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From Empire to Humanity: The Russian Famine and the Imperial Origins of International Humanitarianism

  • Tehila Sasson
Abstract

This article investigates the imperial origins of international humanitarianism in the British and international relief mission to Russia during the famine of 1921–1922. The famine triggered the first large-scale international humanitarian mission beyond the scope of the European and American empires. Imperial expertise and knowledge became central to the British as well as international humanitarian response to relieve hungry Russia. From international coordination to national campaigns, British politicians and voluntary aid workers relied on imperial tools and thought. The British involvement in the relief mission to Russia thus provides a fresh perspective on the development of internationalist and nationalist humanitarian projects in the interwar period and their relationship to imperial legacies. Through humanitarian aid, Britain assumed a new role on a global stage. By retooling imperial expertise, humanitarian ethics became part of a project of global governance. Furthermore, with the advice of former colonial experts, a “mixed economy” of voluntary and state aid underlay the collaboration between voluntary and international agencies throughout the famine and after. The history of famine relief provides a case study in the emergence of humanitarian governance in the twentieth century.

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1 “Briton Praises A. R. A. Relief Work: Sir Benjamin Robertson, Indian Famine Expert, Tell of Observations in Russia,” New York Times, 16 February 1922.

2 Nellie Gardner, “Russian Famine the Worst,” New York Times, 2 April 1922; The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Speech to the House of Lords, 23 February 1922, Parliamentary Debates, Lords, 5th series, vol. 49 (1922), cols. 213–31.

3 “Briton Praises A. R. A. Relief Work.”

4 Rebecca Gill, Calculating Compassion: Humanity and Relief in War, Britain 1870–1914 (Manchester, 2013).

5 See Tara Zahra, The Lost Children (Cambridge, MA, 2011), 24–46. For other relief schemes see also Tusan, Michelle, “‘Crimes against Humanity’: Human Rights, the British Empire, and the Origins of the Response to the Armenian Genocide,” American Historical Review 119, no. 1 (February 2014): 4777. For earlier relief missions in Russia and China on a much smaller scale see Richard G. Robbins, Famine in Russia, 1891–1892: The Imperial Government Responds to a Crisis (London, 1975), 175; Cormac Ó Gráda, Famine: A Short History (Oxford, 2009), 23; Fuller, Pierre, “Decentering International and Institutional Famine Relief in Late Nineteenth-Century China: In Search of the Local,” European Review of History: Revue Européenne D'histoire 22, no. 6 (November 2015): 873–89.

6 Serguie Adamets, “Famine in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Russia: Mortality by Age, Cause, and Gender,” in Famine Demography: Perspectives from the Past and Present, ed. Tim Dyson and Cormac Ó Gráda (New York, 2002), 157–80.

7 Ó Gráda, Famine, 223.

8 See Bruno Cabanes, The Great War and the Origins of Humanitarianism, 1918–1924 (Cambridge, 2014).

9 At the peak of the relief mission, the American Relief Administration had handled 800,000 tons of cereals, milk, and other foods; medical supplies; and clothing, and mobilized resources worth $60 million. Ó Gráda, Famine, 223. The history of the relief efforts has largely been told through the lens of the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union; see David C. Engerman, Modernization from the Other Shore: American Intellectuals and the Romance of Russian Development (Cambridge, MA, 2003); Benjamin M. Weissman, Herbert Hoover and Famine Relief to Soviet Russia, 1921–1923 (Stanford, 1974); Bertrand M. Patenaude, The Big Show in Bololand: The American Relief Expedition to Soviet Russia in the Famine of 1921 (Stanford, 2002); Merle Curti, American Philanthropy Abroad (New Brunswick, 1988), 279–93; and Emily S. Rosenberg, “Missions to the World: Philanthropy Abroad,” in Charity, Philanthropy, and Civility in American History, ed. Lawrence J. Friedman and Mark D. McGarvie (Cambridge, 2003), 241–58.

