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The Anglo-Scottish Treaty of Union, 1707 in 2007: Defending the Revolution, Defeating the Jacobites

  • Bob Harris


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1 See, e.g., Brown, Peter Hume, ed., The Union of 1707 (Glasgow, 1907).

2 See esp. Riley, P. W. J., The English Ministers and Scotland, 1707–1727 (London, 1964), and The Union of England and Scotland: A Study in Anglo-Scottish Politics in the Eighteenth Century (Manchester, 1978); Ferguson, William, Scotland's Relations with England: A Survey to 1707 (Edinburgh, 1977; 2nd ed., 1994).

3 Smout, T. C., Scottish Trade on the Eve of the Union, 1660–1707 (Edinburgh, 1963).

4 Smout, T. C., “The Road to Union,” in Britain after the Glorious Revolution, 1689–1714, ed. Holmes, Geoffrey (London, 1969), 176–96.

5 See the essays in Robertson, John, ed., A Union for Empire: Political Theory and the Union of 1707 (Cambridge, 1995); Armitage, David, The Ideological Origins of the British Empire (Cambridge, 2000).

6 See esp. Robertson, John, “Union, State and Empire: The Britain of 1707 in the European Setting,” in An Imperial State at War: Britain from 1689 to 1815, ed. Stone, Lawrence (London, 1999), 224–57, and “Empire and Union: Two Concepts of the Early Modern European Order,” in Robertson, Union for Empire, 3–36.

7 This debate is perhaps best approached through Devine, T. M., Scotland's Empire, 1600–1815 (London, 2003), chap. 3, and The Union of 1707 and Scottish Development,” Scottish Economic and Social History 5 (1985): 2340; Whatley, Christopher A., “Economic Causes and Consequences of the Union of 1707: A Survey,” Scottish Historical Review 68, no. 2 (October 1989): 156–87, and Scottish Society, 1707–1830: Beyond Jacobitism, Towards Industrialisation (Manchester, 2000), chaps. 1–2.

8 Macinnes, Allan I., “Influencing the Vote: The Scottish Estates and the Treaty of Union, 1706–07,” History Microcomputer Review 2 (1990): 1125. See also the discussion of the payments from the equivalent fund in Shaw, John Stuart, The Political History of Eighteenth-Century Scotland (Basingstoke, 1999), 117.

9 Two recent books on the union restate their authors' earlier published views, largely and in condensed form in one case and with little original research and no new perspectives in the other. They are, respectively, Scott, Paul Henderson, The Union of 1707: Why and How? (Edinburgh, 2006); and Fry, Michael, The Union: England, Scotland and the Treaty of Union (Edinburgh, 2006). Fry's is essentially a narrative account, a very readable one, that appears to draw heavily on the work of Riley and Ferguson.

10 Whatley, Christopher A. with Patrick, Derek J., The Scots and the Union (Edinburgh, 2006), 29.

11 Macinnes, Allan I., Union and Empire: The Making of the United Kingdom in 1707 (Cambridge, 2007), 9.

12 Whatley, Scots and the Union, 48.

13 Quoted in Stephen, Jeffrey, Scottish Presbyterians and the Act of Union of 1707 (Edinburgh, 2007), 201.

14 Whatley, Christopher and Patrick, Derek J., “Contesting Interpretations of the Union of 1707: The Abuse and Use of George Lockhart of Carnwath's Memoirs,” Journal of Scottish Historical Studies 27, no. 1 (July 2007): 2447.

15 Macinnes, Union and Empire, 288.

16 Ibid., 292.

17 The phrase is Devine’s, in his Scotland's Empire, 1600–1815, 59.

18 Whatley, Scots and the Union, 218, 249.

19 On this theme, see esp. Armitage, David, “The Scottish Vision of Empire: Intellectual Origins of the Darien Venture,” in Robertson, Union for Empire, 97188, and Ideological Origins, chap. 6.

20 Whatley, Scottish Society, chap. 1, and “Taking Stock: Scotland at the End of the Seventeenth Century,” in Anglo-Scottish Relations from 1603 to 1900, ed. Smout, T. C. (Oxford, 2005), 103–25.

21 Saville, Richard, “Scottish Modernisation prior to the Industrial Revolution,” in Eighteenth Century Scotland: New Perspectives, ed. Devine, T. M. and Young, John R. (East Linton, 1999), 623.

22 See esp. Devine, Scotland's Empire, chap. 3.

23 Macinnes, Union and Empire, 47.

24 Ibid., 172.

25 Pocock, J. G. A., “Empire, State and Confederation: The War of American Independence as a Crisis in Multiple Monarchy,” in his The Discovery of Islands: Essays in British History (Cambridge, 2005), 134–63.

26 Macinnes, Union and Empire, 11.

27 Whatley, Scots and the Union, 189.

28 Simms, Brendan, Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire, 1714–1783 (London, 2007). For the Anglo-Irish union, see the comments of Jupp, Peter in his “Britain and the Union, 1797–1801,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser., 10 (2000): 197219, esp. 208–9.

29 Stanwood, Owen, “The Protestant Moment: Antipopery, the Revolution of 1688–1689, and the Making of an Anglo-American Empire,” Journal of British Studies 46, no. 3 (July 2007): 481508.

30 Young, John R., “The Parliamentary Incorporating Union of 1707: Political Management, Anti-unionism and Foreign Policy,” in Devine and Young, Eighteenth Century Scotland, 2452.

31 Bowie, Karin, Scottish Public Opinion and the Anglo-Scottish Union, 1699–1707 (Woodbridge, 2007).

32 Stephen, Presbyterians and the Act of Union, 156–57.

33 Ibid., 140.

34 Whatley and Patrick, “Contesting Interpretations,” 35.

35 Bowie, Scottish Public Opinion and the Anglo-Scottish Union, 3.

36 Lake, Peter and Pincus, Steve, “Rethinking the Public Sphere in Early Modern England,” Journal of British Studies 45, no. 2 (April 2006): 270–92, esp. 286 n. 64, where they write, “We are emphatically not telling a British story.”

37 Whatley and Patrick, “Contesting Interpretations,” 35. Whatley and Patrick also cite the Jacobite James Carnegy to the effect that only if James VIII were to disavow his Catholicism as well as declare himself against the union would such an alliance be even conceivable.

38 Stephen, Presbyterians and the Act of Union, 31.

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The Anglo-Scottish Treaty of Union, 1707 in 2007: Defending the Revolution, Defeating the Jacobites

  • Bob Harris


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