Armesto J. C. (2002) Developmental and contextual factors that influence gay fathers' parental competence: a review of the literature. Psychology of Men & Masculinity 3, 67–78.
Asten M. A. (1997) Lesbian Family Relationships in American Society: The Making of an Ethnographic Film. Praeger, Westport, CT.
Bailey J. M., Bobrow D., Wolfe M. & Mikach S. (1995) Sexual orientation of adult sons of gay fathers. Developmental Psychology 31, 124–129.
Ball C. A. (2003) Lesbian and gay families: gender nonconformity and the implications of difference. Capital University Law Review 31, 691–749.
Barrett H. & Tasker F. (2001) Growing up with a gay parent: views of 101 gay fathers on their sons' and daughters' experiences. Educational and Child Psychology 18, 62–77.
Baumrind D. (1995) Commentary of sexual orientation: research and social policy implications. Developmental Psychology 31, 130–136.
Bennett C. S. (2001) The psychology of parenthood for the midlife lesbian mother of teens. Doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Berkeley/Alameda, CA. Dissertation Abstracts International 62(03), .
Biblarz T. J. & Stacey J. (2010) How does the gender of parents matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72, 3–22.
Bigner J. J. (ed.) (2006) An Introduction to GLBT Family Studies. Haworth Press, New York, NY.
Black D., Gates G., Sanders S. & Taylor L. (2000) Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: evidence from available systematic sources. Demography 37, 139–154.
Boenke M. (1999) Trans Forming Families: Real Stories about Transgendered Loved Ones. Walter Trook Publishing, Imperial Beach, CA.
Boenke M. (2003) Trans Forming Families: Real Stories about Transgendered Loved Ones (2nd edn). Oak Knoll Press, Hardy, VA.
Bos H. M. W., van Balen F., Sandfort T. G. M. & van den Boom D. C. (2006) Children's Psychosocial Adjustment and Gender Development in Planned Lesbian Families. Working paper, Social and Behavioral Sciences Department of Education, University of Amsterdam.
Bozett F. W. (1980) How and why gay fathers disclose their homosexuality to their children. Family Relations 29, 173–179.
Bozett F. W. (1987) Children of gay fathers. In Bozett F. W. (ed.) Gay and Lesbian Parents. Praeger, New York, NY, pp. 39–57.
Bozett F. W. (1988) Social control of identity by children of gay fathers. Western Journal of Nursing Research 10, 550–565.
Broude G. J. & Greene S. J. (1976) Cross-cultural codes on twenty sexual attitudes and practices. Ethnology 15, 409–429.
Butler A. C. (2005) Gender differences in the prevalence of same-sex sexual partnering: 1988–2002. Social Forces 84, 421–449.
Cameron P. (1999) Homosexual parents: testing ‘common sense’ – a literature review emphasizing the Golombok and Tasker longitudinal study of lesbians' children. Psychological Reports 85, 282–322.
Cameron P. (2006) Children of homosexuals and transsexuals more apt to be homosexual. Journal of Biosocial Science 38, 413–418.
Cameron P. & Cameron K. (1996) Homosexual parents. Adolescence 31, 757–776.
Canning T. T. (2005) Gay and heterosexual fathers: a comparative analysis of child behavior and well-being. , Capella University, Minneapolis, MN. .
Carpenter C. & Gates G. J. (2008) Gay and lesbian partnership: evidence from California. Demography 45, 573–590.
Cohler B. J. (2006) Life-course social science perspectives on the GLBT family. In Bigner J. J. (ed.) An Introduction to GLBT Family Studies. Haworth Press, New York, NY, pp. 23–49.
Connolly C. M. (2006) A process of change: the intersection of the GLBT individual and his or her family of origin. In Bigner J. J. (ed.) An Introduction to GLBT Family Studies. Haworth Press, New York, NY, pp. 5–21.
Doherty W. J. (2006) Foreword. In Bigner J. J. (ed.) An Introduction to GLBT Family Studies. Haworth Press, New York, NY, pp. xvii–xxiii.
Drucker J. (1998) Families of Value: Gay and Lesbian Parents and their Children Speak Out. Plenum Press (Insight Books), New York, NY.
Elovitz M. E. (1995) Adoption by lesbian and gay people: the use and misuse of social science research. In Elovitz M. E. & Schneider C. (eds) Legal Issues Facing the Nontraditional Family, 1995. Practising Law Institute, New York, NY, pp. 172–191.
Falk P. J. (1994) The gap between psychosocial assumptions and empirical research in lesbian-mother child custody cases. In Gottfried A. E. & Gottfried A. W. (eds) Redefining Families: Implications for Children's Development. Plenum Press, New York, NY, pp. 131–156.
Fisher S. K., Easterly S. & Lazear K. J. (2008) Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender families and their children. In Gullotta T. P. & Blau G. M. (eds) Family Influences on Childhood Behavior and Development: Evidence-based Prevention and Treatment Approaches. Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, New York, pp. 187–208.
Fitzgerald B. (1999) Children of lesbian and gay parents: a review of the literature. Marriage and Family Review 29, 57–75.
