Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

A QUESTION MODULE FOR ASSESSING COMMUNITY STIGMA TOWARDS HIV IN RURAL INDIA

  • CAROL VLASSOFF (a1), MITCHELL G. WEISS (a2) and SHOBHA RAO (a3)
Summary
Summary

This paper describes a simple question module to assess community stigma in rural India. Fear of stigma is known to prevent people from seeking HIV testing and to contribute to further disease transmission, yet relatively little attention has been paid to community stigma and ways of measuring it. The module, based on a vignette of a fictional HIV-positive woman, was administered to 494 married women and 186 unmarried male and female adolescents in a village in rural Maharashtra, India. To consider the usefulness of the question module, a series of hypotheses were developed based on the correlations found in other studies between HIV-related stigma and socio-demographic characteristics (age, education, discussion of HIV with others, knowing someone living with HIV, knowledge about its transmission and whether respondents acknowledged stigmatizing attitudes as their own or attributed them to others). Many of the study's hypotheses were confirmed. Among married women, correlates of stigma included older age, lack of discussion of HIV and lack of knowledge about transmission; among adolescents, lower education and lack of discussion of HIV were the most significant correlates. The paper concludes that the question module is a useful tool for investigating the impact of interventions to reduce stigma and augment social support for people living with HIV in rural India.

Copyright
References
Hide All
M. D. Alicke (1985) Global self-evaluation as determined by the desirability and controllability of trait adjectives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49(6), 16211630.

A. R. Anvikar , V. G. Rao , D. D. Savargaonkar , M. K. Bhondeley , B. Tiwari , A. Karkare et al. (2009) Seroprevalence of sexually transmitted viruses in the tribal population of Central India. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 13(1), 3739.

B. E. Berger , C. E. Ferrans & F. R. Lashley (2001) Measuring stigma in people with HIV: psychometric assessment of the HIV stigma scale. Research in Nursing and Health 24(6), 518529.

G. Bhattacharya (2004) Sociocultural and behavioral contexts of condom use in heterosexual married couples in India: challenges to the HIV prevention program. Health Education & Behavior 31(1), 101117.

V. Bond , E. Chase & P. Aggleton (2002) Stigma, HIV/AIDS and prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Zambia. Evaluation and Program Planning 25(4), 347356.

A. E. R. Bos , H. P. Schaalma & J. B. Pryor (2008) Reducing AIDS-related stigma in developing countries: the importance of theory- and evidence-based interventions. Psychology, Health and Medicine 13(4), 450460.

L. Brown , K. Macintyre & L. Trujillo (2001) Interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: what have we learned? AIDS Education and Prevention 15(1), 4969.

C. Campbell , C. Foulis , S. Maimane & Z. Sibiya (2005) I have an evil child at my house: stigma and HIV/AIDS management in a South African community. American Journal of Public Health 95(5), 808815.

P. S. Chandra , S. Deepthivarma & V. Manjula (2003) Disclosure of HIV infection in South India: patterns, reasons and reactions. AIDS Care 15(2), 207215.

J. Chen , M. K. Choe , S. Chen & S. Zhang (2005) Community environment and HIV/AIDS-related stigma in China. AIDS Education and Prevention 17(1), 111.

V. Earnshaw & S. R. Chaudoir (2009) From conceptualizing to measuring HIV stigma: a review of HIV stigma mechanism measures. AIDS and Behavior 13, 11601177.

C. A. Emlet (2006) A comparison of HIV stigma and disclosure patterns between older and younger adults living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Patient Care and STDs 20(5), 350358.

B. L. Genberg , S. Kawichai , A. Chingono , M. Sendah , S. Chariyalertsak , Konda et al. (2008) Assessing HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination in developing countries. AIDS and Behavior 12, 772780.

G. M. Herek & J. P. Capianio (1997) AIDS stigma and contact with persons with AIDS: effects of direct and vicarious contact. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 27(1), 136.

G. M. Herek , J. P. Capianio & K. F. Widaman (2002) HIV-related stigma and knowledge in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1991–1999. American Journal of Public Health 92, 371377.

M. B. Hossain & S. Kippax (2010) HIV-related discriminatory attitudes of healthcare workers in Bangladesh. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 28, 619627.

S. C. Kalichman , L. C. Simbayi , A. Cloete , P. P. Mthembu , R. N. Mkhonta & T. Ginindza (2009) Measuring AIDS stigma in people living with HIV/AIDS: the Internalized AIDS-related Stigma Scale. AIDS Care 21, 8793.

J. T. F. Lau & H. Y. Tsui (2005) Discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS and associated factors: a population based study in the Chinese general population. Sexually Transmitted Infections 81, 113119.

L. Li , Z. Wu , Y. Zhao , C. Lin , R. Detels & S. Wu (2007) Using case vignettes to measure HIV-related stigma among health professionals in China. International Journal of Epidemiology 36, 178184.

C. Logie & T. M. Gadalla (2009) Meta-analysis of health and demographic correlates of stigma towards people living with HIV. AIDS Care 21, 742753.

V. S. Mahendra , L. Gilborn , S. Bharat , R. J. Mudoi , I. Gupta , B. George et al. (2007) Understanding and measuring AIDS-related stigma in health care settings: a developing country perspective. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS 4(2), 616625.