10 Didier Fassin, Humanitarian Reason: A Moral History of the Present (Berkeley, 2011), 1–21.

11 Susan Pedersen, The Guardians: The League of Nations and the Crisis of Empire (Oxford, 2015); Mark Mazower, Governing the World: The History of an Idea (New York, 2012), 119–53; idem, An International Civilization? Empire, Internationalism and the Crisis of the Mid-Twentieth Century,” International Affairs 82, no. 3 (May 2006): 553–66; Glenda Sluga, Internationalism in the Age of Nationalism (Philadelphia, 2013); Patricia Clavin, Securing the World Economy: The Reinvention of the League of Nations, 1920–1946 (Oxford, 2013); Frank Trentmann, “After the Nation-State: Citizenship, Empire and Global Coordination in the New Internationalism, 1914–1930,” in Beyond Sovereignty: Britain, Empire and Transnationalism, c. 1880–1950, ed. Philippa Levine, Frank Trentmann, and Kevin Grant (Basingstoke, 2007).

12 See Michael Barnett, Empire of Humanity: A History of Humanitarianism (Ithaca, 2011); Skinner, Rob and Lester, Alan, “Humanitarianism and Empire: New Research Agendas,” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 40, no. 5 (December 2012): 729–47; Baughan, Emily, “The Imperial War Relief Fund and the All British Appeal: Commonwealth, Conflict and Conservatism within the British Humanitarian Movement, 1920–25,” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 40, no. 5 (December 2012): 845–61; Ellen Boucher, “Cultivating Internationalism: Save the Children Fund, Public Opinion, and the Meaning of Child Relief, 1919–24,” in Brave New World: Imperial and Democratic Nation-Building in Britain between the Wars, ed. Laura Beers and Geraint Thomas (London, 2012), 169–88; Ellen Boucher, Empire's Children: Child Emigration, Welfare, and the Decline of the British World, 1869–1967 (Cambridge, 2014); Alan Lester and Fae Dussart, Colonization and the Origins of Humanitarian Governance: Protecting Aborigines across the Nineteenth-Century British Empire (Cambridge, 2014); Hilton, Matthew, “Ken Loach and the Save the Children Film: Humanitarianism, Imperialism, and the Changing Role of Charity in Postwar Britain,” Journal of Modern History 87, no. 2 (June 2015): 357–94; Keith David Watenpaugh, Bread from Stones: The Middle East and the Making of Modern Humanitarianism (Berkeley, 2015).

13 Timothy Mitchell, Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity (Berkeley, 2002). Consider also the work of James Scott in this context, in James C. Scott, Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven, 1998).

14 Helen Tilley, Africa as a Living Laboratory: Empire, Development, and the Problem of Scientific Knowledge, 1870–1950 (Chicago, 2011); Joseph Hodge, Triumph of the Expert: Agrarian Doctrines of Development and the Legacies of British Colonialism (Athens, OH, 2007).

15 See also Tehila Sasson, “Milking the Third World? Humanitarianism, Capitalism and the Nestle Boycott,” American Historical Review (forthcoming).

16 EJ 198/A410, Save the Children Funds Archives (hereafter SCFA).

17 For how the Russian Central Executive Committee and the Eighth All-Russian Congress of Soviets rejected an elaborate relief see Edmondson, Charles M., “The Politics of Hunger: The Soviet Response to Famine, 1921,” Soviet Studies 29, no. 4 (October 1977): 506–18.

18 Lord Emmott, Speech to the House of Lords, 23 February 1922, Parliamentary Debates, cols. 213–31.

19 “Russia Appeal Letter,” 1921, EJ 981, SCFA; B. M. Weismann, Herbert Hoover and Famine Relief to Soviet Russia, 1921–1923 (Stanford, 1974), 71.

20 “Allies to Co-Operate for Russian Relief,” New York Times, 11 August 1921.

21 Quoted in “Russian Children at Death's Door,” Glasgow Herald, 31 December 1921.

22 Stephen White, The Origins of Detente: The Genoa Conference and Soviet-Western Relations, 1921–1922 (Cambridge, 2002), 32.

23 “How to Help in the Russian Famine,” Spectator, 16 September 1921.

24 On the history of the famine code, see James Vernon, Hunger: A Modern History (Cambridge, 2007); Hari Shanker Srivastava, The History of Indian Famines and the Development of Indian Famine Policy, 1858–1918 (Agra, 1968); Mike Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World (London, 2002); and Aidan Forth, Barbed Wire Imperialism: Britain's Empire of Camps, 1876–1903 (Berkeley, forthcoming). On humanitarianism and empire see also Kevin Grant, A Civilised Savagery: Britain and the New Slaveries in Africa, 1884–1926 (New York, 2005), and Richard Sheldon, “Development, Poverty and Famines: The Record of British Empire,” in Development and Colonialism: The Past in the Present, ed. Mark Duffield and Vernon Hewitt (Oxford, 2009).

