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Arthur Sidgwick's Greek Prose Composition: Gender, Affect, and Sociability in the Late-Victorian University

  • Emily Rutherford


The diaries and other papers of the Oxford classics teacher Arthur Sidgwick (1840–1920) show how men like Sidgwick used ancient Greek to demarcate the boundaries of an elite male social, emotional, and educational sphere, and how that sphere became more porous at the turn of the twentieth century through processes such as university coeducation. Progressive dons like Sidgwick stood by women's equality in principle but were troubled by the potential loss of an exceptional environment of intense friendships forged within intellectually rigorous single-sex institutions. Several aspects of Sidgwick's life and his use of Greek exemplify these tensions: his marriage, his feelings about close male friends, his life as a college fellow, his work on behalf of the Oxford Association for the Education of Women, and his children's lives and careers. The article recovers a lost world in which Greek was an active conversational language, shows how the teaching of classics and the inclusion of women were intimately connected in late-nineteenth-century Oxford, and suggests some reasons why that world endured for a certain period of time but ultimately came to an end. It offers a new way of explaining late-nineteenth-century cultural changes surrounding gender by placing education and affect firmly at their center.



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1 “χείλει φιλοῦσ’ ἥγιζεν αἰσχύνην ἐμήν,” in Arthur Sidgwick, “Diaries” (hereafter Diaries), MSS Eng. misc. e. 655–9, Bodleian Libraries (hereafter BL), 2:172.

2 Michie, Helena, Victorian Honeymoons: Journeys to the Conjugal (Cambridge, 2006), xiv, 24, 112 .

3 Ibid., 1–19; Phyllis Rose, Parallel Lives: Five Victorian Marriages (London, 1994), 59–63.

4 Whyte, William, Redbrick: A Social and Architectural History of Britain's Civic Universities (Oxford, 2015), 8 .

5 Jenkyns, Richard, The Victorians and Ancient Greece (Cambridge, MA, 1980); Turner, Frank M., The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (New Haven, 1981); Clarke, G. W., ed., Rediscovering Hellenism: The Hellenic Inheritance and the English Imagination (Cambridge, 1989); Clarke, M. L., Classical Education in Britain, 1500–1900 (Cambridge, 1959); Brink, C. O., English Classical Scholarship: Historical Reflections on Bentley, Porson, and Housman (Cambridge, 1985); Stray, Christopher, Oxford Classics: Teaching and Learning, 1800–2000 (London, 2007); idem, Curriculum and Style in the Collegiate University: Classics in Nineteenth-Century Oxbridge,History of Universities 16, no. 2 (2000): 183218 ; idem, Classics Transformed: Schools, Universities, and Society in England, 1830–1960 (Oxford, 1998); Richardson, Edmund, Classical Victorians: Scholars, Scoundrels and Generals in Pursuit of Antiquity (Cambridge, 2013); Dowling, Linda, Hellenism and Homosexuality in Victorian Oxford (Ithaca, 1997); Evangelista, Stefano, British Aestheticism and Ancient Greece: Hellenism, Reception, Gods in Exile (Basingstoke, 2010); Goldhill, Simon, Victorian Culture and Classical Antiquity: Art, Opera, Fiction, and the Proclamation of Modernity (Princeton, 2011); Ross, Iain, Oscar Wilde and Ancient Greece (Cambridge, 2013).

6 Rothblatt, Sheldon, The Revolution of the Dons: Cambridge and Society in Victorian England (Cambridge, 1968); Heyck, T. W., The Transformation of Intellectual Life in Victorian England (London, 1982); Jones, H. S., Intellect and Character in Victorian England: Mark Pattison and the Invention of the Don (Cambridge, 2007); Deslandes, Paul R., Oxbridge Men: British Masculinity and the Undergraduate Experience (Bloomington, 2005); Weber, Thomas, Our Friend “The Enemy”: Elite Education in Britain and Germany before World War I (Stanford, 2008); Joyce, Patrick, The State of Freedom: A Social History of the British State since 1800 (Cambridge, 2013), 263307 .

