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British Conservatism and the Indian Revolt: The Annexation of Awadh and the Consequences of Liberal Empire, 1856–1858

  • Matthew Stubbings
Abstract

This article examines how the East India Company's 1856 annexation of the Indian Kingdom of Awadh informed British Conservative responses to the Indian Revolt in 1857 and 1858. Addressing scholarship on Britain's reaction to the revolt and political engagement with Indian empire, this study reveals that Conservatives interpreted this event with a veneration for locality and prescription. Criticism from company officials and Awadh's deposed royal family informed Conservative perceptions that British exploitation and westernization were responsible for military rebellion and popular upheaval. Principally, this reflected Conservative skepticism regarding liberal modernity as well as support for prescribed aristocratic, propertied, and established church interests in Britain. Their response, expressed in Parliament and supported in conservative periodicals, was the 1858 Queen's Proclamation authored by Edward Smith-Stanley, the 14th Earl of Derby's Conservative government. The proclamation established a lasting imperial framework which defined the crown's obligation to uphold India's political, social, and cultural differences and separation from Britain. Future Conservatives strengthened British views of India's distinctiveness by supporting perceived traditional leaders and customs over uniform western administration and education.

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3 Malik, Salahuddin, 1857 War of Independence or Clash of Civilizations? British Public Reactions (Karachi, 2008); Herbert, Christopher, War of No Pity: The Indian Mutiny and Victorian Trauma (Princeton, 2008); Chakravarty, Gautam, The Indian Mutiny and the British Imagination (Cambridge, 2005).

4 Mukerjee, Rudranshu, Awadh in Revolt 1857–1858: A Study of Popular Resistance (London, 2002).

5 On Awadh's Royal Family and British power see also Llwellyn-Jones, Rosie, The Last King in India: Wajid ‘Ali Shahm 1822–1887 (London, 2014); Bhatnagar, A. P., The Oudh Nights Tales of Nawab Wazirs, Kings and Begums of Lucknow (Haryana, 2005).

6 Black, Jeremy ed., The Tory World: Deep History and the Tory Theme in British Foreign Policy, 1679–2014 (London, 2015), 23 ; Hicks, Geoffrey, “Introduction: The View from Knowsley,” in idem, ed., Conservativism and British Foreign Policy, 1820–1920: The Derbys and Their World (Farnham, 2011), 118 , at 13.

7 Stokes, Eric, The English Utilitarians and India (Oxford, 1963); Hall, Catherine, Civilising Subjects: Colony and Metropole in the English Imagination, 1830–1867 (Chicago, 2002); Pitts, Jennifer, A Turn to Empire: The Rise of Imperial Liberalism in Britain and France (Princeton, 2005); Mehta, Uday Singh, Liberalism and Empire: A Study in Nineteenth-Century British Liberal Thought (Chicago, 1999).

8 Metcalf, Thomas, The Aftermath of Revolt: India, 1857–1870 (Princeton, 1967); idem, Ideologies of the Raj (Cambridge, 1995).

9 Stewart, Robert, The Politics of Protection: Lord Derby and the Protectionist Party, 1841–1852 (Cambridge, 1971); Gambles, Anna, Protections and Politics: Conservative Economic Discourse, 1815–1852 (Woodbridge, 1999); Blake, Robert, The Conservative Party from Peel to Thatcher (London, 1985), 1924 . On aristocratic perspectives on the empire, see also Cannadine, David, Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire (Oxford, 2001), 8 .

10 Cohn, Bernard, “Representing Indian Authority in Victorian India,” in The Invention of Tradition, ed. Hobsbawm, Eric and Ranger, Terrence (Cambridge, 1983), 165210 ; Cohn, Bernard, Colonialism and Its Forms of Knowledge (Princeton, 1996).

11 Webster, Anthony, The Twilight of the East India Company: The Evolution of Anglo-Asian Commerce and Politics, 1790–1860 (Woodbridge, 2009); Stern, Philip J., The Company-State: Corporate Sovereignty and the Early Modern Foundations of the British Empire in India (Oxford, 2012).

