Bryan, M. I. & Jenkins, S. P. (2016) Multilevel modelling of country effects: a cautionary tale. European Sociological Review 32(1), 3–22.
Case, A., Paxson, C. & Ableidinger, J. (2004) Orphans in Africa: parental death, poverty, and school enrollment. Demography 41(3), 483–508.
Chae, S. (2013) Timing of orphanhood, early sexual debut, and early marriage in four sub-Saharan African countries. Studies in Family Planning 44(2), 123–146.
Chandra-Mouli, V., McCarraher, D. R., Phillips, S. J., Williamson, N. E. & Hainsworth, G. (2014) Contraception for adolescents in low and middle income countries: needs, barriers, and access. Reproductive Health 11(1), 1–8.
Chandra-Mouli, V., Svanemyr, J., Amin, A., Fogstad, H., Say, L., Girard, F. & Temmerman, M. (2015) Twenty years after international conference on population and development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights? Journal of Adolescent Health 56 (Supplement 1), s1–s6.
Corsi, D. J., Neuman, M., Finlay, J. E. & Subramanian, S. V. (2012) Demographic and health surveys: a profile. International Journal of Epidemiology 41(6), 1602–1613.
Dixon-Mueller, R. (2008) How young is ‘too young’? Comparative perspectives on adolescent sexual, marital, and reproductive transitions. Studies in Family Planning 39(4), 247–262.
Eaton, J. W., Garnett, G. P., Takavarasha, F. R., Mason, P. R., Robertson, L., Schumacher, C. M. et al. (2013) Increasing adolescent HIV prevalence in eastern Zimbabwe – evidence of long-term survivors of mother-to-child transmission? PloS One 8(8), e70447.
Embleton, L., Nyandat, J., Ayuku, D., Sang, E., Kamanda, A., Ayaya, S. et al. (2017) Sexual behavior among orphaned adolescents in western Kenya: a comparison of institutional- and family-based care settings. Journal of Adolescent Health 60(4), 417–424.
Fathalla, M. (1998) Issues in reproductive health. Presented at the Expert Group Meeting on Women and Health Mainstreaming the Gender Perspective into the Health Sector, Tunis (Tunisia), 28th September to 2nd October 1998. URL: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/issues.htm (accessed November 2016).
Fisher, J. (1950) Orphans in the United States: number and living arrangements. Social Security Bulletin 13(8), 13–18.
Foster, G. (2004) Safety needs for children affected by HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. In Pharaoh, R., Richter L. & Killian, B., (eds) A Generation at Risk?’ HIV/AIDS, Vulnerable Children and Security in Southern Africa. Monograph No. 109. Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria, South Africa.
Gaydosh, L. (2015) Childhood risk of parental absence in Tanzania. Demography 52(4), 1121–1146.
Ghebremichael, M., Larsen, U. & Paintsil, E. (2009) Association of age at first sex with HIV-1, HSV-2, and other sexual transmitted infections among women in northern Tanzania. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 36(9), 570–576.
Hosegood, V., Floyd, S., Marston, M., Hill, C. & McGrath, N. (2007) The effects of high HIV prevalence on orphanhood and living arrangements of children in Malawi, Tanzania and South Africa. Population Studies 61(3), 327–336.
Hillis, S. D., Zapata, L., Robbins, C. L., Kissin, D. M., Skipalska, H., Yorick, R. et al. (2012) HIV seroprevalence among orphaned and homeless youth: no place like home. AIDS 26(1), 105–110.
Juma, M., Askew, I. & Ferguson, A. (2007) Situation Analysis of the Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV Risks and Prevention Needs of Older Orphaned and Vulnerable Children in Nyanza Province. Population Council, Constella Futures, Nairobi, Kenya.
Louie, K. S., de Sanjose, S., Diaz, M., Castellsague, X., Herrero, R., Meijer, C. J. et al. (2009) Early age at first sexual intercourse and early pregnancy are risk factors for cervical cancer in developing countries. British Journal of Cancer 100(7), 1191–1197.
Magadi, M. & Uchudi, J. (2015) Onset of sexual activity among adolescents in HIV/AIDS-affected households in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Biosocial Science 47(2), 238–257.
Makumbi, F. E., Nakigozi, G., Sekasanvu, J., Lukabwe, I., Kagaayi, J., Lutalo, T. et al. (2012) Incidence of orphanhood before and after implementation of a HIV CARE program in Rakai, Uganda. Tropical Medicine & International Health 17(8), e94–e102.
Mann, G. (2002) Family Matters: The Care and Protection of Children Affected by HIV/AIDS in Malawi. Save the Children, Sweden.
Martin, F. S. & Zulaika, G. (2016) Who cares for children? A descriptive study of care-related data available through global household surveys and how these could be better mined to inform policies and services to strengthen family care. Global Social Welfare 3(2), 51–74.
McGrath, N., Nyirenda, M., Hosegood, V. & Newell, M. L. (2009) Age at first sex in rural South Africa. Sex Transmission Infection 85 (Supplement 1), i49–i55.
Meintjes, H., Hall, K., Marera, D. H. & Boulle, A. (2010) Orphans of the AIDS epidemic? The extent, nature and circumstances of child-headed households in South Africa. AIDS Care 22(1), 40–49.
Mkandawire, P., Tenkorang, E. & Luginaah, I. N. (2013) Orphan status and time to first sex among adolescents in northern Malawi. AIDS Behavior 17(3), 939–950.