25 Carl Schmitt, Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty (Cambridge, MA, 1985); Giorgio Agamben, Homo Sacer (Stanford, 1998); Ernesto Laclau, “Bare Life or Social Indeterminacy,” in Giorgio Agamben: Sovereignty and Life, ed. Matthew Calarco and Steven DeCaroli (Stanford, 2007), 11–22.

26 Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts, 162–75, at 164.

27 “Allies to Co-operate for Russian Relief.” See also National “Hands off Russia” Committee, Russian Famine: Mr. Hoover's Sinister Role in Hungary (London, 1921).

28 Anthony MacDonnell, Speech to the House of Lords, 11 August 1921, Parliamentary Debates, cols. 505–16.

29 Ibid.

30 On these contradictions in the Indian famine camps see Forth, Barbed Wire Imperialism.

31 Lord Asquith, Question to the House of Lords, 11 August 1921, Parliamentary Debates, cols. 505–16.

32 Lynn McDonald, Florence Nightingale at First Hand: Vision, Power, Legacy (London, 2010), 166. On infectious diseases and colonial medicine, see David Arnold, Colonizing the Body: State Medicine and Epidemic Disease in Nineteenth-Century India (Berkeley, 1993); Mark Harrison, Public Health in British India: Anglo-Indian Preventive Medicine, 1859–1914 (Cambridge, 1994); Mark Harrison, “A Question of Locality: The Identity of Cholera in British India, 1860–1890,” in Warm Climates and Western Medicine: The Emergence of Tropical Medicine, 1500–1900, ed. David Arnold (Amsterdam, 1996), 133–59; Watts, Sheldon, “From Rapid Change to Stasis: Official Responses to Cholera in British-Ruled India and Egypt 1860 to c. 1921,” Journal of World History 12, no. 2 (Fall 2001): 321–74.

33 The National Archives (hereafter TNA), CAB 23/26/22, “Conclusions of a Meeting of the Cabinet,” 15 August 1921.

34 TNA, FO 9440/8614/38, Esmond Ovey on Behalf of Lord Curzon to Lieutenant Colonel J. Ward, 18 August 1921.

35 Ibid.

36 TNA, CAB 24/127/86 “Report on International Commission on the Russian Famine”; TNA, CAB 24/128/20, “The Russian Famine.”

37 Harold Henry Fisher, The Famine in Soviet Russia, 1919–1923: The Operations of The American Relief Administration (London, 1927), 67.

38 Claude Hill, India: Step-Mother (Delhi, 1929), 115–19, at 117.

39 Ibid.

40 “Starvation in Russia First Conference (Red Cross),” 15 August 1921, C1382/R/304/1/C, League of Nations Archive (hereafter LNA).

41 Ibid.

42 On famine wanderers see Forth, Barbed Wire Imperialism.

43 “Starvation in Russia First Conference (Red Cross),” 15 August 1921, C1382/R/304/1/C, LNA.

44 Ibid.

45 Vernon, James, “The Ethics of Hunger and the Assembly of Society: The Techno-Politics of the School Meal in Modern Britain,” American Historical Review 110, no. 3 (June 2005): 693725.

46 Ibid.

47 See also BEVERIDGE/7/90/3–4, London School of Economics Archive (hereafter LSEA).

48 Quoted in “How to Help.”

49 “Starvation in Russia 2nd conference (Red Cross),” C1382/R/304/3, LNA; “Starvation in Russia First Conference (Red Cross), Decisions and Resolutions,” C1382/R/304/1/B, LNA; “Starvation in Russia. 2nd Conference, Repository Documents,” C1382/R/304/2/A, LNA.

50 “Famine in Russia,” R1754/47/19846/19810, LNA.

51 John Darwin, “A Third British Empire? The Dominion Idea in Imperial Politics,” in The Oxford History of the British Empire, vol. 4, The Twentieth Century, ed. Judith Brown and W. Roger Louis (New York, 1999); John Darwin, The Empire Project (Cambridge, 2009). See also Mrinalini Sinha, “Whatever Happened to the Third British Empire? Empire, Nation Redux,” in Writing Imperial Histories, ed. Andrew S. Thompson (Manchester, 2013), and Duncan Bell, The Idea of Greater Britain: Empire and the Future of World Order, 1860–1900 (Princeton, 2007).

