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Land of Opportunity? The Assimilation of Scottish Migrants in England, 1603–ca. 1762

  • Keith M. Brown and Allan Kennedy

Immigration and its consequences is one of the most contentious issues in the contemporary world, and historians are engaged in this debate by offering a longer-term perspective. In recent years, research on the United Kingdom's population has placed greater emphasis on population movement in shaping Britain's story, identifying waves of migrants from elsewhere alongside migration within Britain. One neglected aspect of this narrative, however, is the migration of Scots to England, particularly in the age of the regal and parliamentary union, when the changing political relationship between the two kingdoms had an impact on the scale, geographic spread, and opportunities and obstacles of that migration. While a minority of Scottish migrants were unwelcome, or chose to return home, the overwhelming weight of evidence is for those migrants who remained in England. The focus in this article is on that majority group for whom migration was a positive experience, thus raising questions about why these Scots were so successful and why they faced so little native opposition. That process of segmented assimilation offers an insight into the formation of Britain and the shifting ground of national identity associated with the emerging British state. The Scots, moreover, provide a model for “successful” migration, suggesting that a range of factors—principally, an educated, culturally malleable, and economically responsive migrant population, alongside an institutionally and attitudinally flexible host community—need to be in place in order to optimize the chances of migrant assimilation.

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The authors thank Professor Hannah Barker, University of Manchester; Professor Alice Bloch, University of Manchester; Professor Mike Braddick, University of Sheffield; Dr. Andrew Mackillop, University of Glasgow; and the anonymous referees for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this paper.

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1 Boswell, James, Boswell's London Journal, 1762–1763, ed. Pottle, Frederick A. (Edinburgh, 1991), 294.

2 Although there were some indications of academic interest in Scottish diaspora studies in the 1960s, the historiography began to expand in the 1980s and has since built on the work of such scholars as T. M. Devine, Eric Richards, Marjory Harper, Steve Murdoch, Tanja Bueltmann, and many others. For a useful overview of the topic and its associated literature, albeit devoid of theoretical framing, see Devine, T. M., Scotland's Empire, 1600–1815 (London, 2003).

3 Grosjean, Alexia and Murdoch, Steve, eds., Scottish Communities Abroad in the Early Modern Period (Leiden, 2005).

4 Pooley, Colin and Turnbull, Jean, Migration and Mobility in Britain since the 18th Century (London, 1998), 319–20.

5 Anderson, Michael, “The Demographic Factor,” in The Oxford Handbook of Modern Scottish History, ed. Devine, T. M. and Wormald, Jenny (Oxford, 2014), 3961, at 39–44.

6 Smout, T. C., Landsman, Ned, and Devine, T. M., “Scottish Emigration in the C17th and C18th,” in Europeans on the Move: Studies in European Migration, 1500–1800, ed. Canny, Nicholas (Oxford, 1994), 76112.

7 Lovett, A. A., Whyte, I. D., and Whyte, K. A., “Poisson Regression Analysis and Migration Fields: The Example of the Apprenticeship Records of Edinburgh in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries,” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, n.s. 10, no. 3 (1985): 317–32.

8 Mitchell, Sebastian, Visions of Britain, 1730–1830: Anglo-Scottish Writings and Representation (Basingstoke, 2013), 55.

9 Murdoch, Steve, “Scotland, Europe and the English ‘Missing Link,’History Compass 5, no. 3 (May 2007): 890913. Categorization might be one explanation for this oversight, since Scottish settlement in England might be viewed as internal movement and therefore qualitatively different from international migration. See, for example, Poston, Dudley L. and Bouvier, Leon F., Population and Society: An Introduction to Demography (Cambridge, 2010), 166. Scotland's “near diaspora” is rather better understood for the modern period; see Bueltmann, Tanja, Hinson, Andrew, and Morton, Graeme, The Scottish Diaspora (Edinburgh, 2013), 153–70.

