Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-c4f8m Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-18T17:37:34.379Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 February 2016

Torben Larsen*
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Science, AU Foulum, Aarhus University, DK 8830 Tjele, Denmark
Lene Alstrup
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Science, AU Foulum, Aarhus University, DK 8830 Tjele, Denmark
Martin Riis Weisbjerg
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Science, AU Foulum, Aarhus University, DK 8830 Tjele, Denmark
*
*For correspondence; e-mail: Torben.Larsen@anis.au.dk

Abstract

The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while BHBA and TAG decreased. The content of some of the milk metabolites changed during 24 h day/night periods: BHBA, cholesterol, uric acid and TAG increased whereas free glucose decreased in the night period. Certain associations between milk metabolites and calculated energy parameters like ECM, body condition score (BCS), and body weight gain were found, however, these associations were to some extent explained by an interaction with DIM, just as changes in milk metabolites during a 24 h period seems to interfere. It is concluded that the practical use of the suggested milk variables should be based on more than one metabolite and that stage of lactation and possibly time of the day where the milk is collected should be incorporated in predictive models.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Akerlind, M, Weisbjerg, M, Eriksson, T, Thøgersen, R, Udén, P, Ólafsson, BL, Harstad, OM & Volden, H 2011 Feed analyses and digestion methods. In NorFor – The Nordic Feed Evaluation System, pp. 4154 (Ed. Volden, H). EAAP publication no. 130. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic PublischersCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alstrup, L, Weisbjerg, MR, Hymøller, L, Larsen, MK, Lund, P & Nielsen, MO 2014 Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 97 44124422CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bareille, N, Beaudeau, F, Billon, S, Robert, A & Faverdin, P 2003 Effects of health disorders on feed intake and milk production in dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 83 5362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bjerre-Harpøth, V, Friggens, NC, Thorup, VM, Larsen, T, Damgaard, BM, Ingvartsen, KL & Moyes, KM 2012 Metabolic and production profiles of dairy cows in response to decreased nutrient density to increase physiological imbalance at different stages of lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 95 23622380CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chagunda, M, Friggens, N, Rasmussen, MD & Larsen, T 2006 A model for detection of individual cow mastitis based on an indicator measured in milk. Journal of Dairy Science 89 29802998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drackley, JK 1999 Biology of dairy cows during the transition period: the final frontier? Journal of Dairy Science 82 22592273CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferguson, JD, Galligan, DT& Thomsen, N 1994 Principal descriptors of body condition score in Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 77 26952703CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friggens, NC, Ingvartsen, KL & Emmans, GC 2004 Prediction of body lipid change in pregnancy and lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 87 9881000CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friggens, NC, Ridder, C & Løvendahl, P 2007a On the use of milk composition measures to predict the energy balance of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 90 54535467CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friggens, N, Chagunda, M, Bjerring, M, Ridder, C, Højsgaard, S & Larsen, T 2007b Estimating degree of mastitis from time-series measurements in milk: a test of a model based on lactate dehydrogenase measurements. Journal of Dairy Science 90 54155427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giesecke, D, Ehrenreich, L, Stangassinger, M & Ahrens, F 1994 Mammary and renal excretion of purine metabolites in relation to energy intake and milk yield in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 77 23762381CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
González-Ronquillo, M, Balcells, J, Belenguer, A, Castrillo, C & Mota, M 2004 A comparison of purine derivatives excretion with conventional methods as indices of microbial yield in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87 22112221CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grummer, RR 1993 Etiology of lipid-related metabolic disorders in periparturient dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 76 38823896CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsen, T 2012 Enzymatic-fluorometric quantification of cholesterol in bovine milk. Food Chemistry 135 12611267CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsen, T 2015 Fluorometric determination of free glucose and glucose-6-phosphate in milk and other opaque matrices. Food Chemistry 166 283286CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsen, T & Moyes, KM 2010 Fluorometric determination of uric acid in bovine milk. Journal of Dairy Research 77 438444CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsen, T & Nielsen, NI 2005 Fluorometric determination of β-Hydroxybutyrate in milk and blood plasma. Journal of Dairy Science 88 20042009CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsen, T, Larsen, MK & Friggens, NC 2011 Enzymatic and fluorometric determination of triacylglycerols in cow milk and other opaque matrices. Food Chemistry 125 1101115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LeBlanc, SJ, Leslie, KE & Duffield, TF 2005 Metabolic predictors of displaced abomasum in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 88 159170CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McParland, S, Banos, G, Wall, E, Coffey, MP, Soyeurt, H, Veerkamp, RF & Berry, DP 2011 The use of mid-infrared spectrometry to predict body energy status of Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 94 36513661CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moyes, KM, Larsen, T & Ingvartsen, KL 2013 Generation of an index for physiological imbalance and its use as a predictor of primary disease in dairy cows during early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 96 21612170CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nielsen, NI, Friggens, NC, Chagunda, MGG & Ingvartsen, KL 2005a Predicting risk of ketosis in dairy cows using in-line measurements of β-hydroxybutyrate: a biological model. Journal of Dairy Science 88 24412453CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nielsen, NI, Larsen, T, Bjerring, M & Ingvartsen, KL 2005b Quarter health, milking interval, and sampling time during milking affect the concentration of milk constituents. Journal of Dairy Science 88 31863200CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roche, JR, Friggens, NC, Kay, JK, Fisher, MW, Stafford, KJ & Berry, DP 2009 Body condition score ant tis association with dairy cow productivity, health, and welfare. Journal of Dairy Science 92 57695801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sjaunja, LO, Baevre, L, Junkkarinen, L, Pedersen, J & Setala, J 1991 A Nordic proposal for an energy corrected milk (ECM) formula. Performance recording of animals: state of the art 1990. EAAP Publication 50 156157Google Scholar
Tas, BM & Susenbeth, A 2007 Urinary purine derivates excretion as an indicator of in vivo microbial N flow in cattle: a review. Livestock Science 111 181192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Timmermans, SJ Jr, Johnson, LM, Harrison, JH & Davidson, D 2000 Estimation of the flow of microbial nitrogen to the duodenum using milk uric acid or allantoin. Journal of Dairy Science 83 12861299CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Volden, H 2011 NorFor - The Nordic feed evaluation system. In (Ed. Volden, H.. EAAP publication No. 130. Wageningen, The Nederlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 180 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weisbjerg, MR & Hvelplund, T 1993 Estimation of Net Energy Content (FU) in Feeds for Cattle. Report No. 3/993. Copenhagen, Denmark: National Institute of Animal Science, Frederiksberg BogtrykkeriGoogle Scholar