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“Rotten Effeminate Stuff”: Patriarchy, Domesticity, and Home in Victorian and Edwardian English Public Schools

  • Jane Hamlett (a1)
Abstract

During the nineteenth century, British public schools became increasingly important, turning out thousands of elite young men. Historians have long recognized the centrality of these institutions to modern British history and to understandings of masculinity in this era. While studies of universities and clubs have revealed how fundamental the rituals and everyday life of institutions were to the creation of masculinity, public schools have not been subjected to the same scrutiny. Approaches to date have emphasized the schools’ roles in distancing boys from the world of the home, domesticity, femininity, and women. Focusing on three case-study schools, Winchester College, Charterhouse, and Lancing College, this article offers a reassessment of the relationship between home and school in the Victorian and Edwardian period and contributes to the growing literature on forms of masculine domesticity in the second half of the nineteenth century. In the reformed public schools, the ideal of the patriarchal household was often essential, and in producing it, the presence of significant women—the wives of headmasters and housemasters—could be vital. The schools also worked to create a specifically masculine form of domesticity through boys’ performance of mundane domestic tasks in the “fagging” system, which was often imagined in terms of the chivalric service ideal. Letters from the period show how the everyday worlds of school and home remained enmeshed, revealing the distinctive nature of family relationships forged by the routine of presence and absence that public schools created.

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The research for this article was supported by an Economic and Social Research Grant for the project At Home in the Institution: Asylum, School and Lodging House Interiors in London and South East England, 1845–1914. I am very grateful to colleagues and friends who read and commented on the article, including Michele Cohen, Stephanie Olsen, Hannah Platts, and David Wilson, and to the editors and anonymous reviewers of the Journal of British Studies. I would also like to express my thanks to the college archivists who have provided help and advice, in particular Suzanne Foster and Catherine Smith.

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1 Talboys, R. St. C., A Victorian School: Being the Story of Wellington College (Oxford, 1943), 51.

2 For a discussion of the role of education in fashioning the British elite, see Rubinstein, W. D., Elites and the Wealthy in Modern British History: Essays in Social and Economic History (Sussex, 1987), 172221; on Wykehamist career success, see Bishop, T. J. H. and Wilkinson, Rupert, Winchester and the Public School Elite: A Statistical Analysis (London, 1967), chaps. 6 and 7.

3 At the beginning of the nineteenth century, there were a significant number of endowed schools in England, founded during the medieval and early modern periods as public benefices but now taking substantial numbers of fee-paying pupils. Custom and the patronage of elite social groups created a perception of a hierarchy among these schools, and Eton was often considered the most important. During the nineteenth century, this hierarchy was reinforced by the Clarendon Commission, which selected alongside Eton eight other “great” schools for close investigation, marking these institutions out as a special group. Shrosbree, Colin, Public Schools and Private Education: The Clarendon Commission, 1861–64, and the Public Schools Acts (Manchester, 1988), 24.

4 Vance, Norman, “The Ideal of Manliness,” in The Victorian Public School: Studies in the Development of an Educational Institution, ed. Simon, Brian and Bradley, Ian (Dublin, 1975), 115–28; J. A. Mangan, “Athleticism: A Case Study of the Evolution of an Educational Ideology,” in Simon and Bradley, The Victorian Public School, 147–67; Mangan, J. A., “Social Darwinism and Upper-Class Education in Late Victorian and Edwardian England,” in Manliness and Morality: Middle-Class Masculinity in Britain and America, 1800–1940, ed. Mangan, J. A. and Walvin, James (Manchester, 1987), 135–59; Heward, Christine, Making a Man of Him: Parents and Their Sons’ Education at an English Public School, 1929–50 (London, 1988); Neddam, Fabrice, “Constructing Masculinities under Thomas Arnold of Rugby (1828–42): Gender, Educational Policy and School Life in an Early-Victorian Public School,” Gender and Education 16, no. 3 (September 2004): 303–26.