10 See, for example, Vigne, Randolph and Littleton, Charles, eds., From Strangers to Citizens: The Integration of Immigrant Communities in Britain, Ireland and Colonial America, 1550–1750 (Brighton, 2001); Goose, Nigel and Luu, Liên Bich, eds., Immigrants in Tudor and Early Stuart England (Brighton, 2005); Luu, Liên Bich, Immigrants and the Industries of London, 1500–1700 (Aldershot, 2005).

11 Brown, Keith M., “Aristocracy, Anglicization and the Court, 1603–38,” Historical Journal 36, no. 3 (September 1993): 534–76; Brown, Keith M., “The Origins of a British Aristocracy: Integration and Its Limitations before the Treaty of Union,” in Conquest and Union: Fashioning a British State, 1485–1725, ed. Ellis, Steven G. and Barber, Sarah (London, 1995), 222–49; Smout, Landsman, and Devine, “Scottish Emigration,” 88–90; Langford, Paul, “South Britons’ Reception of North Britons, 1707–1820,” in Anglo-Scottish Relations from 1603 to 1900, ed. Smout, T. C. (Oxford, 2005), 144–69.

12 There was, of course, an established tradition of Scottish migration to England during the Middle Ages, which took place within a context of cross-border hostility. See Galloway, James A. and Murray, Ian, “Scottish Migration to England, 1400–1560,” Scottish Geographical Magazine 112, no. 1 (March 1996): 2938; Thomson, J. A. F., “Scots in England in the Fifteenth Century,” Scottish Historical Review 79, no. 1 (April 2000): 116.

13 Levack, Brian P., Formation of the British State: England, Scotland and the Union, 1603–1707 (Oxford, 1987); Galloway, Bruce, The Union of England and Scotland, 1603–1608 (Edinburgh, 1986); Macinnes, Allan I., Union and Empire: The Making of the United Kingdom in 1707 (Cambridge, 2007); Devine, Scotland's Empire.

14 See, for example, Nenadic, Stana, ed., Scots in London in the Eighteenth Century (Lewisburg, 2010); Andrew Burn, “Work and Society in Newcastle upon Tyne, c. 1600–1710” (PhD diss., University of Durham, 2014), chap. 3.

15 Portes, Alejandro and Zhou, Min, “The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 530 (November 1993): 7496; Zhou, Min, “Segmented Assimilation: Issues, Controversies, and Recent Research on the New Second Generation,” International Migration Review 31, no. 4 (December 1997): 9751008.

16 Keith M. Brown, Allan Kennedy, and Siobhan Talbott, “‘Scots and Scabs from North-by-Tweed’: Undesirable Scottish Migrants in Seventeenth- and Early Eighteenth-Century England,” working paper.

17 Nigel Goose, “Immigrants in Tudor and Early Stuart England,” in Goose and Luu, Immigrants in Tudor and Early Stuart England, 17–29.

18 Murdoch, Steve and Grosjean, Alexia, Alexander Leslie and the Scottish General of the Thirty Years War, 1618–1648 (London, 2014), 100.

19 Berwick Enrolments, BAA/B6/1-4, Berwick Record Office (hereafter BRO).

20 Berwick Enrolments, BBA/B6/1, fols. 343r, 366r, BRO.

21 Incorporation of Hammermen of Edinburgh Minute Books, ED008/1/2, Edinburgh City Archives.

22 Wrightson, Keith, “Kindred and Adjoining Kingdoms: An English Perspective on the Social and Economic History of Early Modern Scotland,” in Scottish Society, 1500–1800, ed. Houston, R. A. and Whyte, I. D. (Cambridge, 1989), 245–60.

23 Burn, “Work and Society in Newcastle upon Tyne,” chap. 3.

24 Smout, Landsman, and Devine, “Scottish Emigration,” 88–89. Unsurprisingly, these individuals have not been captured in our dataset, as they left no record.

25 Quoted in Fewster, Joseph M., The Keelmen of Tyneside: Labour Organisation and Conflict in the North-East Coal Industry, 1600–1830 (Woodbridge, 2011), 34.

26 Edinburgh Commissary Court, CC8/8/108/417, National Records of Scotland (hereafter NRS).

27 Dench, Susan, ed., Index to the Wills Proved in the Consistory Court of Carlisle, 1661–1750 (London, 1998), 183, 189.

28 Hamilton, Douglas J., Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic World, 1750–1820 (Manchester, 2005), 195216.