7 Walkowitz, Judith, City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London (Chicago, 1992); eadem, “Going Public: Shopping, Street Harassment, and Streetwalking in Late Victorian London,” Representations, no. 62 (April 1998): 1–30; Vicinus, Martha, Independent Women: Work and Community for Single Women, 1850–1920 (London, 1985); Dyhouse, Carol, No Distinction of Sex? Women in British Universities 1870–1939 (London, 1995); eadem, Students: A Gendered History (London, 2005); Sutherland, Gillian, Faith, Duty and the Power of Mind: The Cloughs and Their Circle (Cambridge, 2006); eadem, In Search of the New Woman: Middle–Class Women and Work in Britain 1870–1914 (Cambridge, 2015).

8 Marcus, Sharon, Between Women: Friendship, Desire, and Marriage in Victorian England (Princeton, 2007); Cohen, Deborah, Family Secrets: Shame and Privacy in Modern Britain (Oxford, 2013); Koven, Seth, Slumming: Sexual and Social Politics in Victorian London (Princeton, 2004); idem, The Matchgirl and the Heiress (Princeton, 2015); Russell, David J., “Teaching Tact: Matthew Arnold on Education,Raritan 32, no. 3 (Winter 2013): 122–39; idem, Aesthetic Liberalism: John Stuart Mill as Essayist,Victorian Studies 56, no. 1 (Autumn 2013): 730 .

9 Sutherland, Faith, Duty and the Power of Mind; Jones, Intellect and Character; Hilliard, Christopher, English as a Vocation: The Scrutiny Movement (Oxford, 2012).

10 Marcus, Between Women, 3, 10–14, 21–22.

11 Caine, Barbara, Destined to Be Wives: The Sisters of Beatrice Webb (Oxford, 1986), 3 .

12 Newsome, David, Godliness and Good Learning: Four Studies on a Victorian Ideal (London, 1988); Simpson, J. B. H., Rugby since Arnold: A History of Rugby School from 1842 (London, 1967); Birch, Dinah, Our Victorian Education (Oxford, 2008).

13 See, for example, Sidgwick, Arthur, “On Stimulus,” in Three Lectures on Subjects Concerned with the Practice of Education (London, 1883), 4565 ; idem, preface to Teaching as a Career for University Men, ed. Findlay, J. J. (London, 1889), v; idem, School Subjects Utilised for Moral Instruction,” in Papers on Moral Education, ed. Spiller, Gustav (London, 1909), 143–44.

14 Brock, M. G. and Curthoys, M. C., eds., The History of the University of Oxford, vol. 7, The Nineteenth Century, part 2 (Oxford, 2000) (hereafter HUO 7), see esp. chaps. 2, 10, 25. For a powerful evocation of the distinctiveness of this cultural group, see Whyte, William, “The Intellectual Aristocracy Revisited,Journal of Victorian Culture 10, no. 1 (2005): 1545 .

15 Deslandes, Oxbridge Men, 187–209.

16 Amigoni, David, Life Writing and Victorian Culture (Aldershot, 2006); Marcus, Between Women, 25–73; Millim, Anne-Marie, The Victorian Diary: Authorship and Emotional Labour (Farnham, Surrey, 2013); Moran, Joe, “Private Lives, Public Histories: The Diary in Twentieth-Century Britain,Journal of British Studies 54, no. 1 (January 2015): 138–62.

17 Cf., for example, Matthew, H. G. C., introduction to The Gladstone Diaries, vols. 3–4 (Oxford, 1974), xxiii–lvi.

18 “πρῶτον τότ’ εἶδον τὴν ἐμήν, ἥρων τ’ἰδὲν,” Sidgwick, Diaries, 2:161.