Flaks D. K. (1993) Lesbian couples and their children: psychological and legal implications. , Widener University, Chester, PA.
Flaks D. K., Ficher I., Masterpasqua F. & Joseph G. (1995) Lesbians choosing motherhood: a comparative study of lesbian and heterosexual parents and their children. Developmental Psychology 31, 105–114.
Garner A. (2005) Families Like Mine: Children of Gay Parents Tell It Like It Is. HarperCollins, New York.
Gartrell N., Banks A., Hamilton J., Reed N., Bishop H. & Rodas C. (1999) The National Lesbian Family Study: 2. Interviews with mothers of toddlers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 69, 362–369.
Gartrell N., Banks A., Reed N., Hamilton J., Rodas C. & Deck A. (2000) The National Lesbian Family Study: 3. Interviews with mothers of five-year-olds. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 70, 542–548.
Gartrell N., Deck A., Rodas C., Peyser H. & Banks A. (2005) The National Lesbian Family Study: 4. Interviews with the 10-year-old children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 75, 518–524.
Gillespie P. (ed) (1999) Love Makes a Family: Portraits of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Parents and Their Families. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst.
Goldberg A. E. (2006) The transition to parenthood for lesbian couples. Journal of GLBT Family Studies 2(1), 13–42.
Goldberg A. E. (2007) Talking about family: disclosure practices of adults raised by lesbian, gay, and bisexual parents. Journal of Family Issues 28, 100–131.
Goldberg A. E. & Perry-Jenkins M. (2007) The division of labor and perceptions of parental roles: lesbian couples across the transition to parenthood. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 24, 297–318.
Goldberg A. E. & Sayer A. (2006) Lesbian couples' relationship quality across the transition to parenthood. Journal of Marriage and Family 68, 87–100.
Golombok S., Spencer A. & Rutter M. (1983) Children in lesbian and single-parent households: psychosexual and psychiatric appraisal. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 24(4), 551–572.
Gottlieb A. R. (2003) Sons Talk About Their Gay Fathers: Life Curves. Harrington Park Press, Binghamton, New York, NY.
Gottman J. S. (1989) Children of gay and lesbian parents. Marriage and Family Review 14, 177–196.
Green R. (1978) Sexual identity of 37 children raised by homosexual or transsexual parents. American Journal of Psychiatry 135, 692–697.
Harris M. B. & Turner P. H. (1985/1986) Gay and lesbian parents. Journal of Homosexuality 12(2), 101–113.
Hays D. & Samuels A. (1989) Heterosexual women's perceptions of their marriages to bisexual or homosexual men. In Bozett F. W. (ed.) Homosexuality and the Family. Harrington Park Press, New York, NY, pp. 81–100.
Herek G. M. (1991) Myths about sexual orientation: a lawyer's guide to social science research. Law & Sexuality 1, 133–172.
Herek G. M. (2006) Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: a social science perspective. American Psychologist 61(6), 607–621.
Hicks S. (2005) Is gay parenting bad for kids? Responding to the ‘very idea of difference’ in research on lesbian and gay parents. Sexualities 8, 153–168.
Howey N. & Samuels E. (2000) Out of the Ordinary: Essays on Growing Up with Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Parents. St Martin's Press, New York.
Javaid G. A. (1983) Sexual development of the adolescent daughter of a homosexual mother. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 22, 196–201.
Javaid G. A. (1993) The children of homosexual and heterosexual single mothers. Child Psychiatry and Human Development 23, 235–248.
Huggins S. L. (1989) A comparative study of self-esteem of adolescent children of divorced lesbian mothers and divorced heterosexual mothers. In Bozett F. W. (ed.) Homosexuality and the Family. Harrington Park Press, New York, pp. 123–135.
Jedzinak J. A. (2004) Growing up in a lesbian family: a qualitative study of the adult daughter's experience. , Alliant International University, San Francisco Bay, CA. .
Kuba S. A. (1981) Being-in-a-lesbian family: the preadolescent child's experience. , California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno, CA. .
Kunin J. D. (1998) Predictors of psychosocial and behavioral adjustment of children: a study comparing children raised by lesbian parents to children raised by heterosexual parents. , California School of Professional Psychology, San Diego, CA. .
Kuvalanka K. A. (2007) Coping with heterosexism and homophobia: young adults with lesbian parents reflect on their adolescence. , University of Maryland. .
Larson J. & Micheels-Cyrus M. (1986) Seeds of Peace: A Catalogue of Quotations. New Society Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
Laumann E. O., Gagnon J. H., Michael R. T. & Michaels S. (1994) The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
Lewis K. G. (1980) Children of lesbians: their point of view. Social Work 25, 198–203.
Lewis K. G. (1992) Children of lesbians: their point of view. In Maggoire D. J. (ed.) Lesbians and Child Custody: A Casebook. Garland, New York, NY, pp. 85–98.
McNeill K. F. (1998) The lack of differences between gay/lesbian and heterosexual parents: a review of the literature. National Journal of Sexual Orientation Law 4, 1–24.
