Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 73
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Cuza, Alejandro 2016. The status of interrogative subject–verb inversion in Spanish-English bilingual children. Lingua,


    Liberman, Zoe Woodward, Amanda L. Keysar, Boaz and Kinzler, Katherine D. 2016. Exposure to multiple languages enhances communication skills in infancy. Developmental Science, p. n/a.


    Miękisz, Aneta Haman, Ewa Łuniewska, Magdalena Kuś, Katarzyna O’Toole, Ciara and Katsos, Napoleon 2016. The impact of a first-generation immigrant environment on the heritage language: productive vocabularies of Polish toddlers living in the UK and Ireland. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, p. 1.


    Perpiñán, Silvia 2016. Catalan-Spanish bilingualism continuum: The expression of non-personal Catalan clitics in the adult grammar of early bilinguals. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism,


    Yow, W. Quin and Markman, Ellen M. 2016. Children Increase Their Sensitivity to a Speaker's Nonlinguistic Cues Following a Communicative Breakdown. Child Development, Vol. 87, Issue. 2, p. 385.


    Bilson, Samuel Yoshida, Hanako Tran, Crystal D. Woods, Elizabeth A. and Hills, Thomas T. 2015. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition. Cognition, Vol. 140, p. 122.


    Chevalier, Sarah 2015. Trilingual Language Acquisition. Vol. 16, Issue. ,

    Crutchley, Alison Claire 2015. Bilingual compound verbs in children’s Panjabi-English codeswitched narratives. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 2.


    Garraffa, Maria Beveridge, Madeleine and Sorace, Antonella 2015. Linguistic and Cognitive Skills in Sardinian–Italian Bilingual Children. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 6,


    Ng, Melvin Mai-Rong Demir, Özlem Ece and So, Wing Chee 2015. The Acquisition of Reference.


    Qiu, Chen and Winsler, Adam 2015. Language use in a ‘one parent–one language’ Mandarin–English bilingual family: noun versus verb use and language mixing compared to maternal perception. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, p. 1.


    Serratrice, Ludovica and Hervé, Coralie 2015. The Acquisition of Reference.


    Storms, Gert Ameel, Eef and Malt, Barbara C. 2015. Development of cross-language lexical influence. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, Vol. 18, Issue. 5, p. 529.


    Bumgarner, Erin and Lin, Meiko 2014. Hispanic Immigrant Children's English Language Acquisition: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Early Care Arrangement. Early Education and Development, Vol. 25, Issue. 4, p. 515.


    Kalashnikova, Marina and Mattock, Karen 2014. Maturation of executive functioning skills in early sequential bilingualism. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, Vol. 17, Issue. 1, p. 111.


    Kim, Jung Eun Kim, Young Tae and Oh, So Jung 2014. A Longitudinal Study on Vocabulary Development Variables According to Expressive Vocabulary Progress in Children from Multicultural Families. Communication Sciences & Disorders, Vol. 19, Issue. 1, p. 60.


    Lillo-Martin, Diane de Quadros, Ronice M. Chen Pichler, Deborah and Fieldsteel, Zoe 2014. Language choice in bimodal bilingual development. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 5,


    Nibun, Yukari and Wigglesworth, Gillian 2014. Early pragmatic differentiation in Japanese and German: a case study of a developing trilingual child in Australia. International Journal of Multilingualism, Vol. 11, Issue. 1, p. 76.


    Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria 2014. Early, late or very late?: Timing acquisition and bilingualism. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, Vol. 4, Issue. 3, p. 283.


    Byers-Heinlein, Krista and Werker, Janet F. 2013. Lexicon structure and the disambiguation of novel words: Evidence from bilingual infants. Cognition, Vol. 128, Issue. 3, p. 407.


    ×

Language differentiation in early bilingual development*

  • Fred Genesee (a1), Elena Nicoladis (a1) and Johanne Paradis (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900009971
  • Published online: 01 September 2008
Abstract
ABSTRACT

It has been claimed that children simultaneously acquiring two languages go through an initial stage when they are unable to differentiate between their two languages. Such claims have been based on the observation that at times virtually all bilingual children mix elements (e.g. lexical, morphological) from their two languages in the same utterance. That most, if not all, children acquiring two languages simultaneously mix linguistic elements in this way is widely documented. Although such code-mixing is not well understood or explained, there are a number of explanations unrelated to lack of language differentiation that may explain it. Moreover, while language differentiation is widely attested among bilingual children once functional categories emerge, usually during the third year, there is still some question as to how early in development differentiation is present. In this study, we examined language differentiation in five bilingual children prior to the emergence of functional categories (they ranged in age from 1;10 to 2;2 and in MLU from 1·23 to 2·08). They were observed with each parent separately and both together, on separate occasions. Our results indicate that while these children did code mix, they were clearly able to differentiate between their two languages. We also examine the possibility that the children's mixing is due to (a) their language dominance, and (b) their parents' rate of mixing. We could find no evidence that their mixing was due to parental input, but there was some evidence that language dominance played a role.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Psychology Department, McGill University, 1205 Dr Penfield Avenue, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaH3A. 1B1. email: genesee@ego.psych.mcgill.ca
Footnotes
Hide All

We would like to thank the parents and their children for their generous co-operation throughout this research. Revisions of this manuscript have benefited from helpful comments by two anonymous reviewers and the editor. We also thank the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, Ottawa, Canada, for their financial support of this work (grant No. 410-91-1936).

Footnotes
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R. Brown (1973). A first language: the early stages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

S. Dopke (1992). One parent, one language: an interactional approach. Amsterdam: Benjamin.

F. Genesee & R. Bourhis (1988). Evaluative reactions to language choice strategies: the role of socio-structural factors. Language and Communication 8, 229–50.

N. S. Goodz (1989). Parental language mixing in bilingual families. Infant Mental Health Journal 10, 2543.

J. M. Meisel (1990 b). INFL-ection: subjects and subject-verb agreement. In J. M. Meisel (ed.), Two first languages: early grammatical development in bilingual children. Dordrecht: Foris.

J. Petersen (1988). Word-internal code-switching constraints on a bilingual child's grammar. Linguistics 26, 479–93.

S. Poplack (1980). Sometimes I'll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en Español: toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics 18, 581618.

S. N. Sridhar & K. K. Sridhar (1980). The syntax and psycholinguistics of bilingual code switching. Canadian Journal of Psychology 34, 407–16.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Child Language
  • ISSN: 0305-0009
  • EISSN: 1469-7602
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-child-language
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×