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Citizenship from the Margins: Vernacular Theories of Rights and the State from the Interwar Caribbean

  • Lara Putnam
Abstract

This essay explores debates over political membership and rights within empire from the interwar British Caribbean. Although no formal status of imperial, British, or colonial citizenship existed in this era, British Caribbeans routinely hailed each other as meritorious local “citizens,” demanded political rights due them as “British citizens,” and decried rulers' failure to treat colored colonials equally with other “citizens” of the empire. In the same years, the hundreds of thousands of British West Indians who labored in circum-Caribbean republics like the United States, Panama, Cuba, Venezuela, and Costa Rica experienced firsthand the international consolidation of formal citizenship as a state-issued credential ensuring mobility and abode. This convergence pushed British Caribbeans at home and abroad to question the costs of political disfranchisement and the place of race within empire. The vernacular political philosophy they developed in response importantly complements the influential theories of citizenship and rights developed by European thinkers of the same generation, such as T. H. Marshall and Hannah Arendt.

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1 Fryer, Peter, Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain (London, 1984); Tabili, Laura, “We Ask for British Justice”: Workers and Racial Difference in Late Imperial Britain (Ithaca, NY, 1994); James, Winston, “The Black Experience in Twentieth-Century Britain,” in The Black Experience and the Empire, ed. Morgan, Philip and Hawkins, Sean (Oxford, 2004), 347–86.

2 Putnam, Lara, Radical Moves: Caribbean Migrants and the Politics of Race in the Jazz Age (Chapel Hill, NC, 2013), chap. 4; Putnam, “The Rising Tide of Color: Print Circuits and Internationalism from the Peripheries in the Interwar Era” (paper presented at conference, “Print Culture Beyond the Metropolis,” Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, 15–16 March 2013). The circulation of the UNIA's Negro World alone in the 1920s ranged between 17,000 and 60,000 copies. Robert A. Hill, The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, vol. 7, November 1927–August 1940 (Berkeley, CA, 1991), 997–1000.

3 The (Bocas del Toro) Central American Express reported a circulation of 1,700 in 1917; the (St. George's, Grenada) West Indian, 1,600 in 1922; the Panama Tribune 3,500 in 1932; Marcus Garvey's (Kingston, Jamaica) Blackman, 2,000 in 1930. See Central American Express, 23 June 1917; Grenada, Blue Book (Georgetown, 1922), 132; masthead, Panama Tribune, 6 November 1932, 1; “Hearing of Trial for Seditious Libel,” Daily Gleaner, 15 February 1930, 9. The (Kingston, Jamaica) Daily Gleaner is digitized through newspaperarchive.com. All other periodicals quoted here were consulted in microfilm, at the following repositories: Central American Express, Universidad de Panamá, Biblioteca Central Simon Bolívar; Panama Tribune, New York Public Library; Searchlight, Biblioteca Nacional de Costa Rica; all Trinidadian papers, National Archives of Trinidad and Tobago; Weekly Herald, National Library Service of Barbados, Main Branch; West Indian, British Library Newspaper Reading Room, Colindale.

4 Putnam, Radical Moves, 128–29; Lara Putnam, “Provincializing Harlem: The ‘Negro Metropolis’ as Northern Frontier of an Interconnected Greater Caribbean,” Modernism/Modernity 20, no. 4 (November 2013).

5 Hall, Catherine, McClelland, Keith, and Rendall, Jane, eds., Defining the Victorian Nation: Class, Race, Gender and the British Reform Act of 1867 (Cambridge, 2000), 5770; Neill, Edmund, “Conceptions of Citizenship in Twentieth Century Britain,” Twentieth Century British History 17, no. 3 (2006): 424–38.

6 Low, Eugenia, “The Concept of Citizenship in 20th Century Britain: Analysing Contexts of Development,” in Reforming the Constitution, ed. Catterall, Peter, Kaiser, Wolfgang, and Walton-Jordan, Ulrike (London, 2000), 196.

