Skip to main content
×
Home

MULTI-YEAR TREND ANALYSIS OF CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION UPTAKE AND COVERAGE IN NIGERIA

  • OYELOLA A. ADEGBOYE (a1) (a2), DANELLE KOTZE (a2) and OLASUNKANMI A. ADEGBOYE (a3)
Summary
Summary

As a leading indicator of child health, under-five mortality was incorporated in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with the aim of reducing the rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Under-five mortality in Nigeria is alarmingly high, and many of the diseases that result in mortality are vaccine preventable. This study evaluates the uptake of childhood immunization in Nigeria from 1990 to 2008. A multi-year trend analysis was carried out using Alternating Logistic Regression on 46,130 children nested within 17,380 mothers in 1938 communities from the Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys from 1990 to 2008. The findings reveal that mother-level and community-level variability are significantly associated with immunization uptake in Nigeria. The model also indicates that children delivered at private hospitals have a higher chance of being immunized than children who are delivered at home. Children from the poorest families (who are more likely to be delivered at home) have a lower chance of being immunized than those from the richest families (OR=0.712; 95% CI, 0.641–0.792). Similarly, the chance of children with a mother with no education being immunized is decreased by 17% compared with children whose mother has at least a primary education. In the same way, children of mothers who are gainfully employed and those of older mothers have statistically significantly higher odds of being immunized. Children of households with a female head are less likely to be immunized than those from male-headed households. The statistical significance of the community–survey year interaction term suggests an increase in the odds of a child being immunized over the years and spread over communities. Evidence-based policy should lay more emphasis on mother- and community-level risk factors in order to increase immunization coverage among Nigerian children.

Copyright
Corresponding author
1Corresponding author. Email: oyeadegboye@yahoo.com
References
Hide All
Abdulraheem I. S., Onajole A. T., Jimoh A. A. G. & Oladipo A. R. (2011) Reasons for incomplete vaccination and factors for missed opportunities among rural Nigerian children. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology 3, 194203.
Adegboye O. A. (2010) Under-five mortality in Nigeria: spatial exploration and spatial scan statistics for cluster detection. International Journal of Statistics and Systems 5, 203214.
Adeiga A., Omilabu S., Audu R., Sanni F., Lakehinde G., Balogun O. & Olagbaju O. (2005) Infant immunization coverage in difficult-to-reach area of Lagos Metropolis. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology 6, 227231.
Anah M. U., Etuk I. S. & Udo J. J. (2006) Opportunistic immunization with in-patient programme: eliminating a missed opportunity in Calabar, Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine 5(4), 188191.
Antai D. (2009) Inequitable childhood immunization uptake in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis of individual and contextual determinants. BMC Infectious Diseases 9, 181.
Bosch-Capblanch X., Banerjee K. & Burton A. (2012) Unvaccinated children in years of increasing coverage: how many and who are they? Evidence from 96 low- and middle-income countries. Tropical Medicine and International Health 17, 697710.
Carey V., Zeger S. & Diggle P. (1993) Modelling multivariate binary data with alternating logistic regressions. Biometrika 80, 517526.
Diddy A. (2009) Inequitable childhood immunization uptake in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis of individual and contextual determinants. BMC Infectious Diseases 9, 181.
Diggle P., Liang K. Y. & Zeger S. (1994) Analysis of Longitudinal Data (second edition). Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Fitzmaurice G. M., Laird N. M. & Ware J. H. (2004) Applied Longitudinal Analysis. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Kabir M., Iliyasu Z., Abubakar I. S. & Nwosuh J. I. (2004) Immunization coverage among children below two years of age in Fanshakara, Kano, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Clinical Sciences 1(1), 1013.
Kayode G. A., Adekanmbi V. T. & Uthman O. A. (2012) Risk factors and a predictive model for under-five mortality in Nigeria: evidence from Nigeria demographic and health survey. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12, 10.
Kunle-Olowu A., Kunle-Olowu E. O. & Ugwu M. E. (2011) Immunization coverage of antenatal and immunization clinics attendees in the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology 3(3), 9093.
Maekawa M., Douangmala S., Sakisaka K., Takahashi K., Phathammavong O., Xeuatvongsa A. & Kuroiwa C. (2007) Factors affecting routine immunization coverage among children aged 12–59 months in LaoPDR after regional polio eradication in Western Pacific Region. BioScience Trends 1(1), 4351.
Liang K. & Zeger S. (1986) Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika 73, 1322.
Molenberghs G. & Lesaffre E. (1994) Marginal modelling of correlated ordinal data using a multivariate placket distribution. Journal of the American Statistical Association 89, 633644.
Molenberghs G. & Verbeke G. (2006) Models for Discrete Longitudinal Data. Springer-Verlag, New York.
National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] & ICF Macro (2009) Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008. National Population Commission and ICF Macro, Abuja, Nigeria.
Ogunjimi L. O., Ibe R. T. & Ikorok M. M. (2012) Curbing maternal and child mortality: the Nigerian experience. International Journal of Nursing and Midwifery 4(3), 3339.
Ogunjuyigbe P. O. (2004) Under-five mortality in Nigeria: perception and attitudes of the Yorubas towards the existence of ‘Abiku’. Demographic Research 11(2), 4356.
Onyiriuka A. N. (2005) Vaccination default among children attending a static immunization clinic in Benin city, Nigeria. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research 4(1), 7177.
Preisser J. S., Arcury T. A. & Quandt S. A. (2003) Detecting patterns of occupational illness clustering with alternating logistic regressions applied to longitudinal data. American Journal of Epidemiology 158, 495501.
SAS Institute Inc. (2008) SAS/STAT 9.2 User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
Sorungbe A. (1989) Expanded programme on immunization in Nigeria. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 11, S509511.
Rammohan A., Awofeso N. & Fernandez R. C. (2012) Paternal education status significantly influences infants' measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status. BMC Public Health 12, 336.
Renne E. P. (2010) The Politics of Polio in Northern Nigeria. Indiana University Press, Indiana, USA.
UNICEF (2010) At a Glance: Nigeria Statistics. URL: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/nigeria_statistics.html
United Nations (n.d.) United Nations Millennium Development Goals. URL: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/childhealth.shtml
USAID (n.d.) Immunization Basics: Country Activities. URL: http://www.immunizationbasics.jsi.com/CountryActivities.htm
Wammanda R., Gambo M. & Abdulkadir I. (2011) Age at BCG administration during routine immunization. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care 16, 3335.
WHO (2008) Global Networks for Surveillance of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis, 2001–2008. Weekly Epidemiological Record, WHO, Switzerland.
Wiysonge C., Uthman O., Ndumbe P. & Hussey G. (2012) Individual and contextual factors associated with low childhood immunisation coverage in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis. PLoSONE, 7.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Biosocial Science
  • ISSN: 0021-9320
  • EISSN: 1469-7599
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-biosocial-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 31 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 236 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.