29 Axon, E., ed., The Registers of the Cathedral Church of Manchester: Christenings, Burials, and Weddings, 3 vols. (Cambridge, 1908–1949), 2:184, 206, 608, 617.

30 Wrigley, E. A., “A Simple Model of London's Importance in Changing English Society and Economy,” Past and Present 37, no 1 (July 1967): 4163; Patten, John, English Towns, 1500–1700 (Folkestone, 1978), 235–36.

31 Rogers, Charles, “Memoir and Poems of Sir Robert Aytoun,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 1 (1872): 110.

32 Wareing, John, “Migration to London and Transatlantic Emigration of Indentured Servants, 1683–1775,” Journal of Historical Geography 7, no. 4 (October 1981): 356–78, at 373; White, Jerry, London in the Eighteenth Century: A Great and Monstrous Thing (London, 2012), 90.

33 Wrigley, “Simple Model.” See also Harding, Vanessa, “The Population of London, 1550–1700: A Review of the Published Evidence,” London Journal 15, no. 2 (1990): 111–28.

34 White, London in the Eighteenth Century, 94–99.

35 Lee, Everett S., “A Theory of Migration,” in Migration, ed. Jackson, J. A. (Cambridge, 1969), 282–97; Harris, John R. and Todaro, Michael P., “Migration, Unemployment and Development: A Two-Sector Analysis,” American Economic Review 60, no. 1 (1970): 126–42; Grigg, D. B., “E. G. Ravenstein and the ‘Laws of Migration,’Journal of Historical Geography 3, no. 1 (January 1977): 4154.

36 Smout, Landsman, and Devine, “Scottish Emigration.”

37 Cullen, Karen, Famine in Scotland: The ‘Ill Years’ of the 1690s (Edinburgh, 2010), 172–73.

38 Chatterji, Joya, “Disposition and Destinations: Refugee Agency and ‘Mobility Capital’ in the Bengal Diaspora, 1947–2007,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 55, no. 2 (April 2013): 273304, at 279.

39 Brown, “Aristocracy, Anglicization and the Court”; Brown, “Origins of a British Aristocracy,” 247–49; Shaw, John S., The Management of Scottish Society, 1707–1764: Power, Nobles, Lawyers, Edinburgh Agents and English Influences (Edinburgh, 1983).

40 Rothschild, Emma, The Inner Life of Empires: An Eighteenth-Century History (Princeton, 2012).

41 CC8/8/101/253, NRS.

42 Brown, “Aristocracy, Anglicization and the Court”; Brown, “Origins of a British Aristocracy.”

43 Paterson, Raymond Campbell, King Lauderdale: The Corruption of Power (Edinburgh, 2003).

44 J. M. Simpson, s.v., “Montgomerie, John (1680–1731), of Giffen, Ayr,” History of Parliament, accessed 21 June 2017,

45 Paula Watson, s.v., “Gibson, John (c. 1637–1717), of Portsmouth, Hants.,” History of Parliament Online, accessed 21 June 2017,

46 Edward M. Furgol, s.v., “Balfour, Sir William (d. 1660),” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (hereafter ODNB), accessed 11 August 2015,

47 Mary Lou Lustig, s.v., “Hunter, Robert (1666–1734),” ODNB, accessed 11 August 2015,

48 Stana Nenadic, “Architect-Builders in London and Edinburgh, c. 1750–1800, and the Market for Expertise,” Historical Journal 55, no. 3 (September 2012): 597–617, at 600–1; Rosemary O'Day, “Social Change in the History of Education: Perspectives on the Emergence of Learned Professions in England, c. 1500–1800,” History of Education 36, nos. 4–5 (July 2007): 409–28, at 412–15; Prest, Wilfred, “Introduction: The Professions and Society in Early Modern England,” in The Professions in Early Modern England, ed. Prest, Wilfred (London, 1987), 124, at 6–17.