7 Harris, Jose, “‘Contract’ and ‘Citizenship,’” in The Ideas That Shaped Post-war Britain, ed. Marquand, David and Seldon, Anthony (London, 1996), 122–38; Freeden, Michael, “Civil Society and the Good Citizen,” in Civil Society in British History, ed. Harris, Jose (Oxford, 2003), 275–91.

8 E.g., Stapleton, Julia, “Citizenship versus Patriotism in Twentieth-Century England,” Historical Journal 48, no. 1 (2005): 166.

9 Land, Isaac, “Bread and Arsenic: Citizenship from the Bottom Up in Georgian London,” Journal of Social History 39, no. 1 (Fall 2005): 89110; Rose, Sonya, Which People's War? National Identity and Citizenship in Britain, 1939–1945 (Cambridge, 2003).

10 E.g., Tilly, Charles, ed., Citizenship, Identity, and Social History (Cambridge, 1996); Brubaker, Rogers, Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany (Cambridge, MA, 1998); Glenn, Evelyn Nakano, Unequal Freedom: How Race and Gender Shaped American Citizenship and Labor (Cambridge, MA, 2002); Canning, Kathleen, Gender History in Practice: Historical Perspectives on Bodies, Class and Citizenship (Ithaca, 2006); Fischer, Brodwyn M., A Poverty of Rights: Citizenship and Inequality in Twentieth-Century Rio de Janeiro (Stanford, CA, 2010).

11 Among many, see esp. Mamdani, Mahmood, Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism (Princeton, NJ, 1996); Marx, Anthony W., “Contested Citizenship: The Dynamics of Racial Identity and Social Movements,” in Citizenship, Identity, and Social History, ed. Tilly, Charles (Cambridge, 1996), 159–84; Cooper, Frederick, Holt, Thomas C., and Scott, Rebecca J., Beyond Slavery: Explorations of Race, Labor, and Citizenship in Postemancipation Societies (Chapel Hill, NC, 2000); Bronfman, Alejandra, Measures of Equality: Social Science, Citizenship, and Race in Cuba, 1902–1940 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2004). On women's claims to citizenship in Jamaica, see Altink, Henrice, Destined for a Life of Service: Defining African-Jamaican Womanhood, 1865–1938 (Manchester, 2011), 151–200.

12 The flip side was that efforts by the privileged to insist on the inapplicability of republican/liberal principles to the subjugated routinely drove vicious claims of racial difference. See foundational articulation in Morgan, Edmund S., American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia, orig. pub. 1975 (New York, 2003).

13 On categories of analysis and of practice, see Brubaker, Rogers and Cooper, Frederick J., “Beyond Identity,” Theory and Society 29 (2000): 147.

14 Torpey, John, The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State (Cambridge, 1999); Zolberg, Aristide, “Matters of State: Theorizing Immigration Policy,” in The Handbook of International Migration, ed. Hirschman, Charles, Kasinitz, Philip, and DeWind, Josh (New York, 2000), 7193; Fahrmeir, Andreas, Faron, Olivier, and Weil, Patrick, eds., Migration Control in the North Atlantic World: The Evolution of State Practices in Europe and the United States from the French Revolution to the Inter-war Period (Oxford, 2003); Fahrmier, Andreas, Citizenship: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Concept (New Haven, CT, 2008); McKeown, Adam, Melancholy Order: Asian Migration and the Globalization of Borders (New York, 2008).

15 Dummett, Ann and Nicol, Andrew, Subjects, Citizens, Aliens and Others: Nationality and Immigration Law (London, 1990); Shanahan, Suzanne, “Scripted Debates: Twentieth-Century Immigration and Citizenship Policy in Great Britain, Ireland, and the United States,” in Extending Citizenship, Reconfiguring States, ed. Hanagan, Michael and Tilly, Charles (Lanham, MD, 1999), 6796; Karatani, Rieko, Defining British Citizenship: Empire, Commonwealth and Modern Britain (London, 2003); Gorman, Daniel, Imperial Citizenship: Empire and the Question of Belonging (Manchester, 2006).