5 Tosh, John, A Man's Place: Masculinity and the Middle-Class Home in Victorian England (London, 1999). Few studies have considered in detail the presence of home or domesticity in schools for middle-class boys. Rob Boddice argues that public sporting events could be a space between home and school in which parents and masters competed for authority. Boddice, Rob, “In Loco Parentis? Public-School Authority, Cricket and Manly Character, 1855–62,” Gender and Education 21, no. 2 (March 2009): 159–72, at 162. Peter Lewis discusses female presence in his semiautobiographical essay on public schools in the mid-twentieth century but concludes that women were a marginal presence in the schools. Lewis, Peter M., “Mummy, Matron and the Maids: Feminine Presence and Absence in Male Institutions, 1934–1963,” in Manful Assertions: Masculinities in Britain since 1800, ed. Roper, Michael and Tosh, John (London, 1991), 168–89.

6 Deslandes, Paul R., Oxbridge Men: British Masculinity and the Undergraduate Experience, 1850–1920 (Bloomington, 2005), 23.

7 Milne-Smith, Amy, London Clubland: A Cultural History of Gender and Class in Late Victorian Britain (New York, 2011).

8 Tosh, A Man's Place, 118.

9 Deslandes, Oxbridge Men, 30.

10 Milne-Smith, London Clubland, 11.

11 See McCormack, Matthew, The Independent Man: Citizenship and Gender Politics in Georgian England (Manchester, 2005), 27; McCormack, Matthew, ed., introduction to Public Men: Masculinity and Politics in Modern Britain (Basingstoke, 2007), 8; Hamlett, Jane, At Home in the Institution: Material Life in Asylums, Lodging Houses and Schools in Victorian and Edwardian England (London, 2015).

12 Mangan, J. A., Athleticism in the Victorian and Edwardian Public School: The Emergence and Consolidation of an Educational Ideology (London, 2000), 150.

13 Mangan, Athleticism in the Victorian and Edwardian Public School, 146.

14 Tosh, A Man's Place, 179–83.

15 Recent examples include Cohen, Deborah, Household Gods: The British and Their Possessions (London, 2006); Ponsonby, Margaret, Stories from Home: English Domestic Interiors, 1750–1850 (Aldershot, 2007); Hamlett, Jane, Material Relations: Domestic Interiors and Middle-Class Families in England, 1850–1910 (Manchester, 2010).

16 Potvin, John, Bachelors of a Different Sort: Queer Aesthetics, Material Culture and the Modern Interior in Britain (Manchester, 2014); Cook, Matt, Queer Domesticities: Homosexuality and Home Life in Twentieth-Century London (Basingstoke, 2014).

17 Deslandes, Oxbridge Men, esp. 28, 62–82; Milne-Smith, Amy, “A Flight to Domesticity?: Making a Home in the Gentlemen's Clubs of London, 1880–1914,” Journal of British Studies 45, no. 4 (October 2006): 796818; Colville, Quintin, “Corporate Domesticity and Idealised Masculinity: Royal Naval Officers and Their Shipboard Homes, 1918–39,” Gender and History 21, no. 3 (November 2009): 499519.

18 Deslandes, Oxbridge Men, 29.

19 See Buettner, Elizabeth, Empire Families: Britons and Late Imperial India (Oxford, 2004), 223; Cohen, Deborah, Family Secrets: Living with Shame from the Victorians to the Present Day (London, 2013); Goldhill, Simon, A Very Queer Family Indeed: Sex, Religion and the Bensons in Victorian Britain (Chicago, 2016).

20 Joyce, Patrick, The State of Freedom: A Social History of the British State since 1800 (Cambridge, 2013), 280, 291–92.

21 They were not all equally successful, however. Merchant Taylors’, for example, expanded over the century but did not always gain the numbers of pupils it hoped. Luft, H. M., A History of Merchant Taylors’ School, Crosby, 1620–1970 (Liverpool, 1970).

22 For newly established schools, see Furness, W., The Centenary History of Rossall School (Aldershot, 1945); Bradley, A. G., Champneys, A. C., and Baines, J. W., A History of Marlborough College: During Fifty Years from Its Foundation to the Present Time (London, 1893); Boyd, A. K., The History of Radley College, 1847–1947 (Oxford, 1948).