49 John Coffey, s.v., “Balcanquhall, Walter (c. 1586–1645),” ODNB, accessed 11 August 2015,

50 Scott, Hew, Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae: The Succession of Ministers in the Church of Scotland from the Reformation, 7 vols. (Edinburgh, 1915–28), 1:165–6, 3:8–9, 7:334.

51 Ibid., 1:329.

52 Ibid., 2:156, 175, 266, 313, 494; 7:468, 483, 494, 512.

53 Quarter Session Minutes 1694–1726, no pagination [27 July 1686], BBC/C8/1, BRO.

54 Cameron, George G., The Scots Kirk in London (Oxford, 1979), 1825, 43–46; Minutes of Crown Court Kirk Session, 1711–46, CH2/852/1, p. 52, NRS.

55 Scott, Fasti, 7:489–90; Register of the Scots Kirk, London Wall, 1716–1773, CLC/182/04962, 258–67, 278–80, London Metropolitan Archives (hereafter LMA). For Scottish ministers at Swallow Street and Crown Court churches, see Scott, Fasti, 7:267–71, 500

56 CC8/8/95/304, NRS.

57 Baker, J. H., An Introduction to English Legal History, 4th ed. (London, 2002), 162–64; Prest, Wilfred, “The English Bar, 1550–1700,” in Lawyers in Early Modern Europe and America, ed. Prest, Wilfred (London, 1981), 6585, at 77–81; Daniel Duman, “The English Bar in the Georgian Era,” in Lawyers, 86–107; Gordon, William M., “A Comparison of the Influence of Roman Law in England and Scotland,” in Gordon, , Roman Law, Scots Law and Legal History: Selected Essays (Edinburgh, 2007), 309–23.

58 Duman, “English Bar,” at 89.

59 The National Archives (hereafter TNA), State Papers Domestic: Charles I, SP16/418, fol. 184, item 85.

60 Walpole, Horace, Memoirs of the Last Ten Years of the Reign of George II, 2 vols. (London, 1822), 1:402.

61 James Oldham, s.v., “Murray, William, first earl of Mansfield (1705–1793),” ODNB, accessed 11 August 2015,

62 Quarter Session Petitions, QSP/52/14, Lancashire Archives.

63 CC8/8/87/658, NRS.

64 From the later eighteenth century, Scottish surgeons began to develop a notable presence in Liverpool, largely through connections with the slave trade. Schwarz, Suzanne, “Scottish Surgeons in the Liverpool Slave Trade in the Late Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries,” in Recovering Scotland's Slavery Past: The Caribbean Connection, ed. Devine, T. M. (Edinburgh, 2015), 145–65.

65 McCulloch, J. H., The Scot in England (London, 1935), 49.

66 Anita Guerrini, “Scots in London Medicine in the Early Eighteenth Century,” in Nenadic, Scots in London, 165–85.

67 Wilson, Adrian, The Making of Man-Midwifery: Childbirth in England, 1660–1770 (London, 1995), 123–31, 175–82.

68 Harriet Harvey Wood, s.v., “Ayton, Sir Robert (1570–1638),” ODNB, accessed 11 August 2015, https//

69 Melinda Zook, s.v., “Ferguson, Robert (d. 1714),” ODNB, accessed 11 August 2015,

70 Alexander Du Toit, s.v., “Anderson, James (1662–1728),” ODNB, accessed 11 August 2015,

71 G. A. Aitkin, rev. John R. Young, s.v., “Ridpath, George (d. 1726),” ODNB, accessed 11 August 2015,

72 Lewis, Jeremy, Tobias Smollett (London, 2003), 2250, 87–89, 136–41, 184, 209–21; Kenneth Simpson, s.v., “Smollett, Tobias George (1721–1771),” ODNB, accessed 11 August 2015,; Spector, Robert Donald, Tobias George Smollett (Boston, 1989), 123.

73 Salisbury City Council Poor Relief Records, G23/1/228, Wiltshire and Swindon Archives.

74 Mary Anne Alburger, “Musical Scots and Scottish Musical Patrons on London and Edinburgh,” in Nenadic, Scots in London, 186–203, at 188–89.

