,” 6 July 1972, folder SP-10-1 USSR 1/1/71, Box 2974, Entry 1613: Subject Numeric Files, 1970–73 Science, record group: 59 General Records of the Department of State, NARA.

49 David N. Parker to Chuck Colson, “Random Thoughts Re Follow-up to Soviet Trip,” 5 June 1972, folder EX OS 3-1 Astronauts 1/1/1971-[1971–1972], Box 10, subject files: Outer Space, White House Central Files, Nixon Library.

50 David C. Hoopes to the President, “Meeting with Apollo 16 Astronauts and Dr. James C. Fletcher, Thursday 15 June 1972, 12:30 P.M. (5 Minutes), The Oval Office,” memorandum, folder EX OS Outer Space [1971–72] 3 of 3, subject files: Outer Space Box 1, White House Central Files, Nixon Library.

51 Richard Nixon, “Radio Address on Foreign Policy,” 4 Nov. 1972, The American Presidency Project, at www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=3692.

52 Manela, Erez, “A Pox on Your Narrative: Writing Disease Control into Cold War History,” Diplomatic History, 34, 2 (2010), 299323.

53 The Soviet crews made their first official visit to train in the US in July 1973; Scott and Leonov, 344.

54 Richard Nixon to James Fletcher, 25 Sept. 1973, folder EX FG 164 National Aeronautics and Space Administration 1/1/7, Box 2, subject files: FG-164 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, White House Central Files, Nixon Library.

55 Thomas P. Stafford to Richard M. Nixon, 24 April 1974, folder EX OS 3 Space Flight 7/12/1973-12/31/1973, Box 9, subject files: Outer Space, White House Central Files, Nixon Library; Richard Nixon, “Remarks Following a Tour of the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas,” 20 March 1974, The American Presidency Project, at www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=4392, accessed 19 Oct. 2017.

56 Richard Nixon, “Radio and Television Address to the People of the Soviet Union,” 2 July 1974, The American Presidency Project, at www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=4282, accessed 19 Oct. 2017.

57 Stafford, We Have Capture, 198.

58 John F. Donnelly to Ronald Ziegler, 29 July 1974, EX OS 3-1 Astronauts 1/1/1973-[1973–74], Box 12, subject files: Outer Space, White House Central Files, Nixon Library.

59 Henry A. Kissinger to the President, “Meeting with Soviet Cosmonauts,” 6 Sept. 1974; “Tentative Schedule: Visit of Russian Cosmonauts Washington DC September 6–8, 1974,” 19 Aug. 1974, folder OS 3 Space flight 8/9/74-3/31/75, Box 1, Outer Space 8/9/74 (exec), to Space Flight 7/31/76 (Exec), White House Central Subject Files, Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library, Ann Arbor, MI (hereafter Ford Library).

60 Norman Kempster, “Ford, Spacemen Eat Crabs,” Washington Star, 8 Sept., 1974, A5.

61 “The Russians Have Landed – And Texas Says Welcome,” People, 30 Sept. 1974, at http://people.com/archive/the-russians-have-landed-and-texas-says-welcome-vol-2-no-14/; for similar coverage see Victor K. McElheny, “Soviet Astronauts Enjoy Flight into Fantasies of Disney World,” New York Times, 10 Feb. 1975, 24; Jack Waugh, “Building US–Soviet Space Team,” Christian Science Monitor, 19 July 1973, 5–6.

62 Scott and Leonov, 346.

63 See Sage, Daniel, “Giant Leaps and Forgotten Steps: NASA and the Performance of Gender,” in Bell, David and Parker, Martin, eds., Space Travel and Culture: From Apollo to Space Tourism (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2009), 146–63; Gerovitch, Slava, Voices of the Soviet Space Program: Cosmonauts, Soldiers, and Engineers Who Took the USSR into Space (New York: Palgrave Macmillan: 2014), 14. Margaret Weitkamp has written persuasively about how NASA's institutional discomfiture with the female body constrained the opportunities available to would-be female space travellers. Weitkamp, Margaret, Right Stuff, Wrong Sex: America's First Women in Space Program (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2004).

64 Stafford and Cassutt, We Have Capture, 185; Slayton, Deke!, 294.

65 Henry A. Kissinger to the President, “Participation in Apollo–Soyuz Test Project,” Tab A, “Recommended Telephone Call,” 14 July 1975, folder OS 3 7/1/75-7/23/75, Box 1, Outer Space 8/9/74 (exec), to Space Flight 7/31/76 (Exec), White House Central Subject Files, Ford Library.

66 Gerald R. Ford, “Telephone Conversation with Apollo–Soyuz Test Project Crews Following Rendezvous and Docking of the Spacecraft”, 17 July 1975, The American Presidency Project, at www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=5086, accessed 19 Oct. 2017.

67 Ezell and Ezell, The Partnership, 329–40.

68 Scott and Leonov, 358–59. For astronauts’ difficulty mastering Russian see Ezell and Ezell, 255–56, 260–61.

69 “US Soviet Flight Not Just Handshake in Space,” Baltimore Sun, 22 Feb. 1975, A1; “Symbology Activity to Be Performed during ASTP,” John F. Kennedy Space Centre Press Release, 13 July 1975, record number 007463, “ASTP General July 1975,” NASA History Office.

70 “Background Facts: Commemorative Cigarette Brands”; “Together Let Us Explore the Stars: Bloomingdales Introduces EPAS, the American/Russian Commemorative Fragrance,” both in record number 007559, “ASTP: Impact Of,” NASA History Office; further information on EPAS is available at “Bottle, Apollo–Soyuz commemorative, glass, made by Revlon/Novaya Zaria, USA/USSR, 1975,” 2016, Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, at https://ma.as/363253, accessed 19 Oct. 2017.