23 Winchester College, Charterhouse, and Lancing, for example, all have large school archives with professional archivists.

24 Gathorne-Hardy, Jonathan, The Public School Phenomenon, 597–1977 (London, 1977). 248–89. For critiques, see Boddice, “In Loco Parentis?,” 160; Joyce, State of Freedom, 26–46.

25 Gathorne-Hardy, Public School Phenomenon, 315.

26 Sabben-Clare, James, Winchester College: After 600 Years, 1382–1982 (Southampton, 1981), 1417.

27 Heeney, B., Mission to the Middle Classes: The Woodard Schools, 1848–1891 (London, 1969), 32.

28 Deslandes, Oxbridge Men, 11.

29 McCormack, introduction to Public Men, 8.

30 On the household family in the preceding period, see Tadmor, Naomi, “The Concept of the Household-Family in Eighteenth-Century England,” Past and Present 151, no. 1 (May 1996): 111–40. While apprenticeship declined across nineteenth-century Europe, it remained the norm in some industries. Small shopkeepers with workers living onsite meant that households where men governed both work and domestic life were still a significant part of the nineteenth-century social fabric. Crossick, Geoffrey and Haupt, Heinz-Gerhard, The Petite Bourgeoisie in Europe, 1780–1914: Enterprise, Family and Independence (London, 1995), 87110.

31 Hamlett, At Home in the Institution, 5–6.

32 On clergy wives and daughters, see Yamaguchi, Midori, “‘There Is Special Work before Us’: Parish Work,” in Daughters of the Anglican Clergy: Religion, Gender and Identity in Victorian England (London, 2014), 75101.

33 Interestingly, women have a greater presence in the older histories of individual schools. See, for example, Sabben-Clare, Winchester, 45.

34 In his essay “Mummy, Matron and the Maids,” Peter M. Lewis imagines a continuous world between Tom Brown and his own experiences growing up as a son of a Wellington housemaster, and at prep and public school. Lewis, “Mummy, Matron and the Maids,” 168–70.

35 Roberts, David, “The Paterfamilias of the Victorian Governing Classes,” in The Victorian Family: Structure and Stresses, ed. Wohl, Anthony S. (London, 1978), 5981. For a discussion of different models of paternity, see Tosh, John, Manliness and Masculinities in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Essays on Gender, Family and Empire (Harlow, 2005), 6.

36 Bamford, T. W., Thomas Arnold (London, 1960), 189; McCrum, Michael, Thomas Arnold, Head Master: A Reassessment (Oxford, 1989), 116–17. See also T. W. Bamford, “Thomas Arnold and the Victorian Idea of a Public School,” in Simon and Bradley, The Victorian Public School, 58–71.

37 A. J. H. Reeve, “Arnold, Thomas (1795–1842), headmaster and historian,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 29 May 2014, https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/686.

38 Bamford, T. W., Thomas Arnold on Education: A Selection from His Writings (Cambridge, 1970), 46.

39 McCrum, Arnold, 117.

40 de Bellaigue, Christina, “‘Educational Homes’ and ‘Barrack-Like Schools’: Cross-Channel Perspectives on Secondary Education in Mid-Nineteenth-Century England and France,” in Educational Policy Borrowing: Historical Perspectives, ed. Phillips, David and Ochs, Kimberly (Oxford, 2004), 89108, at 96–97.

41 On the acts, see Shrosbree, Public Schools and Private Education, 17, 13.

42 Britain, Great, Report of Her Majesty's Commissioners Appointed to Inquire into the Revenues and Management of Certain Colleges and Schools, and the Studies Pursued and Instruction Given Therein; with an Appendix and Evidence (London, 1864), 119.

43 Mangan, Athleticism, 149.

44 Shrosbree, Public Schools and Private Education, 217.

45 Leach, Arthur F., A History of Winchester College (London, 1899), 487, 490–96, 524–25; Sabben-Clare, Winchester, 45; Tod, A. H., Charterhouse (London, 1905), 9091; Handford, Basil, Lancing College: History and Memoirs (Chichester, 1986), 6269.