75 Irwin, David and Irwin, Francina, Scottish Painters at Home and Abroad, 1700–1900 (London, 1975), 4147, 51–64, 101–5; Macmillan, Duncan, Painting in Scotland: The Golden Age (Oxford, 1986), 930, 32–41; Patricia A. Andrew, “Scottish Artists in London: Careers and Connections,” in Nenadic, Scots in London, 204–28.

76 Friedman, Terry, James Gibbs (New Haven, 1984), 720; Kidson, Peter, Murray, Peter, and Thompson, Paul, A History of English Architecture (London, 1979), 213–15, 217–19, 222–24; Conner, T. P., “Colen Campbell as Architect to the Prince of Wales,” Architectural History 22 (1979): 6471.

77 Hoar, Frank, An Introduction to English Architecture (London, 1963), 140–46; Kidson, History of English Architecture, 233–51; Nenadic, “Architect-Builders”; Sanderson, Margaret H. B., Robert Adam and Scotland: Portrait of an Architect (Edinburgh, 1992), 5366; Watkin, David, English Architecture: A Concise History (London, 1979), 131–36.

78 Bench Book V (1609–1650), U DX/5/8, fol. 57, Hull History Centre.

79 Jung, Sandro, David Mallet, Anglo-Scot: Poetry, Patronage and Politics in the Age of Union (Newark, 2008), 2454, 76–111,127–59.

80 Guerrini, Anita, “The Tory Newtonians: Gregory, Pitcairne, and Their Circle,” Journal of British Studies 25, no. 3 (July 1986): 288311; Anita Guerrini, s.v., “Gregory, David (1659–1708),” ODNB, accessed 11 August 2015,

81 Guerrini, “Tory Newtonians,” 293, 309; John Henry, s.v., “Keill, John (1671–1721),” ODNB, accessed 11 August 2015,

82 Smout, T. C., Scottish Trade on the Eve of Union, 1660–1707 (Edinburgh, 1963); Talbott, Siobhan, Conflict, Commerce and Anglo-Scottish Relations (London, 2014); Murdoch, Steve, Network North: Scottish Kin, Commercial and Covert Associations in Northern Europe, 1603–1746 (Leiden, 2006), 243–4; Macinnes, Union and Empire.

83 McCulloch, Scot in England, 38–40.

84 Journal of William Fraser, CS96/524, NRS.

85 Hancock, David, Citizens of the World: London Merchants and the Integration of the British Atlantic Community, 1735–1785 (Cambridge, 1995), 4859.

86 BBA/B6/1-4, BRO; Company Book of the Incorporated Company of Merchant Venturers, 1675–1733, GU.MA/2/1, fols. 29v, 291, 299, 320, 327, Tyne and Wear Archives (hereafter TWA).

87 CC5/6/11/358, NRS; J. Arrowsmith et al., eds., The Registers of the Parish of Ormskirk, 3 vols. (Rochdale, Macclesfield, and Bristol, 1902–2009), 3:227.

88 Hamilton, Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic World, 212–14.

89 Hayes, John, “Scottish Officers in the British Army, 1714–1763,” Scottish Historical Review 37, no. 123 (April 1958): 2333; Brown, Keith M., “From Scottish Lords to British Officers: State Building, Elite Integration, and the Army in the Seventeenth Century,” in Scotland and War AD79–1918, ed. Macdougall, Norman (Edinburgh, 1991), 133–69.

90 Murdoch and Grosjean, Alexander Leslie, 121–24.

91 Hayes, “Scottish Officers,” at 26.

92 MacKillop, Andrew, “More Fruitful than the Soil”: Army, Empire and the Scottish Highlands, 1715–1815 (East Linton, 2000), 246.

93 Ibid., 236; Devine, Scotland's Empire, 304–15; Clyde, Robert, From Rebel to Hero: The Image of the Highlander, 1745–1830 (East Linton, 1995), 150–77.