16 Huttenback, R. A., “The British Empire as a ‘White Man's Country’: Racial Attitudes and Immigration Legislation in the Colonies of White Settlement,” Journal of British Studies 13, no. 1 (1973): 108–37; Mongia, Radhika, “Race, Nationality, Mobility: History of the Passport,” Public Culture 11, no. 3 (1999): 527–55; Lake, Marilyn and Reynolds, Henry, Drawing the Global Colour Line: White Men's Countries and the International Challenge of Racial Equality (Cambridge, 2008).

17 For the first, see Paul, Kathleen, Whitewashing Britain: Race and Citizenship in the Postwar Era (Ithaca, NY, 1997); the second, Cohen, Robin, Frontiers of Identity: The British and the Others (London, 1994), and Tabili, Laura, “A Homogeneous Society? Britain's ‘Internal Others,’ 1800–Present,” in At Home with the Empire: Metropolitan Culture and the Imperial World, ed. Hall, Catherine and Rose, Sonya O. (Cambridge, 2006), 5376; the third, Hansen, Randall, Citizenship and Immigration in Post-war Britain: The Institutional Origins of a Multicultural Nation (Oxford, 2000), and Hansen, “British Citizenship After Empire: A Defence,” Political Quarterly 71, no. 1 (2000): 47.

18 E.g., Schwarz, Bill, “‘The Only White Man in There’: The Re-racialisation of England, 1956–1968,” Race & Class 38, no. 1 (1996): 6578; Waters, Chris, “‘Dark Strangers’ in Our Midst: Discourses of Race and Nation in Britain, 1947–1963,” Journal of British Studies 36, no. 2 (1997): 207–38; Webster, Wendy, “‘There Will Always Be an England’: Representations of Colonial Wars and Immigration, 1948–1968,” Journal of British Studies 40, no. 4 (2001): 557–84; more recently, Whipple, Amy, “Revisiting the ‘Rivers of Blood’ Controversy: Letters to Enoch Powell,” Journal of British Studies 48, no. 3 (2009): 717–35.

19 Killingray, David, “‘A Good West Indian, a Good African, and, in Short, a Good Britisher’: Black and British in a Colour-Conscious Empire, 1760–1950,” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 36, no. 3 (2008): 363–81; Rush, Ann Spry, “Imperial Identity in Colonial Minds: Harold Moody and the League of Coloured Peoples, 1931–1950,” Twentieth Century British History 13, no. 4 (2002): 356–83; Collins, Marcus, “Pride and Prejudice: West Indian Men in Mid-Twentieth-Century Britain,” Journal of British Studies 40, no. 3 (2001): 391418.