12 For a detailed history of the East India Company's relationship and eventual paramountcy in Awadh, see also Fisher, Michael H., Indirect Rule in India: Residents and the Residency System 1764–1858 (Delhi, 1991), 380–86.

13 Outram, James, Oude, Papers Relating To: Presented to Both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty, 1856 (London, 1856).

14 Smith to Dalhousie, 8 November 1855, Robert Vernon Smith MSS Eur. F231/1, fol. 201, Indian Office Records (hereafter IOR), British Library (hereafter BL); Smith to Dalhousie, 22 November 1855, ibid., fol. 205.

15 Court of Directors Despatch to the India Political Department, 10 December 1856, Correspondence with India E/4/840, fols. 1061–65, IOR, BL.

16 Mukherjee, Awadh in Revolt, 38–63.

17 Pati, Biswamoy, ed., The 1857 Rebellion (New Delhi, 2008); Pandey, Smita, Vision of the Rebels during 1857: Aspects of Mobilization, Organization and Resistance (New Delhi, 2008); Wagner, Kim A., The Great Fear of 1857: Rumours, Conspiracies and the Making of the Indian Uprising (Witney, 2010).

18 Sleeman, Colonel W. H., Diary of a Tour through Oude in December 1849, & January & February, 1850, vol. 1 (Lucknow, 1856); Sleeman, William, A Journey through the Kingdom of Oude, 2 vols. (London, 1858).

19 Sleeman to Bird, 10 December 1849, in Sleeman, A Journey through the Kingdom of Oude, 2:333; Sleeman to Hogg, 4 April 1852, in Sleeman, A Journey through the Kingdom of Oude, 2:357.

20 Sleeman to Dalhousie, September 1852, in Sleeman, A Journey through the Kingdom of Oude, 2:368.

21 Sleeman to Hogg, 2 January 1853, in Sleeman, A Journey through the Kingdom of Oude, 2:387; Sleeman to Hogg, 12 January 1853, in Sleeman, A Journey through the Kingdom of Oude, 2:390.

22 Lewis, Malcom, Has Oude Been Worse Governed by Its Native Princes than Our Indian Territories by Leadenhall Street? (London, 1857), 3 , 5–17.

23 Lewis, Has Oude Been Worse Governed, 20.

24 Perry, Speech to the House of Commons, 4 March 1856, Parliamentary Debates (hereafter PD), Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 140 (1856), col. 1885.

25 Perry, Speech to the House of Commons, 18 April 1856, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 141 (1856), cols. 1192–1204.

26 Wainwright, A. Martin, “Royal Relationships as a Form of Resistance: The Cases of Duleep Singh and Abdul Karim,” in South Asian Resistances in Britain, 1858–1947, ed. Ahmed, Rehana and Mukerjee, Sumita (London, 2012), 91105 .

27 Hampshire Advertiser, 22 August 1856.

28 London Standard, 10 December 1856; Morning Chronicle, 13 October 1856; Morning Post, 13 December 1856; Morning Chronicle, 14 April 1857; Morning Chronicle, 11 June 1857.

29 Morning Chronicle, 2 April 1857.

30 Examiner, 7 February 1857.

31 Smith to Canning, 26 June 1857, Robert Vernon Smith MSS Eur. E231/8, fol. 123, IOR, BL; Smith to Canning, 10 July 1857, Robert Vernon Smith MSS Eur. E231/8, fol. 125, IOR, BL.

32 Reynolds Newspaper, 31 August 1856; Morning Chronicle, 6 April 1857; Morning Chronicle, 14 April 1857; Morning Chronicle, 30 April 1857.

33 Ahmad, Safi, British Aggression in Avadh: Being the Treatise of M. Mohammad Masih Uddin Khan Bahadur Entitled “Oude: Its Princes and Its Government Vindicated” (Begum Bridge, 1969), 94 .