52 “The Russian Famine,” Spectator, 12 August 1921.

53 Ibid.

54 Baughan, “The Imperial War Relief Fund and the All British Appeal.”

55 I use “mostly” because some of the students affiliated to the work of the IWRF volunteered on the ground in the Saratov area to provide aid and assist the various societies in administering their relief. For more details see BEVERIDGE/7/90/4, LSEA.

56 DF 1004/ 746, “What is the IWRF?,” Appeal leaflet, British Museum Archives (hereafter BMA).

57 TNA, T161/164 15175/1, Governor General of Canada to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, 3 February 1922. See also examples in R815/12B/5030/4479/4-8, LNA; R815/12B/4664/4479/5, LNA; TNA, CO 323/881/32; TNA, CAB 23/26/23.

58 TNA, CO 323/881, Letter by James Roll, the Mayor of London, to the Dominions and India, 16 August 1921. See also the Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, Speech to the House of Lords, 23 February 1922, Parliamentary Debates, cols. 213–31.

59 Lord Emmott, Speech to the House of Lords, 11 August 1921, Parliamentary Debates, cols. 505–16.

60 Correspondent, “Russian Famine,” Daily Telegraph, 25 July 1922.

61 For histories of Save the Children see Emily Baughan, Saving the Children: Humanitarianism, Internationalism and Empire, c. 1918–1970 (Berkeley, forthcoming); Boucher, “Cultivating Internationalism”; Hilton, “Ken Loach and the Save the Children Film”; Linda Mahood, Feminism and Voluntary Action: Eglantyne Jebb and Save the Children, 1876–1928 (New York, 2009); Edward Fuller, The Right of the Child (Boston, 1951).

62 BEVERIDGE/7/90/5, “Annual Report,” 1924, Save the Children Funds, LSEA.

63 Quote in Dorothy Buxton and Edward Fuller, The White Flame: The Story of the Save the Children Fund (London, 1931), 29. See also Edward Fuller, “Canada and the Children: How the Dominion Heard the Cry from Russia,” World's Children (December 1921): 261. As Lord Weardale, a Liberal politician and the chairman of the British Save the Children admitted, “we are meeting with a splendid response from all parts of the Empire, and Canada in a way peculiarly her own.” Lord Weardale to C. A. Bowman as reprinted in Ottawa Citizen, 18 January 1923, 2.

64 See Colonel Herbert J. Mackie quoted in Save the Children Fund “Christmas Appeal—Appalling Horror of Russian Famine,” Ottawa Citizen, 22 December 1921, 18; C. A. Bowman, Ottawa Citizen, December 1921; idem, “Opportunity to Save Lives,” Ottawa Citizen, 6 February 1922; “‘Save The Children’ Fund's Organization,” Monetary Times, 26 May 1922.

65 Aloysius Balawyder, Canadian-Soviet Relations between the World Wars (Toronto, 1972), 52.

66 Save the Children was also later endorsed by Lord Curzon EJ 197/410, Curzon to Weardale, 23 November 1921, SCFA; “Money for Russia: Lord Curzon and the Save the Children Fund,” Daily Express, 25 November 1921; “Money for Russia: Lord Curzon and the Save the Children Fund,” Daily Express, 26 November 1921.

67 The Russian Liberation Committee, The Famine (London, 1922).

68 “The Russian Famine,” Spectator, 16 September 1921; “The Russian Famine: Moment Ill-Chosen to Appeal for Fund,” Daily Express, 17 November 1921; “Folly of Feeding Russia: All Our Resources Are Needed at Home,” Daily Express, 19 November 1921; “The Other Famine,” Daily Express, 23 November 1921; “The Famine within Our Gates: Cornwall Suffers while Russia Benefits,” Daily Express, 23 November 1921; “Feeding the Red Guards: Truth about Russian Famine Relief at Last,” Daily Express, 9 December 1921.

69 See also Boucher, “Cultivating Internationalism”; Mahood, Linda and Satzewich, Vic, “The Save the Children Fund and the Russian Famine of 1921–23: Claims and Counter-Claims about Feeding Bolshevik Children,” Journal of Historical Sociology 22, no. 1 (March 2009): 5583.