20 The map reports foreign-born British West Indians based on census data. Numbers for multigenerational community size reflect census data where it is available and contemporary estimates where it is not. In cases where census data does not distinguish between British West Indians and other British subjects, or between British West Indians and other Caribbean immigrants, I have estimated likely proportions based on secondary literature and other primary sources. Clockwise from lower right: Venezuela, Ministerio de Fomento, Dirección de Estadística, Sexto Censo de Población, 1936, vol. 3 (Caracas, 1940), 540. “Position of British West Indians in Central and South American Countries,” 1932, The National Archives [henceforth TNA], Colonial Series [henceforth CO] 318/406/2. Colombia, Contraloría General de la República, Dirección del Censo, Memoria y cuadros del Censo de 1928 (Bogotá, 1930), 39. Panamá, Secretaría de Agricultura y Obras Públicas, Dirección General del Censo, 1930 Censo Demográfico, vol. 1 (Panamá, 1931), 17, 2123; “Memorandum regarding the British West Indian population on the Isthmus of Panama,” 6 December 1932, TNA, CO 318/408/3; Letter from Crosby, British Minister, Panama, 24 February 1932, TNA, CO 318/406/1; United States, Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930, Report on Outlying Territories and Possessions, 328, 334, 335. Costa Rica, Censo de Población de Costa Rica 1927, consulted at http://censos.ccp.ucr.ac.cr/. Honduras, Dirección General de Estadística, Resumen del censo general de población, levantado el 29 de junio de 1930 (Tegucigalpa, 1932), 32. Nicaragua, Censo General de 1920 (Managua, n.d.), 4. Guatemala, Ministerio de Fomento, Dirección General de Estadística, Censo de la población de la república, 1921, vol. 1 (Guatemala, 1924), 139; ibid., vol. 2, 57. Mexico, Censo de 1930, Provincias de Tamaulipas, Yucatan, Veracruz, Quintana Roo; Camposortega, Sergio, “Análisis demográfico de las corrientes migratorias a México desde finales del siglo XIX,” in Destino México. Un estudio de las migraciones asiáticas a México, siglos XIX y XX, coord. María Elena Ota Mishima (Mexico, 1997), 3637. Cuba, Comité Estatal de Estadísticas, Memorias inéditas del Censo de 1931 (Havana, 1978), 74; Cuba, Dirección General del Censo, Censo de 1943 (Havana, 1945), 888–89; Report to British Minister, Havana, from Secretary of Immigrants, regarding work through Dec. 1928 and Letter from British Minister, Havana, to Consul, Port au Prince, 27 December 1928, TNA, CO 318/394/3; Letter from British Legation, Havana, 4 April 1932, TNA, CO 318/406/1; “Extract from Cuba Annual Report for 1931,” 1932, TNA, CO 318/406/2. Haiti, “Position of British West Indians in Central and South American Countries,” 1932, TNA, CO 318/406/2. República Dominicana, Dirección General de Estadística Nacional, Sección del Censo, Población de la República Dominicana distribuida por nacionalidades. Cifras del censo nacional de 1935 (Ciudad Trujillo, 1937), 2, 5: Letter from W. Gallienne, 16 September 1929, TNA, CO 318/394/3. United States, Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930, vol. 2, 33, 70, 231, 250, 255, 257, 512. Canada, James W. St. G. Walker, The West Indians in Canada, Booklet No. 6, Canada's Ethnic Groups (Ottawa, 1984), 89. Carlton Wilson, “A Hidden History: The Black Experience in Liverpool, England, 1919–1945” (PhD diss., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1992), 202–07; Tabili, “A Homogeneous Society,” 70.

21 The United States and Cuba were the two partial exceptions to the pattern of explicit antiblack bans: in each case, draconian action against black immigrants was carried out under new restrictive legislation that did not mention the black race in particular. See Putnam, Radical Moves, 88–104; Putnam, “The Making and Unmaking of the Circum-Caribbean Migratory Sphere: Mobility, Sex across Boundaries, and Collective Destinies, 1840–1940,” in Migrants and Migration in Modern North America: Cross-Border Lives, Labor Markets, and Politics in Canada, the Caribbean, Mexico, and the United States, ed. Hoerder, Dirk and Faires, Nora (Durham, NC, 2011), 99128.

22 See Gorman, Imperial Citizenship, 19–24.

23 Minutes of Proceedings of the Imperial Conference, 1911 (London, 1911), 256, http://www.archive.org/details/1911minutesofpro00impeuoft (accessed 31 October 2013).

24 Lord Plunket, sometime governor of New Zealand, in British Citizenship: A discussion initiated by E B Sargant, and reprinted by permission from the Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute (“United Empire”) (New York, Bombay, and Calcutta, 1912), 11. http://www.archive.org/stream/britishcitizensh00sarguoft (accessed 31 October 2013). See discussion in Gorman, Imperial Citizenship, 19–24.

25 Walter Hely-Hutchinson, sometime governor of Windward Islands, Natal, and Cape Colony, in British Citizenship, 18–19.

26 Cavendish Boyle, governor of Mauritius, in British Citizenship, 20.

27 E. B. Sargant, in British Citizenship, 44.

28 E.g., “Scenes and Sights in Metropolis by Night,” Daily Gleaner, 22 September 1922, 3; “Round the Town,” (Port of Spain) Weekly Guardian, 27 March 1920, 1.