46 Zillekens, Ernst, ed., Charterhouse: A 400th Anniversary Portrait (London, 2010), 3843.

47 Handford, Lancing College, 58.

48 Handford, 68; Tod, Charterhouse, 90.

49 Sabben-Clare, Winchester, 8–10.

50 Ronald Storrs, Orientations (London, 1937), 10.

51 Handford, Lancing College, 91.

52 Wiccamicis, Fratribus, The Passing of Old Winchester (Winchester, 1924), 1617; Firth, J. D'E., Winchester College (London, 1949), 133, 144; Neddam, “Constructing Masculinities,” 318–19.

53 Sabben-Clare, Winchester, 8–10.

54 While the hardy masculinity of Tom Brown is often discussed, less attention has been paid to the novel's representation of women and femininity, which is also important. For a discussion of the role of Mrs. Arnold in the transformation of Tom's character, see Hughes, Thomas, Tom Brown's Schooldays (1857; repr., London, 1997), 180–83. For a discussion of the contemporary significance of the less-read second half of the novel, which takes a stronger moral tone than the first half, see Patrick Scott, “The School and the Novel: Tom Brown's Schooldays,” in Simon and Bradley, The Victorian Public School, 34–57.

55 Tod, Charterhouse, 91.

56 Mrs. Haig Brown's Albums, Charterhouse School Archive, ACC/0118/1-25.

57 Geoffrey Polson to his mother, 16 October 1904, Charterhouse School Archive, ACC/0300/5.

58 Frank Lucas to his father, 23 November 1891, Winchester College Archive (henceforth WCA), G14/31.

59 Pupils at Winchester College were divided into “scholars” (who had some financial support to attend the school) and “commoners” (whose fees were paid by parents or friends). Historically, the two sets of pupils lived in different places, and this separation continued in the nineteenth century as a series of houses were built for the commoners while the scholars continued to live together in a set of older buildings known as “Chambers.” Effectively, “Chambers” functioned like a large house with the college's second master at the helm, although the spaces that the boys lived in were more ad hoc than the newly built houses, and sleeping and studying might take place in the same room.

60 Pollock, Bertram, A Twentieth Century Bishop: Recollections and Reflections (London, 1944). 17.

61 Other influential housemaster and wife teams included “Chawker and Mrs. C.” at Winchester in the 1880s and Mr. and Mrs. Bather at Hoppers at Winchester in 1915. Fellowes, Edmund H., Memoirs of an Amateur Musician (London, 1946), 30; King, Cecil H., Strictly Personal: Some Memoirs of Cecil H. King (London, 1969), 29.

62 Memoir of Francis H. L. Cameron, 1860s, Lancing College Archive.

63 “Lancing in the Sixties: Part Two,” Lancing Magazine, July 1927, 101.

64 Memoir of George Edward Baker, 1858–65, Lancing College Archive.

65 Oman, Charles, Memories of Victorian Oxford and of Some Early Years (London, 1941), 39.

66 “Mrs Richardson: An Appreciation,” Wykehamist, no. 440, December 1906, 367.

67 “Mrs Richardson,” 368.

68 Hamlett, Material Relations, 90–96.

69 Hughes, Tom Brown's Schooldays, 182.

70 G. C. White, “Memories of Lancing” [1860s], Lancing College Archive.

71 Diary of Sam Brooke, 1860, Monday, 7 February; Thursday, 9 February; Sunday, 12 February; Sunday, 7 March; Sunday, 11 March; Wednesday, 21 March; Sunday, 25 March; Tuesday, 24 April, Corpus Christi College Archives, 498 (1).

72 J. M. T., My Apologia (Oxford: 1940), 3132.

73 “Mrs Richardson,” 367.