W. W. S. Mak , R. Y. M. Cheung , R. W. Law , J. Woo , P. C. K. Li & R. W. Y. Chung (2007) Examining attribution model of self-stigma on social support and psychological well-being among people with HIV+/AIDS. Social Science & Medicine 64, 15491559.

S. Newmann , P. Sarin , N. Kumaraswamy , E. Amalraj , M. Rogers , P. Madhivanan et al. (2000) Marriage, monogamy and HIV: a profile of HIV-infected women in south India. International Journal of STD & AIDS 11, 250253.

L. Nyblade , A. Stangl , E. Weiss & K. Ashburn (2009) Combating HIV stigma in health care settings: what works? Journal of the International AIDS Society 12, 15. doi: 10.1186/1758-2652-12-15.

N. P. Pai , R. Joshi , E. E. M. Moodie , B. Taksande , S. P. Kalantri , M. Pai , J. P. Tulsky & A. Reingold (2009) Profile of adults seeking voluntary HIV testing and counseling in rural Central India: results from a hospital-based study. AIDS Care 21(3), 294300.

S. Pallikadavath , L. Garda , H. Apte , J. Freedman & R. W. Stones (2005) HIV/AIDS in rural India: context and health care needs. Journal of Biosocial Science 37, 641655.

J. W. Peabody & A. Liu (2004) A cross-national comparison of the quality of clinical care using vignettes. Health Policy and Planning 22(5), 294302.

J. N. Sayles , R. D. Hays , C. A. Sarkisian , A. P. Mahajan , K. L. Spritzer & W. E. Cunningham (2008) Development and psychometric assessment of a multidimensional measure of internalized HIV stigma in a sample of HIV-positive adults. Aids and Behavior 12, 748758.

J. A. Schneider , G. S. Saluja , G. Oruganti , S. Dass , J. Tolentino , E. O. Laumann et al. (2007) HIV infection dynamics in rural Andhra Pradesh South India: a sexual-network analysis exploratory study. AIDS Care 19(9), 11711176.

L. C. Simbayi , S. Kalichman , A. Strebel , A. Cloetea , N. Hendaa & A. Mqeketoa (2007) Internalized stigma, discrimination, and depression among men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa. Social Science & Medicine 64, 18231831.

W. M. Simpson , F. D. Johnstone , F. M. Boyd , D. J. Goldberg , G. J. Hart & R. J. Prescott (1998) Uptake and acceptability of HIV testing: a randomized controlled trial of different methods of offering the test. British Medical Journal 316(7127), 262267.

S. Sivaram , C. Zelaya , A. K. Shrikrishnan , C. Latkin , V. F. Go , S. Solomon & D. Celentano (2009) Associations between social capital and HIV stigma in Chennai, India: considerations for prevention intervention design. AIDS Education and Prevention 21(3), 233250.

S. Solomon , A. Chakraborty , Y. R. D'Souza & R. Detels (2004) A review of the HIV epidemic in India. AIDS Education and Prevention 16 (Supplement A), 155169.

J. A. Stein & L. Li (2008) Measuring HIV-related stigma among Chinese service providers: confirmatory factor analysis of a multidimensional scale. AIDS and Behavior 12, 789795

W. T. Steward , S. Chandy , G. Singh , S. T. Panicker , T. A. Osmand , E. Heylen & M. L. Ekstrand (2011) Depression is not an inevitable outcome of disclosure avoidance: HIV stigma and mental health in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals from Southern India. Psychology, Health and Medicine 16(1), 7485.

W. T. Steward , G. M. Herek , J. Ramakrishna , S. Bharat , S. Chandy , J. Wrubel & M. L. Ekstrand (2008) HIV-related stigma: adapting a theoretical framework for use in India. Social Science & Medicine 67, 12251235.

S. E. Taylor & J. D. Brown (1988) Illusion and well-being: a social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin 103(2), 193210.

B. Unnikrishnan , P. P. Mithra , T. Rekha & B. Reshmi (2010) Awareness and attitude of the general public toward HIV/AIDS in coastal Karnataka. Indian Journal of Community Medicine 35(1), 142146.

W. H. Van Brakel (2006) Measuring health-related stigma – a literature review. Psychology, Health and Medicine 11(3), 307334.

C. Venkataramana & P. V. Sarada (2001) Extent and speed of spread of HIV infection in India through the commercial sex networks: a perspective. Tropical Medicine & International Health 6(12), 10401061.

M. J. Visser , T. Kershaw , J. D. Makin , B. W. C. Forsyth (2008) Development of parallel scales to measure HIV-related stigma. AIDS and Behavior 12, 759771.

C. Vlassoff , M. Weiss , E. B. Ovuga , C. Eneanya , P. T. Nwel , S. S. Babalola , A. K. Awedoba et al. (2000) Gender and the stigma of onchocercal skin disease in Africa. Social Science & Medicine 50, 13531368.

M. G. Weiss (1997) Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue: framework for comparative study of illness experience. Transcultural Psychiatry 34(2), 235263.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Biosocial Science
  • ISSN: 0021-9320
  • EISSN: 1469-7599
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-biosocial-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 25 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 185 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.