29 Letter to editors from “The Lagoon,” Central American Express, 29 September 1917, n.p.

30 “Estrada,” Searchlight, 12 April 1930, 1.

31 “Laboring West Indians of the Lagoon,” Central American Express, 30 June 1917, 3.

32 “‘The Federalist and Grenada People’ on ‘The Port of Spain Gazette,’” (Port of Spain) Daily Mirror, 1 September 1904, 2.

33 Debates in the Legislative Council of Trinidad and Tobago (Hansards), January–December 1920 (Port of Spain, 1921), 5 March 1920, 38–39.

34 Ibid., 41.

35 Fahrmier, Citizenship; Wimmer, Andreas and Schiller, Nina Glick, “Methodological Nationalism and Beyond: Nation-State Building, Migration and the Social Sciences,” Global Networks 2, no. 4 (2002): 301–34.

36 Letter from J. A. Phillips, Balboa Heights, CZ, to Mallet, 28 January 1919, TNA, Foreign Office Series 288/200.

37 “Emigration of Jamaicans to U.S. Stopped,” Daily Gleaner, 14 June 1924, 1. See Putnam, Lara, “Unspoken Exclusions: Race, Nation, and Empire in the Immigration Restrictions of the 1920s in North America and the Greater Caribbean,” in Workers Across the Americas: The Transnational Turn in Labor History, ed. Fink, Leon (New York, 2011), 267–93.

38 United States, Bureau of Immigration, Annual Report of the Commissioner General of Immigration to the Secretary of Labor for the fiscal year ended . . . June 30, 1925 (Washington, DC, 1925), 62, 151. See Putnam, Lara, “The Ties Allowed to Bind: Kinship Legalities and Migration Restriction in the Interwar Americas,” International Labor and Working-Class History 83 (Spring 2013): 191209.

39 Letter to the editor, “Unbrotherly Feelings,” Searchlight, 21 June 1930, 3.

40 E.g., “No Nationality,” Searchlight, 19 September 1931, 4.

41 See Putnam, Lara, “‘Nothing Matters But Color’: Transnational Circuits, the Interwar Caribbean, and the Black International,” in From Toussaint to Tupac: The Black International Since the Age of Revolution, ed. West, Michael O., Martin, William G., and Wilkins, Fanon Che (Chapel Hill, NC, 2009), 107–29; Putnam, “Sidney Adolphus Young,” in Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Biography, ed. Gates, Henry Louis Jr. and Knight, Franklin W. (Oxford, forthcoming); Putnam, Radical Moves, 135, 142–45, 200–02.

42 Despatch from Crosby, Panama, 28 November 1932, TNA, CO 318/408/3. See Putnam, Lara, “Eventually Alien: The Multigenerational Saga of British West Indians in Central America and Beyond, 1880–1940,” in Blacks and Blackness in Central America: Between Race and Place, ed. Gudmundson, Lowell and Wolfe, Justin (Durham, NC, 2010), 288–96.

43 Editorial, “The Future of the Boy Scouts,” Panama Tribune, 30 October 1932, 8.

44 Clifford Bolt, “Making Good Citizens,” Panama Tribune, 16 October 1932, 15. For more on scouting in interwar Panama, see Putnam, Lara, “To Study the Fragments/Whole: Microhistory and the Atlantic World,” Journal of Social History 39, no. 3 (Spring 2006): 615–30.

45 “Why Such Animosity?” Searchlight, 22 August 1931, 1.

46 See Diana Senior Angulo, “La incorporación social en Costa Rica de la población afrocostarricense durante el siglo XX, 1927–1963” (master's thesis, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2007); Putnam, “Eventually Alien,” 296–99.

47 “Unjust discrimination at Siquirres,” Searchlight, 28 June 1930, 1.

48 “Our Unemployed,” Searchlight, 8 February 1930, 4.

49 See Senior Angulo, “Incorporación social.” Dual citizenship would not be legally recognized in Costa Rica until the 1990s.