74 Deslandes, Oxbridge Men, 30.

75 Frank Lucas to his mother, 4 October 1891, WCA, G14/17.

76 Frank Lucas to his sister, 10 October 1895, WCA, G14/178.

77 Frank Lucas to his mother, undated [1896], WCA, G14/205.

78 Memoirs of C. Sandford Terry, 1880–82, Lancing College Archive.

79 Diary of Ernest Ormond, 19 November 1912, WCA, G42/1.

80 Sabben-Clare, Winchester, 52.

81 Frank Lucas to his mother, 15 October 1891, WCA, G14/20.

82 Diary of Sam Brooke, 15 March 1861, Corpus Christi College Archives, 498 (1).

83 Cohen, Michèle, “‘Manners’ Make the Man: Politeness, Chivalry and the Construction of Masculinity, 1750–1830,” Journal of British Studies 44, no. 2 (April 2005): 312329, at 322, 324–25.

84 Vance, Norman, The Sinews of the Spirit: The Ideal of Christian Manliness in Victorian Literature and Religious Thought (Cambridge, 1985), 1721.

85 Vance, “Ideal of Manliness,” 115; Cohen, “Manners,” 322–25; Girouard, Mark, The Return to Camelot: Chivalry and the English Gentleman (New Haven, 1981), 163–76.

86 Edward Aubrey Hastings Jay Memoirs, WCA, G97/3.

87 Stevens, Charles, Winchester Notions: The English Dialect of Winchester College, ed. Stray, Christopher (London, 1998).

88 Stevens, Winchester Nations, 277.

89 A new version of the image, created by William Cave in 1809, reproduced the early modern symbolism and verse but painted the figure in Windsor livery, probably in honor of the king's jubilee the year before. J. H. Harvey (former college archivist), Notes, WCA.

90 Translation from Staunton, Howard, The Great Schools of England (London, 1869), 6.

91 Vance, Sinews, 24–25.

92 “Of Fagges,” Lancing School Magazine, April 1905, 92–93.

93 Cohen, “Manners,” 328.

94 Great Britain, Report of Her Majesty's Commissioners, appendix, 387.

95 Diary of Thomas Cook, 4 October 1908, Lancing College Archive.

96 Vance, Sinews, 146.

97 Theobold Fitzwalter Butler to his father, 5 November 1855, WCA, G20/4.

98 Frank Lucas to his mother, 21 September 1891, WCA, G14/7.

99 Frank Lucas to his mother, 12 October 1891, WCA, G14/19.

100 See Hamlett, Jane, “Space and Emotional Experience in Dormitories in Public Schools for Boys in Victorian and Edwardian England,” in Childhood, Youth and Emotions in Modern History: National, Colonial and Global Perspectives, ed. Olsen, Stephanie (London, 2015), 128–29.

101 According to Mark Girouard, Arnold was also hostile to the idea of chivalry, as he thought it set personal allegiances before God and honor before justice. Girouard, Return to Camelot, 164.

102 Bamford, Thomas Arnold on Education, 132.

103 Bramford, 132.

104 Report of Her Majesty's Commissioners, Part 2, 487, 513.

105 Report of Her Majesty's Commissioners, Part 3, 58, 62.

106 Report of Her Majesty's Commissioners, Part 2, 153,158.

107 Headmaster's Report, 1878, WCA, A3/2, 13.

108 Oman, Memories, 29, 40, 41.

109 Vane, Francis Fletcher, Agin the Governments: Memories and Adventures (London, 1929), 15.

110 W. S. Lawrence to “Emily,” 15 June 1885, Charterhouse School Archive, ACC/10911 1.

111 Editorial, Wykehamist, no. 53, November 1872, 2.

112 Eustace H. W. Tennyson D'Eyncourt, A Shipbuilder's Yarn: The Record of a Naval Constructor (London, 1948), 25.

113 Bamford, Thomas Arnold on Education, 133–34.

114 Frank Benson, My Memoirs (London, 1930), 62.

115 For discussion of parental guilt, see Streatfeild, Noel, A Vicarage Family (London, 1963), 54.

116 Buettner, Empire Families, 14.

117 Goldhill, A Very Queer Family Indeed, 18.

118 There is no record of how the letters were acceded at the college archive, and it is thought that they may have arrived through a family member in the mid-twentieth century. It is therefore not possible to ascertain definitely that the collection is comprehensive; he may have written more letters than have survived here.