34 Brown, David, Palmerston: A Biography (New Haven, 2010), 409 ; Imlah, Albert Henry, Lord Ellenborough: A Biography of Edward Law, Earl of Ellenborough, Governor General of India (Cambridge, 1939), vii. On the Conservative split over Corn Law repeal and Derby's leadership see Hawkins, Angus, The Forgotten Prime Minister: The 14th Early of Derby, 2 vols. (Oxford, 2007), 1:296–422.

35 Colley, Linda, In Defiance of Oligarchy: The Tory Party, 1714–1760 (Cambridge, 1982); Sack, James J., From Jacobite to Conservative: Reaction and Orthodoxy in Britain, c. 1760–1832 (Cambridge, 1993); Alderman, Paul, Peel and the Conservative Party, 1830–1850 (London, 1989).

36 Gambles, Protections and Politics, 19. On the post-1832 reformed Parliaments until 1852, see also McCord, Norman, British History, 1815–1906 (Oxford, 1991), 127–74.

37 Pitts, A Turn to Empire, 59–160; Hall, Civilizing Subjects, 124, 245.

38 Metcalf, Ideologies of the Raj, 43–78. On Henry Maine see also Mantena, Karuna, Alibis of Empire Henry Maine and the Ends of Liberalism (Princeton, 2010).

39 Metcalf, Ideologies of the Raj, 29–31; Stokes, The English Utilitarians and India, 44–70.

40 Macaulay, Thomas Babington, “Minute on Indian Education,” in Thomas Babington Macaulay: Selected Writings, ed. Clive, John and Pinney, Thomas (Chicago, 1972), 237–51, at 249.

41 Burke's criticism of the East India Company is found in Whelan, Frederick G., Edmund Burke and India: Political Morality and Empire (Pittsburgh, 1996).

42 Pitts, A Turn to Empire, 60–63; Mehta, Liberalism and Empire, 20–22, 119; Bearce, George D., British Attitudes Towards India, 1784–1858 (Oxford, 1961), 1518 .

43 Imlah, Lord Ellenborough, 73; Hawkins, The Forgotten Prime Minister, 1:25.

44 Other members included George Smythe, Alexander Baillie Cochrane, Alexander Beresford-Hope, William Busfield Ferrand, Peter Borthwick, and Richard Monckton Milnes. See also Morrow, John, Young England: The New Generation: A Selection of Primary Texts (London, 1999), x. The term Condition of England” was coined by Carlyle, Thomas in Chartism (London, 1839). For Disraeli's literary engagement with this debate, see also John McAllister Ulrich, Signs of Their Times: History, Labor, and the Body in Corbett, Carlyle, and Disraeli (Athens, OH, 2002).

45 Disraeli, Speech to the House of Common, 27 July 1857, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 147 (1857), cols. 449–64.

46 Disraeli, Benjamin, “Spirit of Whiggism,” in Whigs and Whiggism: Political Writings, ed. Hutcheon, William (Port Washington, 1971), 327–56, at 339.

47 Disraeli, Speech to the House of Common, 16 February 1844, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 72 (1844), col. 1011.

48 Benjamin Disraeli, Tancred: Or the New Crusade (1847; repr., Teddington, 2007).

49 Brantlinger, Patrick, “Disraeli and Orientalism,” in The Self-Fashioning of Disraeli 1818–1851, ed. Richmond, Charles and Smith, Paul (Cambridge, 1998), 90105 , at 92, 98, 104. On Disraeli's views on race see also Borgstede, Simone Beate, “All is Race”: Benjamin Disraeli on Race, Nation, and Empire (Zurich, 2011).