70 On humanitarian narratives and the mobilization of empathy see Thomas Laqueur, “Body, Detail, and the Humanitarian Narrative,” in New Cultural History, ed. Lynn Hunt (Berkeley, 1989), 176–204.

71 For example, see “The Russian Famine: Moment Ill-Chosen to Appeal for Fund”; “Save the Children in Russia: Huge Sum for a Dubious Famine,” Daily Express, 18 November 1921; “The Famine within Our Gates”; “Feeding the Red Guards.”

72 On the history of humanitarian films see Michelle Tusan, “Genocide, Famine and Refugees on Film: Humanitarianism and the Great War,” unpublished paper. On humanitarian imagery more generally see Twomey, Christina, “Framing Atrocity: Photography and Humanitarianism,” History of Photography 36, no. 3 (August 2012): 255–64; and Heide Fehrenbach and Davide Rodogno, eds., Humanitarian Photography: A History (New York, 2015).

73 Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts, 25–176. For the story of the metropole see Seth Koven, Slumming: Sexual and Social Politics in Victorian London (Princeton, 2004). On the creation of a Visual Instruction Committee in 1902, see Vernon, Hunger, 33–38.

74 In that respect humanitarian films should be considered as part of the history and development of humanitarian forensic science. On forensics, see Thomas Keenan, Fables of Responsibility: Aberrations and Predicaments in Ethics and Politics (Stanford, 1997); Georges Didi-Huberman and J. M. Charcot, Invention of Hysteria: Charcot and the Photographic Iconography of the Salpêtrière (Cambridge, MA, 2003); Ludmilla Jordanova, The Look of the Past: Visual and Material Evidence in Historical Practice (Cambridge, 2012); and Thomas Keenan, Eyal Weizman, and Portikus (Gallery), Mengele's Skull: The Advent of a Forensic Aesthetics (Berlin, 2012).

75 Later in the year Mewes was also sent back to Russia. In Council Minutes M1/2, 1921, SCFA.

76 See discussion in EJ 198/410, SCFA. The film raised over £6,000 from showings. Breen, Rodney, “Saving Enemy Children—Save the Children's Russian Relief Organization, 1921–1923,” Disasters 18, no. 1 (September 1994): 221–37.

77 Thomas Laqueur, “Mourning, Pity, and the Work of Narrative in the Making of Humanity,” in Humanitarianism and Suffering: The Mobilization of Empathy, ed. Richard Ashby Wilson and Richard D. Brown (Cambridge, 2008), 31–57.

78 Fisher, Herbert, Speech to the House of Commons, 17 March 1922, Parliamentary Debates, Commons, 5th series, vol. 151 (1922), cols. 2545–626.

79 Donald Maclean, Speech to the House of Commons, 17 March 1922, Parliamentary Debates, Commons, cols. 2545–626. Similar claims were made by Gilbert Murray, “The European Famine,” Contemporary Review, 1 January 1919. See also Michael Asquith, Famine: Quaker Work in Russia 1921–23 (London, 1943).

80 Cecil, Lord Robert, Speech to the House of Commons, 9 March 1922, Parliamentary Debates, Lords, 5th series, vol. 151 (1922), cols. 1462–65.

81 Gardner, “Russian Famine the Worst”; the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Speech to the House of Lords, 23 February 1922, Parliamentary Debates, cols. 213–31.

82 Lord Curzon, Speech to the House of Lords, 23 February 1922, Parliamentary Debates, cols. 213–31.

83 The Imperial War Relief Fund in fact was searching for a British commissioner and had been in touch with Robertson since November 1921. See “The Imperial War Relief Fund,” Russian Life, November 1921, 88/11, Hoover Archives (hereafter HA). Similarly, the Americans have been in touch with Robertson since that month as exemplified in the letter from Mowatt M. Mitchell, the American Relief Administration European Children Fund to Sir Benjamin Robertson, 21 November 1921, 88/11, HA.

84 See “Briton Praises A. R. A. Relief Work.”

85 Thus Robertson joined some of the proponents in Britain who saw in the relief mission an economic necessity, not only a humanitarian one. H. N. Brailsford from the Imperial War Relief Fund to William Beveridge on 27 February 1922, BEVERIDGE/7/90/4, LSEA.