19 I have transliterated Greek key words that appear in the original in the diaries.

20 Harris, Jose, Private Lives, Public Spirit: Britain 1870–1914 (Cambridge, 1993), 9091 ; Michie, Victorian Honeymoons, 20, 112; Mason, Michael, The Making of Victorian Sexuality (Oxford, 1994), 176–78.

21 H. B. Mayor, s.v., “Wilson, James Maurice (1836–1931),” rev. M. C. Curthoys, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (hereafter ODNB) (Oxford, 2004),

22 Oxford Liberal Association, “Reports of the Executive Committee” (1888–1914), Per.G.A.Oxon. 4° 544, BL, Oxford.

23 Arthur Sidgwick, letter to Henry Sidgwick, n. d., c. December 1875, Add. Ms. c. 95, fol. 75, Trinity College, Cambridge (hereafter TC); Charlotte Sidgwick, letter to Henry Sidgwick, n. d., c. December 1875, fol. 76; Henry Sidgwick, letter to Mary Sidgwick, December 1875, Add. Ms. c. 105, fol. 19; James M. Wilson, James M. Wilson: An Autobiography (London, 1932), 238–39.

24 Charlotte Sidgwick, “Verse notebooks,” 1884–1905, MS Eng. misc. e. 1012, d. 1079, BL.

25 Sidgwick, Diaries, 2:168.

26 Michie, Victorian Honeymoons, xiv, 1–19, 24, 112; Rose, Parallel Lives, 59–63. On Minnie and Edward Benson's marriage, see Tosh, John, A Man's Place: Masculinity and the Middle-Class Home in Victorian England (New Haven, 2007), 71 ; Askwith, Betty, Two Victorian Families (London, 1971), 109, 145; Schultz, Bart, Henry Sidgwick: The Eye of the Universe. An Intellectual Biography (Cambridge, 2004), 733n30; cf. Newsome, Godliness and Good Learning, 152–53.

27 Matthew, The Gladstone Diaries, xlvi; Jenkins, Roy, Gladstone (London, 1995), 100–4; Isba, Anne, Gladstone and Women (London, 2006), 106–7; Sara Crangle, “Engagements, Accounts, Menses: The Domestic Economies of Virginia and Leonard Woolf” (lecture, Institute for Research on Women, Gender and Sexuality, Columbia University, New York, 30 March 2015).

28 Sidgwick, Diaries, 3:121, 5:83.

29 “γυμνούμενοι δὲ σώματ’ ἐς λίμνην τάχα, / συνῇσσον ἁνήρ θ’ ἥ τ’ ἐπήρατος γυνή / ὡς ἐν ῥοαῖς φύγωσι καύμαθ’ ἡλίου / χαράν τ’ ἔχωσι σωμάτων ἀμφι πτυχαῖς,” Sidgwick, Diaries, 3:103. I am grateful to Will Guast for assistance with this translation.

30 W. F. R. Hardie, Corpus Christi College, Oxford 1851–1905 ([typescript], [n. d.]), Corpus Christi College Library, 23; Elton, Oliver, “Arthur Sidgwick” [obituary], Pelican Record 15, no. 1 (January 1921): 22 ; Murray, Gilbert, “I Remember …,Listener (25 February 1954), MS Eng. misc. 706, fol. 10, BL.

31 Stray, Classics Transformed, 59, 68–74; Clarke, Classical Education in Britain; Jenkyns, The Victorians and Ancient Greece, 283–84.

32 Arthur Sidgwick, letter to Gilbert Murray, n. d., MS Gilbert Murray 168, fols. 3–6, BL; see also fols. 73, 78.

33 Sidgwick, letters to Murray, 5 March 1891, MS Gilbert Murray 168, fols. 7–8; 7 April 1893, fol. 12; 4 March 1898, fol. 30; 20 October 1902, fols. 42–43; 19 August 1904, fols. 57–58; 25 November 1908, fol. 70, BL.

34 Arthur Sidgwick, letter to Henry Sidgwick, n. d., c. December 1875, Add. Ms. c. 95, fol. 75, TC; Charlotte Sidgwick, letter to Henry Sidgwick, n. d., fol. 76.