50 Disraeli, Tancred, 168.

51 Ibid., 142.

52 Disraeli, Benjamin, Benjamin Disraeli Letters, vol. 6, 1852–1856, ed. Robson, Ann P., Millar, Mary S., and Wiebe, M. G. (Toronto, 1997), 218 ; Derby, Edward Henry Stanley and Vincent, John, Disraeli, Derby, and the Conservative Party: Journals and Memoirs of Edward Henry, Lord Stanley, 1849–1869 (Brighton, 1978), 101 .

53 Disraeli to Pakington, 6 October 1857, in Disraeli, Benjamin Disraeli Letters, vol. 7, 1857–1859, ed. Ann P. Robson, Mary S. Millar, and M. G. Wiebe, 77–79. Disraeli's concurrence with Rathbourne's articles in the Press is discussed in Saab, Ann Pottinger, “Disraeli, India, and the Indians: 1852–58,” in Internationale Beziehungen Im 19. Und 20. Jahrhundert, ed. Elz, Wolfgang and Neitzel, Sonke (Paderborn, 2003), 3752 ; Angus Hawkins “Derby Redivivus: Reflections on the Political Achievement of the Fourteenth Earl of Derby,” in Hicks, ed., Conservatives and British Foreign Policy, 19–40, at 29.

54 Disraeli to Derby, 18 November 1857, in Disraeli, Letters, 7:93–96; Disraeli to Stanley, 27 July 1857, Papers of Edward Geoffrey Stanley 14th Earl of Derby (hereafter DP14), 920 DER 14/145/3/31, Liverpool Records Office (hereafter  LRO).

55 Disraeli, Speech to the House of Common, 27 July 1857, PDs, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 147 (1857), cols. 449–64.

56 Ibid, col. 467.

57 Ibid, col. 468.

58 Baillie, Speech to the House of Commons, 19 April 1852, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 120 (1852), col. 836.

59 Baillie, Speech to the House of Commons, 16 April 1858, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 148 (1857–58), col. 1478.

60 Metcalf, Aftermath of Revolt, 6, 15–17.

61 Baillie, Speech to the House of Commons, 16 February 1858, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 148 (1857–58), cols. 1480–88.

62 Lord John Manners, “England's Trust,” in Morrow, Young England, 127–29.

63 Lord John Manners, “Speech on the Poor Law in Ireland, House of Commons, 19 June 1843,” in Morrow, Young England, 58.

64 Manners, Speech to the House of Commons, 8 February 1844, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 144 (1857), cols. 342–458; Manners, Speech to the House of Commons, 25 June 1847, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 93 (1847), cols. 953–59; Manners, Speech to the House of Commons, 6 July 1847, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 93 (1847), cols. 1371–74.

65 Manners, Speech to the House of Commons, 4 March 1856, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 140 (1856), col. 1855.

66 Manners, Speech to the House of Commons, 16 February 1856, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 148 (1857–58), cols. 1514–25.

67 Disraeli to Stanley, 10 August 1858, Papers of Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby (hereafter DP15), 920 DER 15/25/1, LRO; Lutyens, Mary, The Lyttons in India: An Account of Lord Lytton's Viceroyalty, 1876–1880 (London, 1979), 1 .

68 Derby to Ellenborough, 15 November 1857, 920 DER 14/183/2, DP14, LRO; Derby to Ellenborough, 18 October 1857, 920 DER 14/183/2, DP14, LRO.

69 The National Archives (hereafter TNA), Ellenborough, PRO 30/12/11, 1843, fol. 2839, Papers of Edward Law, 1st Earl of Ellenborough (hereafter EP); TNA, PRO 30/12/11, Ellenborough to Court of Directors, 15 January 1844, fol. 3010, EP. For contemporary and historical criticism of Ellenborough see also Bence-Jones, Mark, The Viceroys of India (London, 1982), 15 ; Mersey, Viscount, The Viceroys and Governor-Generals of India, 1757–1947 (New York, 1971), 61 .

70 Ellenborough, Speech to the House of Lords, 29 March 1852, PD, Lords, 3rd ser., vol. 120 (1852), col. 246; idem, Speech to the House of Lords, 11 July 1852, PD, Lords, 3rd ser., vol. 143 (1856), cols. 619–21.