Mmari, K. (2011) Exploring the relationship between caregiving and health: perceptions among orphaned and non–orphaned adolescents in Tanzania. Journal of Adolescence 34(2), 301–309.
Mmari, K., Kalamar, A. M., Brahmbhatt, H. & Venables, E. (2016) The influence of the family on adolescent sexual experience: a comparison between Baltimore and Johannesburg. PLoS One 11(11), e0166032.
Mofenson, L. M. & Cotton, M. F. (2013) The challenges of success, adolescents with perinatal HIV infection. Journal of the International AIDS Society 16, 18650.
Mojola, S. A. (2011) Multiple transitions and HIV risk among orphaned Kenyan schoolgirls. Studies in Family Planning 42(1), 29–40.
Monasch, R. & Boerma, J. T. (2004) Orphanhood and childcare patterns in sub-Saharan Africa: an analysis of national surveys from 40 countries. AIDS 18, S55–S65.
Ngom, P., Magadi, M. A. & Owuor, T. (2003) Parental presence and adolescent reproductive health among the Nairobi urban poor. Journal of Adolescent Health 33, 369–377.
Operario, D., Underhill, K., Chuong, C. & Cluver, L. (2011) HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour among youth who have experienced orphanhood: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the International AIDS Society 14(1), 1–11.
Palermo, T. & Peterman, A. (2009) Are female orphans at risk for early marriage, early sexual debut, and teen pregnancy? Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa.
Studies in Family Planning 40(2), 101–112.
Palloni, A. & Lee, Y. J. (1992) Some aspects of the social HIV and its effects on women, children and families. Population Bulletin of the United Nations 33, 64–87.
Pilgrim, N. A., Ahmed, S., Gray, R. H, Sekasanvu, J., Lutalo, T., Nalugoda, F. et al. (2014) Family structure effects on early sexual debut among adolescent girls in Rakai, Uganda. Vulnerable Children Youth Studies 9(3), 193–205.
Puffer, E. S., Drabkin, A. S., Stashko, A. I., Broverman, S. A., Ogwang-Odhiambo, R. A. & Sikkema, K. J. (2012) Orphan status, HIV risk behavior, and mental health among adolescents in rural Kenya. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 37(8), 868–878.
Rathod, S. D., Chi, B. H., Kusanthan, T., Chilopa, B., Levy, J., Sikazwe, I. et al. (2014) Trends in all-cause mortality during the scale-up of an antiretroviral therapy programme: a cross-sectional study in Lusaka, Zambia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 92(10), 734–741.
Reniers, G., Blom, S., Calvert, C., Martin-Onraet, A., Herbst, A. J., Eaton, J. W. et al. (2016) Trends in the burden of HIV mortality after roll-out of antiretroviral therapy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: an observational community cohort study. Lancet HIV 9(16), 30225–30229.
Robertson, L., Gregson, S. & Garnett, G. P. (2010) Sexual risk among orphaned adolescents: is country-level HIV prevalance an important factor? AIDS Care 22(8), 927–938.
Rutstein, S. O. & Staveteig, S. (2014) Making the Demographic and Health Surveys wealth index comparable. DHS Methodological Reports No. 9. ICF International, Rockville, MD, USA.
Sedgh, G., Singh, S., Shah, I. H., Åhman, E., Henshaw, S. K. & Bankole, A. (2012) Induced abortion, incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008. The Lancet 379(9816), 625–632.
Shoko, M. & Ibisomi, L. (2016) Orphanhood prevalence, living arrangements and orphanhood reporting in Lesotho, Malawi and Zimbabwe. Child Indicators Research, 1–15.
Shtarkshall, R. A., Santelli, J. S. & Hirsch, J. S. (2007) Sex education and sexual socialization: roles for educators and parents. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 39(2), 116–119.
Stark, L., Tan, T. M., Muldoon, K. A., King, D., Lamin, D. F. M. et al. (2015) Family structure and sexual and reproductive health outcomes among adolescents in rural Sierra Leone. Global Public Health 16, 1–13.
Stockl, H., Kalra, N., Jacobi, J. & Watts, C. (2013) Is early sexual debut a risk factor for HIV infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa? A systematic review. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology 1, 27–40.
UNAIDS (2002) Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on Construction of Core Indicators. UNAIDS, Geneva.
UNAIDS, UNICEF & USAID (2004)
Children On The Brink. A Joint Report of New Orphan Estimates and a Framework for Action
. UNAIDS, UNICEF and USAID, New York.
UNFPA (2012) Marrying Too Young: End Child Marriage. UNFPA, New York.
UNICEF (2012) Progress For Children: A Report Card on Adolescents. UNICEF, New York.
UNICEF (2015) The State of the World’s Children 2015. UNICEF, New York.
Van Rossem, R., Berten, H. & Van Tuyckom, C. (2010) AIDS knowledge and sexual activity among Flemish secondary school students: a multilevel analysis of the effects of type of education. BMC Public Health 10(1), 1–10.
WHO (2001) Second Decade: Improving Adolescent Health and Development. WHO, Geneva.
Zaba, B., Boerma, T. J., Pisani, E. & Baptiste, N. (2002) Estimation of levels and trends in age at first sex from surveys using survival analysis. Measure Evaluation Working Paper. University of North Carolina.