86 According to the Robertson report, only around 0.5 percent of the British flour sent to Saratov was stolen. Ibid.

87 Benjamin Robertson, “Notes from Russian Visit,” February 1922, EJ198, SCFA.

88 “Briton Praises A. R. A. Relief Work.”

89 Thus Robertson joined some of the proponents in Britain who saw in the relief mission an economic necessity and not only a humanitarian one. H. N. Brailsford from the Imperial War Relief Fund to William Beveridge, 27 February 1922, BEVERIDGE/7/90/4, LSEA.

90 Wasyl Veryha, A Case Study of Genocide in the Ukrainian Famine of 1921–1923: Famine as Weapon (Lewiston, 2007); Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (Toronto, 1987). See also Benjamin Robertson, The Famine in Russia: Report (London, 1922); See also Press Release, All-British Appeal, undated c. March 1922, 88/11, HA.

91 See C. J. C. Quinn of the American Relief Administration to the London Headquarters, 11 March 1922, reporting on the Save the Children's relief plan and using the charity's data for the American Relief Administration's relief work in 88/11, HA; D. B. Kinne, district supervisor American Relief Administration to the American Relief Administration director in Moscow, 4 March 1922, 88/11, HA.

92 “Opinion de Sir Benjamin Robertson Sur l'Oeuvre de l'U. I. S. E. en Russie,” L'Union Internationale de Secours aux Enfants, Troisième Année, 5–6, 29–28 February 1922.

93 Robertson, “Notes from Russian Visit.”

94 Fisher, The Famine in Soviet Russia, 103.

95 For the science of nutrition in this period see Vernon, Hunger. See also Cullather, Nick, “The Foreign Policy of the Calorie,” American Historical Review 112, no. 2 (April 2007): 337–64.

96 Correspondent, “Russian Famine.” See also the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Speech to the House of Lords, 23 February 1922.

97 Correspondent, “The Russian Famine.”

98 Save the Children was at first reluctant to join but toward March 1922 became part of the appeal. Council Minutes, 3 March 1922, M1/2, SCFA; “Russian Famine Relief. British Societies to Combine,” Times, 1 March 1922.

99 In a speech he gave in Liverpool on 25 February, Robertson declared that the British mission would have supplies until April that year. He announced that the All-British Appeal would need an additional sum of five hundred thousand pounds. See Benjamin Robertson, Notes from Speech, 25 February 1922, 88/11, HA.

100 TNA, To the Chancellor of the Exchequer (undated, c. November 1921), G. Barton to Montgomery, 16 December 1921, T161/164 15175/1; House of Commons, Oral Answers to Questions, 9 November 1921, Parliamentary Debates, Commons, 5th series, vol. 148 (1921), cols. 393–96.

101 Supply Committee, House of Commons, 17 March 1922, Parliamentary Debates, Commons, 5th series, vol. 151 (1922), cols. 2545–626.

102 House of Commons, Oral Answers to Questions, Russia (Famine Relief),” 16 February 1922, Parliamentary Debates, Commons, 5th series, vol. 150 (1922), cols. 1203–4; House of Commons, Oral Answers to Questions, 9 November 1921.

103 Fisher, The Famine in Soviet Russia, 103.

104 Walter Brown to William Haskell, 28 February 1922, 88/11, HA.

105 See G. I. Gay of the ARA to Robertson, 14 February 1922, 88/11, HA; Brown to Haskell, 14 March 1922, 88/11, HA; Walter Lyman Brown to Benjamin Robertson, 16 April 1922, 88/11, HA; Mowatt M. Mitchell of the American Relief Administration to Benjamin Robertson, 20 July 1922, 88/11, HA.

106 Correspondent, “The Russian Famine.”

107 Robertson to the Times, 1 January 1923.

108 Mowatt M. Mitchell of the American Relief Administration to Benjamin Robertson, 17 July 1922, 88/11, HA.

109 Asquith, Famine.

110 Melville Mackenzie, a Quaker doctor working on the Russian famine in 1922, joined the League of Nations in 1928 and in 1944 became the chairman of the European Health Committee of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. See Mackenzie, Melville D., “Some Practical Considerations in the Control of Louse-borne Typhus Fever in Great Britain in the Light of Experience in Russia, Poland, Rumania and China,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 35, no. 2 (December 1941): 141–56.

111 Fassin, Humanitarian Reason, 1–21.

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