71 Ellenborough, Speech to the House of Lords, 2 April 1852, PD, Lords, 3rd ser., vol. 120 (1852), col. 555; idem, Speech to the House of Lords, 26 May 1853, PD, Lords, 3rd ser., vol. 127 (1853), cols. 561–64.

72 Ellenborough, Speech to the House of Lords, 9 June 1857, PD, Lords, 3rd ser., vol. 145 (1857), col. 694; idem, Speech to the House of Lords, 30 July 1857, PD, Lords, 3rd ser., vol. 147 (1857), cols. 1393–96.

73 Derby to Ellenborough, 920 DER 14/184/2, DP14, LRO.

74 The former, issued in July 1857, allowed clemency for soldiers not involved in assaulting British forces and civilians advoiding conflict. See also Maclagan, Michael, “Clemency” Canning: Charles John, 1st Earl of Canning, Governor General and Viceroy of India, 1856–1862 (London, 1962), 134–36, 143.

75 TNA, PRO 30/12/09, Ellenborough to Derby, 9 May 1858, fol. 3131, EP.

76 TNA, PRO 30/12/09, Currie to Ellenborough, 9 April 1858, fols. 2482–85, EP.

77 Ellenborough, Speech to the House of Lords, 5 May 1834, PD, Lords, 3rd ser., vol. 23 (1834), cols. 482–86.

78 TNA, PRO 30/12/09, Secret Committee of the Court of Directors to Canning, 19 April 1858, fol. 2736–906, EP.

79 TNA, PRO 30/12/09, Ellenborough to Derby, 9 May 1858, fol. 3099, EP; TNA, PRO 30/12/09, Ellenborough to Derby, 15 May 1858, fol. 3194, EP.

80 Ellenborough, Speech to the House of Lords, 11 May 1858, PD, Lords, 3rd ser., vol. 150 (1858), col. 411.

81 Ellenborough, Speech to the House of Lords, 14 May 1858, PD, Lords, 3rd ser., vol. 150 (1858), cols. 601–3.

82 TNA, PRO 30/12/09, Ellenborough to Disraeli, 17 May 1858, fol. 3206, EP.

83 Hawkins, “British Parliamentary Party Alignment and the Indian Issue,” 95.

84 Carnarvon, Speech to the House of Lords, 14 May 1858, PD, Lords, 3rd ser., vol. 150 (1858), cols. 618–19.

85 Derby, Speech to the House of Lords, 14 May 1858, PD, Lords, 3rd ser., vol. 150 (1858), col. 649.

86 Whiteside, Speech to the House of Commons, 17 May 1858, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 150 (1858), cols. 844–51.

87 Stanley, Speech to the House of Commons, 17 May 1858, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 150 (1858), col. 750.

88 Brown, Palmerston, 406; Metcalf, Barbara D. and Metcalf, Thomas R., A Concise History of Modern India (Cambridge, 2006), 102 .

89 This view was expressed by Indian National Congress president and Liberal MP Dadabhai Naoroji. See also Naoroji, Dadabhai, “Sir M. E. Grant Duff's Views about India,” part 1, Contemporary Review 52 (July/December 1887): 221–25.

90 “Proclamation by the Queen in Council,” 11 August 1858, 920 DER 15/27/1, DP15, LRO.

91 Derby to Stanley, 6 August 1857, 920 DER 15/5/1, DP15, LRO.

92 Ellenborough, 13 November 1829, in Ellenborough and Colchester, A Political Diary, 1828–1830, 131; Ellenborough to Victoria, 18 January 1843, in History of the Indian Administration of Lord Ellenborough: In His Correspondence with the Duke of Wellington, ed. Colchester, Lord (London, 1874), 6465 .