119 1891 England, Wales and Scotland Census (Streatham, 1891).

120 Frank Lucas to his father, 27 September 1891, WCA, G14/13.

121 Frank Lucas to his father, 27 November 1891, WCA, G14/32.

122 Frank Lucas to his father, 25 September 1891, WCA, G14/12.

123 Frank Lucas to his father, 10 March 1892, WCA, G14/54; 23 March 1892, WCA, G14/58; 6 October 1892, WCA, G14/75.

124 Frank Lucas to his father, WCA, G14/75; 6 October 1895, WCA, G14/177.

125 Frank Lucas to his father, 28 January 1896, WCA, G14/190.

126 Frank Lucas to his father, 16 November 1892, WCA, G14/77; 5 May 1895, WCA, G14/167.

127 Frank Lucas to his father, undated [ca. October 1896], WCA, G15/218.

128 Wiccamicis, Passing of Old Winchester, 4.

129 Diary of Sam Brooke, 21 April 1862, Corpus Christi College Archives, 498 (1).

130 Benson, My Memoirs, 54; Sir Henry Leveson Gower, Off and On the Field (London, 1953), 21.

131 Memoirs of R. E. Grice-Hutchinson, 1902–3, Charterhouse School Archive, 180/2/3.

132 Waugh, Evelyn, A Little Learning: The First Volume of an Autobiography (London, 1973), 9596.

133 Frank Lucas to his sisters Rosamond and Phyllis, 24 September 1891, WCA, G14/11.

134 Frank Lucas to his sisters Rosamond and Phyllis, 19 September 1891, WCA, G14/5.

135 Frank Lucas to his sister Rosamond, 1 October 1891, WCA, G14/16.

136 Frank Lucas to his mother, 24 September 1893, WCA, G14/92.

137 Frank Lucas to his mother, 18 January 1896, WCA, G14/186; Frank Lucas to his sister Rosamond, 13 February 1896, WCA, G14/193.

138 1901 England, Wales and Scotland Census (Streatham, 1901).

139 1901 England, Wales and Scotland Census.

140 Frank Lucas to his sister Rosamond, 4 November 1891, WCA, G14/27; 31 January 1892, WCA, G14/40.

141 Frank Lucas to his sister Rosamond, 1 October 1891, WCA, G14/16.

142 Frank Lucas to his mother, 17 March 1895, WCA, G14/162; Frank Lucas to his father, 28 January 1896, WCA, G14/190.

143 Frank Lucas to his sister Rosamond, 26 January 1894, WCA, G14/110; 12 March 1895, WCA, G14/160; 10 October 1895, WCA, G14/178; undated [ca. October 1895], WCA, G14/179.

144 Frank Lucas to his sister Rosamond, 10 February 1896, WCA, G14/192.

145 Frank Lucas to his mother, 23 February 1896, WCA, G14/195.

146 Frank Lucas to his mother, 4 October 1891, WCA, G14/17.

147 Frank Lucas to his mother and father, 17 September 1891, WCA, G14/2.

148 Frank Lucas to his mother, 30 October 1891, WCA, G14/25.

149 Frank Lucas to his mother, 2 February 1892, WCA, G14/41.

150 George Scott to his sister, 21 May 1864, WCA, G84/7.

151 Frank Lucas to his sisters, 19 September 1891, WCA, G14/5.

152 Graves, Robert, Good-Bye to All That: An Autobiography (London, 1929), 64.

153 Geoffrey Polson to his mother, 27 November 1904, Charterhouse School Archive, ACC/0300/11.

154 Frank Lucas to his mother, 28 January 1892, WCA, G14/38; Frank Lucas to his sister, 31 January 1892, WCA, G14/40.

155 Frank Lucas to his mother, 2 February 1892, WCA, G14/41.

156 Frank Lucas to his mother, 2 February 1892, WCA, G14/41.

157 Frank Lucas to his mother, [October 1896], WCA, G14/235.

158 Pontoppidan, Henrik, Emanuel or Children of the Soil, from the Danish of Henrik Pontoppidan, by Mrs. Lucas, Edgar, trans. Mrs. Lucas, Edgar (London, 1896); Pontoppidan, Henrik, The Promised Land, from the Danish of Henrik Pontoppidan by Mrs. Edgar Lucas, trans. Mrs. Lucas, Edgar (London, 1896).