50 For instance, none of the participants in the 1912 debate over British citizenship, cited above, disputed this. See also discussion in Putnam, Radical Moves, 41–42, 147.

51 Editorial, “Their Point of View,” Daily Gleaner, 20 October 1921, 6.

52 “James Graham handed to Cuban Police and British Protection,” Searchlight, 9 August 1930, 3.

53 “British Protection,” Searchlight, 1 February 1930, 2.

54 “James Graham handed to Cuban Police and British Protection,” Searchlight, 9 August 1930, 3.

55 “West Indian Labourers in the Republics: A Practical Issue,” Daily Gleaner, 5 September 1924, 3.

56 Ibid.

57 “Why Such Animosity?” Searchlight, 22 August 1931, 1.

58 Letter to the editor, “Correspondence: The Question of Loyalty and Patriotism,” Panama American, 9 January 1927, West Indian page.

59 Ibid.

60 Ibid.

61 Sidney A. Young, “Fighting for Ourselves,” Panama Tribune, 19 July 1931, 8.

62 “Foreword,” West Indian, 1 January 1915, 2.

63 Hoyos, F. A., “Inniss and Wickham,” Our Common Heritage (Bridgetown, Barbados, 1953), 142–47; Hunte, Keith, “The Struggle for Political Democracy: Charles Duncan O'Neal and the Democratic League,” in The Empowering Impulse: The Nationalist Tradition of Barbados, ed. Howe, Glenford and Marshall, Don (Mona, Jamaica, 2001), 133–48.

64 Letter to the editor, “Some Views on Government,” Weekly Herald, 21 February 1925, 3.

65 “The Democratic League, Its Policy and Creed,” Weekly Herald, 28 March 1925, 4.

66 Letter to the editor, “Some Phases in Our Politics,” Weekly Herald, 30 May 1925, 3.

67 “The Bell Has Struck in Barbados,” West Indian, 9 February 1930, 4.

68 See also, among many, Clennell Wickham, “The Problem of the Distribution of the World's Peoples,” Weekly Herald, 14 March 1925, 4.

69 “Protest Actions of Canadians Ousting W.I. Seamen,” Panama Tribune, 23 October 1932, 3.

70 “Trinidad Protests against Venezuela Ban on West Indians,” Daily Gleaner, 14 October 1930, 10. See Putnam, Radical Moves, 206–07.

71 Basdeo, Sahadeo, “Indian Participation in Labour Politics in Trinidad, 1919–1939,” Caribbean Quarterly 32, no. 3/4 (1986): 5065; Singh, Kelvin, “Conflict and Collaboration: Tradition and Modernizing Indo-Trinidadian Elites (1917–56),” New West Indian Guide 70, no. 3/4 (1996): 229–53.

72 Petition enclosed in letter from Governor, Trinidad, to Ormsby-Gore, 15 May 1937, TNA, CO 318/425/15.

73 Prefatory note by editors of “United Empire” in British Citizenship, 8.

74 “Trinidad Protests against Venezuela Ban on West Indians,” Daily Gleaner, 14 October 1930, 10.

75 Clennell Wickham, “Here and There,” Barbados Weekly Herald, 1 June 1923, 4.

76 Gupta, Partha Sarathi, Imperialism and the British Labour Movement, 1914–1964 (New Delhi, 2002), 181–82; Wylie, Diana, “Confrontation Over Kenya: The Colonial Office and Its Critics, 1918–1940,” Journal of African History 18, no. 3 (1977): 427–47. Indian public opinion was particularly engaged in this case because of the large number of Indian immigrants threatened with disenfranchisement in Kenya.

77 “West Indian Students Protest Color Bar,” Panama Tribune, 29 December 1929, 5.

78 Moody, Harold, “Communications,” Journal of Negro History 18 (1933): 97, 98. See Killingray, “A Good Britisher,” 372.

79 “Color Prejudice in London Again Bitterly Denounced,” Panama Tribune, 4 December 1932, 3.