93 TNA, PRO 30/12/09, Ellenborough to Mangles, 20 May 1858, fol. 1369, EP.

94 TNA, PRO 30/12/09, Ellenborough to Lefevre, 25 April 1858, fol. 2909, EP.

95 Times, 2 August 1858.

96 Stanley, 25 February 1858, in Derby and Vincent, Disraeli, Derby and the Conservative Party, 158.

97 Stanley to Canning, 19 November 1858, Letters from Lord Stanley as President of the Board of Control MSS Eur. Photo Eur. 477/22, IOR, BL.

98 Stanley to Derby, 15 December 1858, 920 DER 15/25/1, DP15, LRO.

99 Stanley, Speech to the House of Commons, 14 February 1859, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 152 (1859), cols. 358, 370.

100 Stanley to Canning, 8 September 1858, Letters from Lord Stanley as President of the Board of Control MSS Eur. Photo. Eur 477/8, IOR, BL.

101 Disraeli to Stanley, 13 August 1858, in Disraeli, Benjamin Disraeli Letters, 7:230.

102 Times, 11 December, 1858; Disraeli to Stanley, 30 December 1858, in Disraeli, Benjamin Disraeli Letters, 7:307; Stanley to the Queen, 16 December 1858, 920 DER 15/25/1, DP15, LRO.

103 Koss, Stephen, The Rise and Fall of the Political Press in Britain: The Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill, 1981); Aspinall, A., Politics and the Press, c. 1780–1850 (Brighton, 1973); Sullivan, Alvin, British Literary Magazines (Westport, 1983).

104 Patterson, R. H., “Lord Canning's reply to the Ellenborough despatch,” Blackwood's Magazine 84, no. 517 (November 1858): 623–34, at 625.

105 Robertson, Thomas Campbell, “The Gangetic Provinces of British India,” Blackwood's Magazine 76, no. 466 (August 1854): 183205 , at 187–92; Robertson, Thomas Campbell, “The Indian Mutiny and the Land-Settlement,” Blackwood's Magazine 84, no. 518 (December 1858): 701–7, esp. 701, 704–7.

106 Quarterly Review 102, no. 204 (October 1857): 534.

107 Quarterly Review 103, no. 205 (January 1858): 265 . For Mead's views on education see also London Quarterly Review 3 (October 1854): 159–80, at 159.

108 Quarterly Review 103, no. 205: 255–58.

109 Quarterly Review 104, no. 207 (July 1858): 228. For Duff's role in propagating English education in India see also Emmott, D. H., “Alexander Duff and the Foundation of Modern Education in India,” British Journal of Education Studies 13, no. 2 (May 1965): 160–69.

110 Quarterly Review 104, no. 207: 229.

111 Ibid., 255–62.

112 John Bull, 13 June 1857, 376; John Bull, 4 July 1857, 424; John Bull, 24 October 1857, 680.

113 John Bull, 21 November 1857, 744; John Bull, 19 December 1857, 808; John Bull, 23 January 1858, 56.

114 John Bull, 6 March 1858, 112.

115 John Bull, 11 December 1858, 787; John Bull, 18 December 1858, 809.

116 John Bull, 24 July 1858; John Bull, 11 December 1858, 72.

117 Moore, R. J., Sir Charles Wood's Indian Policy (Manchester, 1966).

118 Wood to Clark, 3 January 1961, Sir Charles Wood MSS Eur. F78, vol. 7, fol. 4, IOR, BL, Wood Collection (hereafter WC), University of British Columbia (hereafter UBC).

119 For a narration of this disputed settlement see also Moore, Sir Charles Wood's Indian Policy, 180–88.

120 Wood to Canning, 19 December 1859, Sir Charles Wood MSS Eur. F78, vol. 3, fol. 4, IOR, BL, WC, UBC.

121 Wood to Canning, 26 June 1860, Sir Charles Wood MSS Eur. F78, vol. 3, fol. 176, IOR, BL, WC, UBC; Wood to Canning, 26 July 1860, Sir Charles Wood MSS Eur. F78, vol. 3, fol. 257, IOR, BL, WC, UBC; Canning to Wood, 13 June 1860, Sir Charles Wood MSS Eur. F78, vols. 1–4, index, IOR, BL, WC, UBC.