94 Original Design, Progress and Present State of the Scots Corporation at London (London, 1730).

95 Quarter Sessions: Register of Vagrants, 1740–1852, QDV, North Yorkshire County Record Office.

96 Andrew Little, “A Comparative Survey of Scottish Service in the English and Dutch Maritime Communities c. 1650–1707,” in Scottish Communities Abroad, 333–74; Murdoch, Steve, The Terror of the Seas: Scottish Maritime Warfare, 1513–1713 (Leiden, 2010).

97 John B. Hattendorf, s.v., “Mitchell, Sir David (c. 1650–1710),” ODNB, accessed 11 August 2015,

98 Register of Vagrants, QDV, North Yorkshire County Record Office.

99 Ships’ Muster Rolls, 1748–1762, SMV/9/3/1, Bristol Record Office.

100 MacKillop, Andrew, “Dundee, London and the Empire in Asia,” in Dundee: Renaissance to Enlightenment, ed. McKean, Charles, Harris, Bob, and Whatley, Christopher A. (Dundee, 2009), 166.

101 MS9172/80, Will 65, Guildhall Library.

102 CC8/8/57/352, NRS.

103 TNA, Board of Stamps: Apprenticeship Books, IR/1/41, fol. 122; Company of Smiths: Apprentice Indentures, 1600–1877, GU.SM/36/1, TWA.

104 BBA/B6/1-4, BRO.

105 The sample is derived from McKenzie, D. F., ed., Stationers’ Company Apprentices, 1641–1700 (Oxford, 1974); Webb, Cliff, ed., London Livery Company Apprenticeship Registers, 48 vols. (London, 1996–2008); Records of London's Livery Companies Online, These data are supplemented from Tim Hitchcock et al., eds., The Old Bailey Proceedings Online, 1674–1913,; Tim Hitchcock et al., eds., London Lives, 1690–1800,, version 1.1, 24 April 2012; TNA, IR/1.

106 CC8/8/92/353, NRS.

107 CCB8/8/112/1157, NRS.

108 CC8/8/118/316, NRS.

109 TNA, Consistory Court Depositions, 1720, DL/C/259, fol. 182r.

110 Debtors’ Papers, Case 15c/1/114, Norfolk Record Office.

111 Westmorland Quarter Session Rolls, WQ/SR/275/12, Kendal Archive Centre.

112 Panayi, Panikos, “Germans in Eighteenth Century Britain,” in Germans in Britain since 1500, ed. Panayi (London, 1996), 7394.

113 Edgar Samuel, “London's Portuguese Jewish Community, 1540–1753,” in Vigne and Littleton, From Strangers to Citizens, 239–46; White, London in the Eighteenth Century, 153–54; Bernard, Toby, “The Irish in London and the ‘London Irish,’ ca.1660–1780,” Eighteenth-Century Life 39, no. 1 (January 2015): 1440.

114 Gwynn, Robin D., Huguenot Heritage: The History and Contribution of the Huguenot in Britain (Brighton, 2001), 74117.

115 Jones, Emrys, “The Welsh in London in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries,” Welsh History Review 10 (January 1980): 6179.

116 Gordon, Milton M., Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins (Oxford, 1964), 70–1. For a recent discussion of assimilation theory as it applies to Scottish migrants, albeit focused on a later period, see Bueltmann, Hinson, and Morton, Scottish Diaspora, 26–31.

117 Defoe, Daniel, The True-Born Englishman (London, 1701), 21.

118 Shepard, Alexandra and Withington, Phil, “Introduction: Communities in Early Modern England,” in Communities in Early Modern England: Networks, Place, Rhetoric, ed. Shepard, Alexandra and Withington, Phil (Manchester, 2000), 117.

119 Macfarlane of Ballancleroch Papers, GD61/36, NRS.

120 Green, Mary Anne Everett et al. , eds., Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, of the Reign of Charles II, 1660–1685, 28 vols. (London, 1860–1947), 2:214; Jung, David Mallet.

121 Keith M. Brown and Allan Kennedy, “Becoming English: The Monro Family and Scottish Assimilation in Early Modern England,” working paper.