Miller B. (1979) Gay fathers and their children. The Family Coordinator 28, 544–552.
Morrison T. G. (2007) Children of homosexuals and transsexuals more apt to be homosexual: a reply to Cameron. Journal of Biosocial Science 39, 153–154.
Ng E. M. (1999) Adult daughters of lesbian-parent families. , California School of Professional Psychology, Berkeley/Alameda, CA. .
Norusis M. J. (2004) SPSS 13.0 Advanced Statistical Procedures Companion. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Norusis M. J. (2006) SPSS 14.0 Guide to Data Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
O'Connell A. (1993) Voices from the heart: the developmental impact of a mother's lesbianism on her adolescent children. Smith College Studies in Social Work 63, 281–299.
Patterson C. J. (1992) Children of lesbian and gay parents. Child Development 63, 1025–1042.
Patterson C. J. (1995) Lesbian and gay parenthood. In Bornstein M. H. (ed.) Handbook of Parenting: Status and Social Conditions of Parenting, Vol. 3. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey, pp. 255–274.
Patterson C. J. (1996) Lesbian and gay parents and their children. In Savin-Williams R. C. & Cohen K. M. (eds) The Lives of Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals: Children to Adults. Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, FL, pp. 274–304.
Patterson C. J. (2004) Gay fathers. In Lamb M. E. (ed.) The Role of the Father in Child Development. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 397–416.
Patterson C. J. (2005) Lesbian and gay parents and their children: summary of research findings. In Lesbian & Gay Parenting. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp. 5–22.
Patterson C. J. (2006) Children of lesbian and gay parents. Current Directions in Psychological Science 15, 241–244.
Patterson C. J., Fulcher M. & Wainright J. (2002) Children of lesbian and gay parents. In Bottoms B. L., Kovera M. B. & McAuliff B. D. (eds) Children, Social Science, and the Law. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 176–199.
Patterson C. J., Hurt S. & Mason C. D. (1998) Families of the lesbian baby boom: children's contact with grandparents and other adults. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 68, 390–399.
Paul J. P. (1986) Growing up with a gay, lesbian, or bisexual parent: an exploratory study of experiences and perceptions. , University of California, Berkeley, 1986. .
Peplau L. A. & Beals K. P. (2004) The family lives of lesbians and gay men. In Vangelisti A. L. (ed.) Handbook of Family Communication. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 233–248.
Rafkin L. (1990) Different Mothers: Sons and Daughters of Lesbians Talk about their Lives. Cleis Press, Pittsburgh, PA.
Redding R. E. (2008) It's really about sex: same-sex marriage, lesbigay parenting, and the psychology of disgust. Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy 15, 127–193.
Rees R. L. (1979) A comparison of children of lesbian and single parent heterosexual mothers on three measures of socialization. Doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Berkeley, CA. Dissertation Abstracts International 40(07), 3418–3419B.
Rekers G. & Kilgus M. (2002) Studies of homosexual parenting: a critical review. Regent University Law Review 14(2), 343–382.
Rimalower L. & Caty C. (2009) The mamas and the papas: the invisible diversity of families with same-sex parents in the United States. Sex Education 9, 17–32.
Rivers I., Poteat V. P. & Noret N. (2008) Victimization, social support, and psychosocial functioning among children of same-sex and opposite-sex couples in the United Kingdom. Developmental Psychology 44, 127–134.
Rosier P. & Hauschild M. (1999) Get Used to It: Children of Gay and Lesbian Parents. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Saffron L. (1997) What about the Children? Sons and Daughters of Lesbian and Gay Parents Talk about their Lives. Cassell, London.
Saffron L. (1998) Raising children in an age of diversity – advantages of having a lesbian mother. Journal of Lesbian Studies 2(4), 35–47.
Schumm W. R. (2005) Empirical and theoretical perspectives from social science on gay marriage and child custody issues. St Thomas Law Review 18, 501–549.
Schumm W. R. (2008) Re-evaluation of the “no differences” hypothesis concerning gay and lesbian parenting as assessed in eight early (1979–1986) and four later (1997–1998) dissertations. Psychological Reports 103, 275–304.
Sirota T. H. (1997) A comparison of adult attachment style dimensions between women who have gay or bisexual fathers and women who have heterosexual fathers. , School of Education, New York University, Garden City, NY. .
Sirota T. H. (2009) Adult attachment style dimensions in women who have gay or bisexual fathers. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing 23, 289–297.
Stacey J. & Biblarz T. J. (2001) (How) does the sexual orientation of parents matter? American Sociological Review 66, 159–183.
Tasker F. (2005) Lesbian mothers, gay fathers, and their children: a review. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 26, 224–240.
Tasker F. & Golombok S. (1997) Growing Up in a Lesbian Family: Effects on Child Development. Guilford, New York, NY.
Turner P. H., Scadden L. & Harris M. B. (1990) Parenting in gay and lesbian families. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy 1(3), 55–66.
Wilson G. & Rahman Q. (2005) Born Gay: The Psychobiology of Sex Orientation. Peter Owen, London.