122 Wood to Canning, 6 September 1860, Sir Charles Wood MSS Eur. F78, vol. 4, fol. 134, IOR, BL, WC, UBC; Wood to Canning, 3 February 1860, Sir Charles Wood MSS Eur. F78, vol. 2, fol. 118, IOR, BL, WC, UBC.

123 For a detailed account of this reform, including Maine's Law Commission and Code of Civil Procedure see also Moore, Sir Charles Wood's Indian Policy, 82–85, 174.

124 Ellenborough, Speech to the House of Lords, 9 July 1861, PD, Lords, 3rd ser., vol. 164 (1861), col. 596.

125 Ellenborough, Speech to the House of Lords, 28 May 1866, PD, Lords, 3rd ser., vol. 183 (1866), col. 1307.

126 Brumpton, Paul R., Security and Progress: Lord Salisbury at the India Office (Westport, 2002), 10 .

127 Warren, Allan, “Lord Salisbury and Ireland, 1859–1887: Principles, Ambitions and Strategies,” Parliamentary History 26, part 2 (May 2007): 203–22, at 204–7.

128 Wilson, Corinne Comstock, The House of Lords and Ideological Politics: Lord Salisbury's Referendal Theory and the Conservative Party, 1846–1922 (Philadelphia, 1995). On Salisbury and Naoroji, see also Burton, Antoinette, “Tongues Untied: Lord Salisbury's ‘Black Man’ and the Boundaries of Imperial Democracy,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 42, no. 3 (July 2000): 632–61, at 633.

129 Cranbourne, “Memorandum on the Mysore Question,” 10 October 1866, 920 DER 14/56/1/1, DP14, LRO.

130 Ibid.

131 Ibid.

132 Northcote to Lawrence, 20 April 1867, John Lawrence MSS Eur. F90/28, fol. 18, IOR, BL. The Second Reform Act doubled the electoral franchise, including by adding a section of the working class. See also McCord, British History, 255.

133 Lytton's proposal called for a consultative body comprising of high ranking British officials and Indian princes led by the viceroy. Although rejected, it became the genesis for the title “councillors of the empress.”

134 Lytton to Salisbury, 11 May 1876, in Personal and Literary Letters of Robert First Earl of Lytton, ed. Balfour, Lady Betty (London, 1906), 20 ; Salisbury to Lytton, 13 July 1876, IOR NEG. 11688/1, fol. 133, BL; Brumpton, Security and Progress, 15.

135 Hunter, William Wilson, The Earl of Mayo (Oxford, 1891), 1013 , 104–17; Pottinger, George, Mayo: Disraeli's Viceroy (Salisbury, Wiltshire, 1990), 29 , 133–44.

136 Mayo (Naas), Speech to the House of Commons, 22 July 1859, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 155, col. 304; idem, Speech to the House of Commons, 10 March 1868, PD, Commons, 3rd ser., vol. 190, cols. 1382–84.

137 Mayo, September 1869, MS 7490/9/15, Richard Burke, 6th Earl of Mayo Papers (henceforth MP), Cambridge University Library (hereafter CUL); Home Department, Indian Government to Argyll, 8 February 1870, MS 7490/1/4, MP, CUL; Mayo, 26 June 1871, MS 7490/9/39, MP, CUL; Mayo, 11 November 1870, MS 7490/71/7, fol. 6, MP, CUL.

138 Hinnels, John R. and Ralph, Omar, Sir Mancherjee Merwanjee Bhownaggree K.C.I.E. Order of the Lion and the Sun of Persia, 1851–1933 (London, 1995), 12 ; Krishnaswamy, N. and Krishnaswamy, Lalitha, The Story of English in India (Delhi, 2006), 70 .

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