71 Ezell and Ezell, 345–47.

72 Henry A. Kissinger to the President, “Meeting with US Astronauts and Soviet Cosmonauts,” 13 Oct. 1975, folder National Aeronautics and Space Administration (4) 10/1/75-8/31/76, Box 14, National Security Adviser, Presidential Agency File 1974–1977, Ford Library.

73 Henry A. Kissinger to the President, “Promotion for Astronaut Tom Stafford,” 7 Aug. 1975, folder Stafford, Tom, Box 3, “National Security Advisor, Presidential Name File, 1974–1977,” Ford Library.

74 Executive Secretary Theodore L. Elliot to Henry A. Kissinger, “Joint Space Docking Mission and the President's Visit to the USSR,” 29 Dec. 1972, folder SP-1-1 US-USSR 1/1/71 Box 2973, subject numeric files, 1970–73, Entry 1613, Record Group 59, General Records of the Department of State, NARA.

75 John Donnelly to Ronald Nessen, 7 May 1975, folder P750152-1437 thru P750157-1537 (55–74), Box 157C, P-reel microfilm printouts, entry number 454, Central Foreign Policy Files, record group 59, General Records of the Department of State, NARA.

76 Williams, Phil, “Detente and US Domestic Politics,” International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs), 61, 3 (1985), 431–47, 439–40.

77 Jonathan Spivak, “The First Space Handshake,” Wall Street Journal, 22 July 1975, 16.

78 “Apollo-Soyuz,” Washington Post, 17 July 1975, A26.

79 “… And One Giant Leap for PR,” Los Angeles Times, 15 July 1975, 113.

80 Matthew D. Tribbe's recent cultural history of the Apollo era, No Requiem for the Space Age, has explored the way in which the American media and intellectual elite became disenchanted with space propaganda.

81 Morgan, Michael Cotey, “The United States and the making of the Helsinki Final Act,” in Preston, Andrew and Longevall, Frederick, eds., Nixon in the World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 164–79, 165–66.

82 James M. Naughton, “Ford Bids Nations Live Up to Spirit of Helsinki Pact,” New York Times, 2 Aug. 1975, 1.

83 “J.D.L Burns Rocket Model Here in Protesting Detente,” New York Times, 16 July 1975, 19; Scoop Jackson attended a less combative rally for Soviet Jews in Florida on the day of the Apollo launch; see “Rally for Soviet Jews Marks Cape Liftoff,” Jewish Floridian, 17 July 1975, 1A, 3A, available at http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00010090/02424/1x, accessed 19 Oct. 2017.

84 94th Congressional Record, daily edn, 15 July 1975, statement of Robert Bauman H6821-2. For press examples see “Solzhenitsyn and the Spacemen,” Chicago Tribune, 18 July 1975, 2:2; “Dragon or Handshake?”, New York Times, 12 July 1975, 24.

85 Joy Billington, “Cheese Rocket Stayed on the Pad,” Washington Star, 14 Oct. 1975, D3.

86 Sargent, Daniel J., A Superpower Transformed: The Remaking of American Foreign Relations in the 1970s (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), 247, 221.

87 Henry A. Kissinger to the President, “Your Meeting with Gromyko,” 30 Sept. 1976, “USSR (44),” Box 19, country file USSR (32), Presidential Country Files for Europe and Canada, National Security Adviser Files, Ford Library.

88 Nicholas C. Chriss, “U.S., Russians to Begin Discussions on Resuming Cooperative Space Missions,” Los Angeles Times, 10 Nov. 1977, 1.

89 Responding to a 1984 questionnaire sent by the ASE, five astronauts (Walter Cunningham, Ronald E. Evans, Gordon Fullerton, Jim Lovell and Harrison Schmitt) expressed apprehension about the organization being used for political ends. Folder 3, Box 1, Records of the Association of Space Explorers, Hoover Institution, Stanford University, CA. The ASE will be explored in detail in Jenks's, Andrew chapter “Transnational Utopias, Space Exploration, and the Association of Space Explorers, 1972–1985,” in Geppert's, Alexander forthcoming edited collection Limiting Outer Space: Astroculture after Apollo (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017). Unfortunately this book was yet to be published at the time of writing.

90 For Shuttle–Mir see Angelina Long-Callahan, “Russian–American Cooperation in Space: Privatisation, Remuneration and Collective Security,” in Krige, Long-Callahan and Maharaj, NASA in the World, 153–84; Albrecht, Mark, Falling Back to Earth: A First Hand Account of the Great Space Race and the End of the Cold War (Lexington, KY: New Media Books, 2011); Morgan, Clay, Shuttle–Mir: The United States and Russia Share History's Highest Stage (NASA SP-2001-4225) (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2001), available at https://history.nasa.gov/SP-4225.pdf, accessed 19 Oct. 2017.

91 The decision to invite Stafford to the Soyuz 11 funeral indicates a similar recognition of space brotherhood's propaganda potential by Soviet leaders, though without access to Soviet archival sources this article has limited its discussion to the space brotherhood's reception and appropriation within the United States.

92 One of the six major design guidelines for Sputnik 1 was that its radio signal be powerful enough to be picked up by amateur listeners. Siddiqi, Asif, Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003) 162.

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“Howdy Partner!” Space Brotherhood, Detente and the Symbolism of the 1975 Apollo–Soyuz Test Project

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