35 Tosh, A Man's Place, 17; Hamlett, Jane, “‘Tiresome Trips Downstairs’: Middle–Class Domestic Space and Family Relationships in England, 1850–1910,” in The Politics of Domestic Authority in Britain since 1800, ed. Delap, Lucy, Griffin, Ben and Wills, Abigail (Basingstoke, 2009), 111131, at 119–120.

36 Sidgwick, Diaries, 2:45, 164, 264.

37 For a famous example see review of the first English translation of Richard von Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis, in British Medical Journal 1, no. 1695 (June 1893): 1325–1326. See also Gail Trimble, “Catullus and ‘Comment in English,’” and Morwood, J., “‘From Out the Schoolboy's Vision,’” in Expurgating the Classics: Editing Out in Greek and Latin, ed. Harrison, Stephen and Stray, Christopher (London, 2012), 143–73.

38 Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky, Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire (New York, 1985), 215 ; eadem, Epistemology of the Closet (Berkeley, 2008), 203–4; Cocks, H. G., Nameless Offences: Homosexual Desire in the Nineteenth Century (London, 2003), 23, 7; Orrells, Daniel, Classical Culture and Modern Masculinity (Oxford, 2011), 3, 2233 . For an alternative view of this system of gender and power see Marcus, Between Women, chap. 1.

39 Apostles Minute-Books, 1858–present, 39/1/5, King's College, Cambridge (hereafter KC); Sidgwick, Arthur and Sidgwick, Eleanor M., Henry Sidgwick: A Memoir (London, 1906), 2932 ; Brookfield, F. M., The Cambridge “Apostles” (London, 1906), 218 ; Lubenow, W. C., The Cambridge Apostles 1820–1914 (Cambridge, 1998), 30–34, 53–60.

40 Sidgwick and Sidgwick, Henry Sidgwick: A Memoir, 30; Deacon, Richard, The Cambridge Apostles: A History of Cambridge University's Elite Intellectual Secret Society (London, 1985), 44 .

41 Lubenow, The Cambridge Apostles, 37.

42 Moffat, Wendy, E. M. Forster: A New Life (London, 2010), 5256 ; Dixon, Thomas, The Invention of Altruism: Making Moral Meanings in Victorian Britain (Oxford, 2008), 330–31, 358–59.

43 Apostles Address Books, n. d., 39/2/1, KC. The flyleaf of vol. 2 records the annual dinner of 1884, organized by Sidgwick. See also Sidgwick, Diaries, 3:83, 100, 187, 204.

44 Lubenow, The Cambridge Apostles, 55–56. It is difficult to establish the precise date for the admission of women due to the restrictions on viewing Apostles records pertaining to living members.

45 Ibid., 69–83.

46 Schultz, Henry Sidgwick, 489.

47 Apostles Photo Book, 1864, 39/4/1, KC.

48 Kaplan, Morris, Sodom on the Thames: Sex, Love, and Scandal in Wilde Times (Ithaca, 2005), 102–6; Marcus, Between Women, 135–48; Walkowitz, City of Dreadful Delight, 153.

49 Symonds, John Addington, The Memoirs of John Addington Symonds, ed. Grosskurth, Phyllis (London, 1984), 9798, 111–15.

50 Dixon, Invention of Altruism, 356–58.

51 Moffatt, E. M. Forster, 55. Cf. Lubenow, The Cambridge Apostles, 250–355, esp. 301, 355, which skirts strangely around the explicit homoeroticism of many Apostles’ invocation of a Platonic mode of teaching.

52 For a detailed critical assessment of the literature on the invention of male homosexuality in Britain see Bristow, Joseph, “Remapping the Sites of Modern Gay History: Legal Reform, Medico–Legal Thought, Homosexual Scandal, Erotic Geography,Journal of British Studies 46, no. 1 (January 2007): 116–42.