159 Frank Lucas to his mother, 26 October 1893, WCA, G14/104.

160 Frank Lucas to his mother, 13 November 1894, WCA, G14/148.

161 Frank Lucas to his mother, 15 November 1894, WCA, G14/149.

162 Frank Lucas to his mother, 1 April 1895, WCA, G14/163.

163 Frank Lucas to his father, 6 October 1892, WCA, G14/75.

164 Frank Lucas to his sister Rosamond, 15 November 1891, WCA, G14/29.

165 Frank Lucas to his mother, 20 September 1895, WCA, G14/173.

166 Frank Lucas to his mother, 22 September 1895, WCA, G14/174.

167 Frank Lucas to his mother, undated [probably 16 October 1895], WCA, G14/181; 18 October 1865, WCA, G14/182; 20 October 1895, WCA, G14/183.

168 Letter from Frank Lucas to his mother, 16 October 1895, WCA, G14/181.

169 Frank Lucas to his mother, undated [1895–96], WCA, G14/202.

170 C. K. Scott Moncrieff, Memories and Letters (London, 1931)

171 Undated letters written by G. R. Snow to parents and siblings, WCA, G122/1/6/31-33.

172 G. R. Snow to his mother, 19 November [ca. 1911–15], WCA, G122/1/6/19.

173 G. R. Snow to his mother, undated [ca. 1911–15], WCA, G122/1/6/58.

174 Waugh, A Little Learning, 103.

175 Waugh, 102.

176 Waugh, 103.

177 Montague John Rendall, Winchester's headmaster between 1911 and 1924, appears to have been a divisive and eccentric figure, liked by some but not by others. Sabben-Clare, Winchester, 10. Cecil H. King, who was at the school during the First World War, criticized Rendall for his distant attitude toward the boys. King, Strictly Personal, 29. After Haig Brown, the Charterhouse headmasters also seem to have been more distant. Grice Hutchinson, a pupil in the 1900s, claimed not to have exchanged more than six words with the headmaster during his six years at the school. Memoirs of R. E. Grice Hutchinson, 1898–1904, Charterhouse School Archive, 1/8. Augustine Courtauld, who was at the school just after the First World War, recalls speaking to Frank Fletcher only twice during his stint there. Courtauld, Augustine, Man the Ropes (London, 1957), 24.

178 For further discussion, see Olsen, Stephanie, Juvenile Nation: Youth, Emotions and the Making of the Modern British Citizen, 1880–1914 (London, 2014), 164–69.

179 See Graves, Good-Bye to All That. In the preface to a collection of essays on school experience published in 1934, Graham Greene was convinced that the public-school system was doomed and would either disappear or be radically overhauled. The essays in the collection take critical perspectives on the school experiences of various writers in the early twentieth century. Greene, Graham, ed., preface to The Old School: Essays by Divers Hands (London, 1934), 67.

180 “Obituary,” Wykehamist, no. 593, 21 May 1920, 470.

181 “Obituary.”

The research for this article was supported by an Economic and Social Research Grant for the project At Home in the Institution: Asylum, School and Lodging House Interiors in London and South East England, 1845–1914. I am very grateful to colleagues and friends who read and commented on the article, including Michele Cohen, Stephanie Olsen, Hannah Platts, and David Wilson, and to the editors and anonymous reviewers of the Journal of British Studies. I would also like to express my thanks to the college archivists who have provided help and advice, in particular Suzanne Foster and Catherine Smith.

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