122 Papers of Robert Fraser, Advocate, and William Fraser, W. S., RH15/13/52, NRS.

123 Lockwood, Matthew, “‘Love Ye Therefore the Strangers’: Immigration and the Criminal Law in Early Modern England,” Continuity and Change 29, no. 3 (December 2014): 349–71, at 361–2; Liên Bich Luu, “Alien Communities in Transition, 1570–1640,” in Goose and Luu, Immigrants in Tudor and Early Stuart England, 192–210.

124 Panayi, “Germans in Eighteenth Century Britain.” As a caveat, wealthier German merchants, many of whom actively sought naturalization as a route to commercial success, may have been able to integrate more fully. Margrit S. Beerbühl, “Naturalization and Economic Integration: The German Merchant Community in 18th-Century London,” in Vigne and Littleton, From Strangers to Citizens, 511–18.

125 White, London in the Eighteenth Century, 162.

126 Ibid., 145–52; Clark, Peter, “Migrants in the City: The Process of Social Adaptation in English Towns, 1500–1800,” in Migration and Society in Early Modern England, ed. Clark, Peter and Souden, David (London, 1987), 213–52, 275.

127 Gwynn, Huguenot Heritage, 202–19; Eileen Barrett, “Huguenot Integration in Late 17th and 18th Century London: Insights from Records of the French Church and Some Relief Agencies,” in Vigne and Littleton, From Strangers to Citizens, 375–82.

128 Colley, Linda, Britons: Forging the Nation (New Haven, 2005); Nenadic, introduction to Scots in London, 13–45, at 15. The Scots’ experience was probably closer to that of the Welsh, another group whose relative similarity to the English may have presented significant opportunities for assimilation. Jones, “Welsh in London.”

129 Portes, Alejandro and Rumbaut, Rubén G., Immigrant America: A Portrait (Oakland, 2014), 282–86.

130 Jonathan Howard Westaway, “Scottish Influences upon the Reformed Churches in North-West England, c. 1689–1829: A Study of the Ministry within the Congregational and Presbyterian Churches in Lancashire, Cumberland and Westmorland” (PhD diss., University of Lancaster, 1996), 187–89.

131 Minutes of Swallow Street Scotch Kirk, 1734–1770, LMA/4365/A/001, p. 3, LMA.

132 CLC/182/04962, 235–37, 242–43, LMA.

133 LMA/4365/A/001, p. 4, LMA.

134 Testimonials received by Harbottle Presbyterian Church, PT33/4, Northumberland Record Office.

135 The History of the Worshipful Company of the Drapers of London, 4 vols. (Oxford, 1922), 4:363; Selections from the Writings of Patrick Livingstone: A Faithful Minister of the Gospel in the Society of Friends, and a Patient Sufferer of the Same (London, 1847); Richard H. Field, “Glimpses of Early Friends in Scotland,” acc. 2361, p. 48, Friends House London.

136 Harper, Marjory, Adventurers and Exiles: The Great Scottish Exodus (London, 2003), 356–59. The best analysis of Scottish networking, albeit focused on a later period, is Bueltmann, Tanja, Clubbing Together: Ethnicity, Civility and Formal Sociability in the Scottish Diaspora to 1930 (Liverpool, 2015).

137 Taylor, Justine, A Cup of Kindness: The History of the Royal Scottish Corporation, a London Charity, 1603–2003 (East Linton, 2003); Original Design, Progress, and Present State of the Scots Corporation at London (London, 1714); A Summary View of the Rise, Constitution, and Present State of the Charitable Foundation of King Charles the Second, Commonly called The Scots Corporation in London (London, 1761), which contains the list of benefactors. See Bueltmann, Clubbing Together, 27–59 for the fullest discussion of Scottish associationalism in England during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries

138 Pescosolido, Bernice A., “The Sociology of Social Networks,” in 21st Century Sociology: A Reference Handbook, ed. Bryant, Clifton D. and Peck, Dennis L. (London, 2007), 208–17; Scott, John, What Is Social Network Analysis? (London, 2012).

139 Murdoch, Network North, 3.

140 Hancock, Citizens of the World; Rothschild, Inner Life of Empires.

141 Boswell, London Journal.

142 Lillywhite, Barry, London Coffee Houses: A Reference Book of Coffee Houses of the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries (London, 1963), 132–35.