53 Dowling, Hellenism and Homosexuality in Victorian Oxford, 114–17 and entire; Kaplan, Sodom on the Thames, 102–65; Orrells, Classical Culture and Modern Masculinity; Shuter, William, “Pater, Wilde, Douglas and the Impact of ‘Greats,’English Literature in Transition, 1880–1920, 46, no. 3 (2003): 250–58; Evangelista, Stefano, “‘Lovers and Philosophers at Once’: Aesthetic Platonism in the Victorian ‘Fin de Siècle,’Yearbook of English Studies 36, no. 2 (2006): 230–44; Rutherford, Emily, “Impossible Love and Victorian Values: J. A. Symonds and the Intellectual History of Homosexuality,Journal of the History of Ideas 75, no. 4 (October 2014): 605–27, at 606–10; Holliday, Peter, “Symonds and the Model of Ancient Greece,” in John Addington Symonds: Culture and the Demon Desire, ed. Pemble, John (Basingstoke, 2000), 81101, at 86–87; Nisbet, Gideon, Greek Epigram in Reception: J. A. Symonds, Oscar Wilde, and the Invention of Desire, 1805–1929 (Oxford, 2013), 9, 11–12. For a more politicized and populist use of Hellenic homoeroticism, see Matt Cook's account of George Ives in his London and the Culture of Homosexuality, 1885–1914 (Cambridge, 2003), 138–42.

54 Dowling, Hellenism and Homosexuality, xiii; Sinfield, Alan, The Wilde Century: Effeminacy, Oscar Wilde and the Queer Moment (London, 1994), 65, 8991 ; Dellamora, Richard, “Introduction” in Victorian Sexual Dissidence (Chicago, 1999), 120 ; Whitney Davis, Queer Beauty: Sexuality and Aesthetics from Winckelmann to Freud (New York, 2010), esp. chaps. 1, 4.

55 “ὦ παίδων κάλλιστε καὶ ἱμεροάστατε πάντων!,” Sidgwick, Diaries, 2:62; see also 2:28–106.

56 Rothblatt, Revolution of the Dons, 135; Schultz, Henry Sidgwick, 396–97, 410, 415.

57 Sidgwick, Diaries, 2:56, 159. On Symonds in this period see his Memoirs, 164–213; Grosskurth, Phyllis, The Woeful Victorian: A Biography of John Addington Symonds (New York, 1964), 128–40.

58 Schueller, H. M. and Peters, R., eds., The Letters of John Addington Symonds, 3 vols. (Detroit, 1967–69), 1:614; 666–67; Symonds, Memoirs, 200–2.

59 Sidgwick, Diaries, 2:78; Grosskurth, The Woeful Victorian, 128.

60 Orrells, Classical Culture and Modern Masculinity, 140–45.

61 Jenkyns, The Victorians and Ancient Greece; Turner, Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain; Richardson, Classical Victorians; Prins, Yopie, “Response,Victorian Studies 52, no. 1 (October 2009): 5262, at 55.

62 Stray, Oxford Classics, 10, 16, 112; W. H. Walsh, “The Zenith of Greats,” in HUO 7, 311–326; Orrells, Classical Culture and Modern Masculinity, 140–45.

63 Stray, Oxford Classics and Classics Transformed; Clarke, Classical Education; Turner, Greek Heritage, 1–14; Brink, C. O., English Classical Scholarship: Historical Reflections on Bentley, Porson, and Housman (Cambridge, 1985).

64 Sidgwick, Arthur, “The Teaching of Classics as Literature,Journal of Education 11, no. 2 (February 1889): 115–18, at 115; see also Farrar, F. W., ed., Essays on a Liberal Education (London, 1867).

65 Sidgwick, Arthur, Introduction to Greek Prose Composition, with Exercises (London, 1876); idem, A First Greek Writer (London, 1883); idem, Three Lectures on Subjects Concerned with the Practice of Education (London, 1883); idem, Form Discipline: A Lecture (London, 1886); idem, Easy Selections from Plato (London, 1888); idem, Teaching of Composition (London, 1889); idem, School Homilies, 2 vols. (London, 1915–16); and other pedagogical works.