80 “Correspondence: Loyalty ‘Blinds’ or Spectacles,” Panama American, 21 January 1927, West Indian page.

81 Neptune, Harvey, Caliban and the Yankees: Trinidad and the United States Occupation (Chapel Hill, NC, 2007).

82 Proudfoot, Malcolm J., Population Movements in the Caribbean (Port of Spain, 1950), 17; Hahamovitch, Cindy, No Man's Land: Jamaican Guestworkers in America and the Global History of Deportable Labor (Princeton, NJ, 2011), 2285.

83 Rose, Which People's War, 245.

84 Hahamovitch, No Man's Land, 86–109.

85 Marshall, T. H., “Citizenship and Social Class,” in Sociology at the Crossroads and Other Essays (London, 1963), 67127.

86 Hansen, Citizenship and Immigration, quotes 53; see also 17, 35, et passim. See Foot, Paul, Immigration and Race in British Politics (London, 1965); Paul, Whitewashing Britain, 9–24; Karatani, Defining British Citizenship, 106–43.

87 E.g., editorial, “The Reception,” Daily Gleaner, 24 June 1948, 8; “So This Is England? High Cost of Living Shocks W.I. Job-Seekers,” Daily Gleaner, 29 June 1948, 1; “Disillusionment,” Daily Gleaner, 18 July 1948, 8.

88 Davies, Carole Boyce, Left of Karl Marx: The Political Life of Black Communist Claudia Jones (Durham, NC, 2008).

89 Salisbury (Conservative Leader of House of Lords), 1954, as quoted in Hansen, Citizenship and Immigration, 70; see also 67.

90 See Jones, Claudia, “The Caribbean Community in Britain,” in Black Society in the New World, ed. Frucht, Richard (New York, 1971), 234–47, orig. pub. Freedomways Magazine 4, no. 3 (1964); Schwarz, Bill, “‘Claudia Jones and the West Indian Gazette’: Reflections on the Emergence of Post-colonial Britain,” Twentieth Century British History 14, no. 3 (2003): 264–85.

91 Arendt, Hannah, “We Refugees,” Menorah Journal 31 (1943), reprinted in Altogether Elsewhere: Writers on Exile, ed. Robinson, Marc (Boston, 1996), 118–19.

92 See Benhabib, Seyla, “‘The Right to Have Rights’: Hannah Arendt on the Contradictions of the Nation-State,” in The Rights of Others: Aliens, Residents, and Citizens (Cambridge, 2004), 4970.

93 Arendt, Hannah, The Burden of Our Time (London, 1951), 290.

94 Ibid., 294.

95 Arendt did address racism and imperialism, in a deeply problematic way. In On Totalitarianism, she argues that late nineteenth-century colonialism birthed the virulent racism that doubled back to Europe in the form of intolerant xenophobia that undermined the (supraethnic) nation-state and, with it, the “rights of man.” She builds this argument while ignoring the long history of transatlantic imperialism, the slave trade, and attendant antiblack racism, while also naturalizing European abhorrence of “savage” Africans. See Moruzzi, Norma Claire, Speaking Through the Mask: Hannah Arendt and the Politics of Social Identity (Ithaca, NY, 2000), 86113; Gines, Kathryn, “Race-Thinking and Racism in Hannah Arendt's The Origins of Totalitarianism,” in Hannah Arendt and the Uses of History: Imperialism, Nation, Race, and Genocide, ed. King, Richard H. and Stone, Dan (Oxford, 2007), 3853.

96 Jones, “Caribbean Community,” 238; Foot, Immigration and Race.

97 Paul, Whitewashing Britain, 181–85; Karatani, Defining British Citizenship, 128–33; Huttenback, “British Empire”; Mongia, “Race, Nationality, Mobility”; Lake and Reynolds, Drawing the Global Colour Line.

98 Jones, “Caribbean Community,” 237.

99 British Citizenship, 44.

100 Rose, Which People's War, 14–15.

101 Bosniak, Linda, The Citizen and the Alien: Dilemmas of Contemporary Membership (Princeton, 2008), 116.

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