Consanguinity is studied in a large sample of marriages among Dhangars of Maharashtra, India. The 22 endogamous castes included in the study show great variation in incidence, about an overall frequency of 26.4%. Matrilateral first cross-cousin unions are more frequency than patrilateral, and maternal uncle-niece nuions least frequent. Geograbhical differences are conspicuous, and all three types of consanguineous union show characteristic patterns; matrilateral unions increase in frequncy northwards, patrilateral and uncle-niece decrease northwards. The inbreeding levels among the Dhangars are high compared to other Maharashtrian groups, but substantially lower than in southern Dravidian speaking groups.