66 Sidgwick, Introduction to Greek Prose Composition, v–vii; idem, “The Teaching of Classics as Literature.”

67 Sidgwick, Teaching of Composition, 9, 28.

68 Sidgwick, “On Stimulus,” 46.

69 Sidgwick, “School Subjects Utilised for Moral Instruction,” 144.

70 Hardie, Corpus Christi College, 73.

71 For the Pelican Essay Club poem see “ΤΕΙΡΕΣΙΑΣ ΚΟΡΠΥΝΤΙΟΣ,” Pelican Record 4, no. 4 (June 1898): 103–5.

72 Hardie, Corpus Christi College, 23.

73 Pelican Essay Club Minute Books, 1881–1914, E/5/1–4, 145, 157, Corpus Christi College, Oxford (hereafter CCC); Owlet Club Minute Books, 1889–1914, E/6/1–9, CCC, see esp. vol. 2, 97, and vol. 3, flyleaf. Sidgwick, Diaries, 3:231, notes Pelican and Owlets annual dinners on 16 and 17 June 1892.

74 E.g., Pelican Minute Books, 151; Owlet Minute Books, 53, 58–59.

75 Joyce, The State of Freedom, 330–32.

76 Pelican Minute Books, 1:151, 2:62, 71, 109.

77 Stray, Classics Transformed, 146.

78 M. C. Curthoys, “The Colleges in the New Era,” in HUO 7, 138–40.

79 Anonymous poem in Pelican Record 7, no. 1 (December 1903): 9: “In prose and verse, in Latin & in Greek, / We've one as deep in Home Rule as in Homer; / Dodona's oaks he sugars once a week; / His rooms are fragrant with bacchic aroma; / Through him the Pelican has learnt to speak— / ‘Sidgwickian Zeus’, it said; ‘tis no misnomer. / From Cambridge we appointed this divinity, / Adviser–general to the whole community”; Hardie, Corpus Christi College, 73.

80 Sidgwick, Diaries, 3:130, 272, 274, 4:102, 107, 120, 138, 5:22.

81 Sidgwick, “The Teaching of Classics as Literature”; idem, Teaching of Composition.

82 Report of the annual meeting of the Classical Association, Journal of Education 16, no. 7 (July 1904): 462–63, at 463. On Britain as classical Athens see Turner, Greek Heritage; on democracy see Hadley, Elaine, Living Liberalism: Practical Citizenship in Mid-Victorian Britain (Chicago, 2010), 67 . For contemporary reflections see Arnold, Matthew, Culture and Anarchy: An Essay in Political and Social Criticism (London, 1875); Farrar, Essays on a Liberal Education.

83 Goldman, Lawrence, Dons and Workers: Oxford and Adult Education since 1850 (Oxford, 1995); Anne Ockwell and Harold Pollins, “‘Extension’ in All Its Forms,” in HUO 7, 661–88.

84 Sidgwick, Diaries, 3:149, 175, 241. The Oxford Magazine reported the popularity of Sidgwick's Extension lectures: Oxford Magazine 4, no. 5 (24 February 1886), 71; Oxford Magazine 5, no. 2 (26 January 1887), 20. See also Journal of Education 2, no. 10 (October 1889), 506 on the Extension summer meeting.

85 “AEW Annual Report,” October 1879, AEW Records 1/1, St. Anne's College, Oxford.

86 Rogers, A. M. A. H., Degrees by Degrees: The Story of the Admission of Oxford Women Students to Membership of the University (Oxford, 1938); Brittain, Vera, The Women at Oxford: A Fragment of History (London, 1960); Vicinus, Independent Women; Janet Howarth, “‘In Oxford but not … of Oxford’: The Women's Colleges,” in HUO 7, 237–307.