143 Jones, Clyve, “A Westminster Anglo-Scottish Dining Group, 1710–12: The Evidence of Lord Ossulton's Diary,” Scottish Historical Review 71, nos. 191/192 (April–October 1992): 110–28.

144 Quarter Session Bundles, QSB/1719, North Yorkshire County Record Office.

145 TNA, SP16/418, fol. 104, item 42; TNA, State Papers Domestic, Charles II, SP29/434.

146 Russell Papers, RH15/106/305/11, NRS.

148 Webb, Apprenticeship Registers, 4:16, 5:10; Records of London's Livery Companies, accessed 13 August 2015,

149 GU.SM/36/1, TWA.

150 Berwick Enrolments, BBA/B6/3-4, BRO.

151 Galloway, Bruce R. and Levack, Brian P., eds., The Jacobean Union: Six Tracts of 1604 (Edinburgh, 1985), 178; Weldon, Anthony, The Court and Character of King James (London, 1817), 18.

152 Brown et al., “Scots and Scabs.”

153 Extracts from the Records of the Company of Hostmen or Newcastle upon Tyne (1901), 78n.

154 “E. B.,” A Description of Scotland and its Inhabitants (London, 1705), 2–3.

155 “A Satyre on the Scots,” in Poems on Affairs of State from 1640 to this Present Year 1704, 3 vols. (London, 1704), 3:32–35.

156 Farmer, Thomas, The Scotch Lass Deceiv'd by her Bonny Lad Jockey (London, c. 1688)

157 Pentland, Gordon, “‘We Speak for the Ready’: Images of Scots in Political Prints, 1701–1832,” Scottish Historical Review 90, no. 229 (April 2011): 6495.

158 QSB/65, Northumberland Record Office.

159 Galloway, Union of England and Scotland, 170–1; Whatley, Christopher A. and Patrick, Derek, The Scots and the Union (Edinburgh, 2007), 212–14; Macinnes, Allan I., Clanship, Commerce and the House of Stuart, 1603–1788 (East Linton, 1996), 211; Schweizer, K. W., “English Xenophobia in the 18th Century: The Case of Lord Bute,” Scottish Tradition, 22 (1997): 626; Nenadic, introduction to Scots in London, 13.

160 Boswell, London Journal, 71–72; Rounce, Adam, “‘Stuarts without End’: Wilkes, Churchill and Anti-Scottishness,” Eighteenth-Century Life 29, no. 3 (Fall 2005): 2043.

161 DLONS/L/13/1/15, Cumbria Archive Services.

162 Masons’ Ordinances, GU.MS/1/1, 1 September 1581, TWA; GU.SM/36/1, TWA; Green et al., Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, 12:399, 439, 452, 457, 598, 13:2–3, 53, 82–83, 261.

163 “A. Z.,” An Address to the College of Physicians and to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge; Occasion'd by the Late Swarms of Scotch and Leyden Physicians (London, 1747).

164 Landsman, Ned, “Pluralism, Protestantism, and Prosperity,” in Beyond Pluralism: The Conception of Groups and Group Identities in America, ed. Katkin, Wendy F., Landsman, Ned, and Tyree, Andrea (Chicago, 1998), 105–24.

165 Pittis, William, The History of the Third Session of the Last Parliament (London, 1713), 116–17.

166 [Ridpath, George], Case of Scots-men Residing in England and in the English Plantations (Edinburgh, 1703), 10.

167 The London-based calculations mentioned in the text above between notes 14 and 15 above imply that the 3,000-strong dataset under discussion in this article may have captured somewhere around 0.75–1 percent of Scottish migrants in England between 1603 and ca. 1760, which would in turn suggest a migrant population of 300,000 to 400,000 Scots, but these figures, perhaps suspiciously large, are really little more than guesswork.

168 Colley, Britons.

The authors thank Professor Hannah Barker, University of Manchester; Professor Alice Bloch, University of Manchester; Professor Mike Braddick, University of Sheffield; Dr. Andrew Mackillop, University of Glasgow; and the anonymous referees for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this paper.

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Journal of British Studies
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