87 Howarth, “The Women's Colleges”; AEW Annual Reports; Arthur Sidgwick, letter to Eleanor M. Sidgwick, 28 August 1901, Add. Ms. b. 71, fol. 12, TC; letter to Gilbert Murray, 31 December 1904, MS Gilbert Murray 168, fols. 61–62, BL; “AEW Council Minute Book,” MS. Top. Oxon. d. 1049, 44, BL.

88 Sidgwick, Diaries, 3:37ff; “Minutes of the Association for the Education of Women,” 1882–1897, MS. Top. Oxon. d. 1047, 19–20, 38–40, 47, 67, BL; review of Sidgwick's lecture on Browning to “a certain Ladies’ Association,” Oxford Magazine 9, no. 4 (5 November 1890): 59.

89 Sutherland, Faith, Duty, and the Power of Mind, 95–96; “Minutes of the AEW,” 50.

90 Sidgwick, Diaries, esp. 3:37, 73–74, 78, 90, 93, 95, 98, 115, 141, 168, 180, 212, 249, 251, 284, 289–90, 4:2–4, 73, 103, 143, 153, 5:3, 20, 40, 42, 49, 60–61, 65, 72, 91, 108.

91 Janet Howarth, “The Self–Governing University, 1882–1914,” in HUO 7, 612; Howarth, “The Women's Colleges,” 257.

92 D. J. Palmer, “English,” in HUO 7, 397; Isobel Hurst, “‘A Fleet of … Inexperienced Argonauts’: Oxford Women and the Classics, 1873–1920,” in Stray, Oxford Classics, 16–33, at 18.

93 Sidgwick, Arthur, “Women's Examinations,Oxford Magazine 2, no. 4 (13 February 1884): 6667 ; Dyhouse, No Distinction of Sex?, 18.

94 “AEW Misc. loose papers,” MS Top. Oxon. c. 817, fols. 5–6, BL. Somerville student Vera Brittain's struggle with the Responsions exam is recorded in her Testament of Youth (London, 1933), 6677, 105–112; see also The Women at Oxford, 46.

95 Ewing, R., reply to Sidgwick's “The Teaching of Classics as Literature,Journal of Education 2, vol. 6 (June 1889): 318 ; Howarth, “The Women's Colleges,” 281. The AEW's “Notebooks of the teaching given to students” record some tutors’ reports on individual students, MS Top. Oxon. e. 682–9, BL.

96 Tullberg, Rita McWilliams, Women at Cambridge (Cambridge, 1998), 4445 .

97 Arthur Sidgwick, letter to Butler, 10 March 1902, MS Eng. lett. c. 473, fols. 41–42, BL; Howarth, “The Women's Colleges,” 281; “Oxford Letter” (unsigned, but clearly attributable to Sidgwick), Journal of Education 21, no. 2 (February 1908): 121.

98 “AEW Minutes,” 50, 146.

99 Sidgwick, Arthur, “Mixed Secondary Schools: From the Point of View of an Examiner,” in Co-education: A Series of Essays by Various Authors, ed. Woods, Alice (London, 1903), 121–25, at 125.

100 Dyhouse, No Distinction of Sex?, 223–28; Howarth, “The Women's Colleges,” 277–78; Pedersen, Susan, Eleanor Rathbone and the Politics of Conscience (New Haven, 2004), 4951 ; P. Adams, s.v., “Associated Prigs (act. 1894–99),” ODNB,, accessed 10 December 2016.

101 Sidgwick, Diaries, 3:161, 4:9, 62–3, 67, 95, 97, 165.

102 “Visit of the British Educational Mission to the United States” (pamphlet), 1918, MS Eng. misc. c. 706d, 18, BL; Margery Fry, “In Memoriam. Rose Sidgwick,” 1919, MS Eng. misc. c. 706, fol. 3, BL; Muirhead, “Miss Rose Sidgwick” (typescript copy of address), 31 January 1919, MS Eng. misc. c. 706, fols. 4–7, BL.

103 Rose Sidgwick, “Diary of US trip,” Margery Fry Papers, Box 30 Folder 3, Somerville.

104 For examples see Caroline Spurgeon, “University Women and World Friendship” (typescript), September 1922, Caroline Spurgeon Papers PP7/6/3, Royal Holloway University London; Mrs. Cummings, Willoughby, “A Women's League of Nations,Montreal Listening Post (6 May 1924), Spurgeon Papers, PP7/6/5/1.

105 Gildersleeve, Virginia C., Many a Good Crusade: Memoirs of Virginia Crocheron Gildersleeve (New York, 1954), 130 ; Muirhead, “Miss Rose Sidgwick”; Fry, “In Memoriam. Rose Sidgwick”; Gildersleeve, letter to Ethel Sidgwick, 30 March 1919, MS Eng. lett. c. 471, fol. 203, BL; Ethel Sidgwick, letter to Charlotte Sidgwick, 10 December 1919, MS Eng. lett. c. 473, fol. 93; Mabel Choate, letter to Ethel Sidgwick, 30 April 1920, MS Eng. lett. c. 471, fol. 144; Gildersleeve, letter to Ethel Sidgwick, 11 February 1941, fol. 204; Gildersleeve, “For a Rose Sidgwick Memorial,” New–York Tribune, 24 March 1919, 10.

106 “Mr. Frank Sidgwick (obituary),” Times, 15 August 1939, 14; Papers of Sidgwick and Jackson, MSS Sidgwick and Jackson, 1–381, BL; A. Hugh Sidgwick, letter to Margaret Sidgwick, 29 June 1917, MS Eng. lett. c. 473, fol. 111, BL; Gilbert Murray, letter to Ethel Sidgwick, 21 July 1917, MS Gilbert Murray 168, fols. 127–28, BL.

107 Howarth, “Sidgwick, Arthur (1840–1920)”; AEW Annual Report, 1906, AEW/1/1, St. Anne's College, Oxford; Sidgwick, Diaries, 5:68; AEW Council Minute Book, 1897–1910, MS Top. Oxon. d. 1048, 53, BL; Arthur Sidgwick, letter to Ethel Sidgwick, 11 June 1907, MS Eng. lett. c. 473, fols. 43–44, BL; 12 April 1909, fols. 45–46; Rose Sidgwick, letter to Ethel Sidgwick, 13 June 1907, fols. 252–54; Johnson, R. Brimley, Some Contemporary Novelists (Women) (London, 1920); Ethel Sidgwick, letter to Gilbert Murray, 22 June 1910, MS Gilbert Murray 168, fols. 111–12; letters from Charlotte and Ethel Sidgwick to Margery Fry, Margery Fry Papers Box 2, Folders 9 and 10, Somerville College, Oxford.

108 Ethel Sidgwick, letter to Eleanor Sidgwick, 3 October 1917, MS Eng. lett. c. 473.

109 Beard, Mary, The Invention of Jane Harrison (Cambridge, MA, 2000).

110 See, for instance, a scholarly article that Housman, A. E. wrote entirely in Latin on sex in Greek and Latin poetry: “Praefanda,Hermes 66, no. 1 (January 1931): 402–12.

111 On cross-gender social interaction as a site of cultural conflict see Walkowitz, Judith, “Science, Feminism and Romance: The Men and Women's Club 1885–1889,History Workshop 21, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 3659 ; eadem, Going Public: Shopping, Street Harassment, and Streetwalking in Late Victorian London,Representations, no. 62 (Spring 1998): 130 .

112 Deslandes, Oxbridge Men, 197; Arthur Sidgwick, letter to the editor, Oxford Magazine 2, no. 7 (5 March 1884): 140.

113 Joyce, The State of Freedom, 309.

114 For a vivid evocation of this principle see Hilliard, English as a Vocation, 251–58.


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  • Emily Rutherford


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