Hostname: page-component-7d8f8d645b-9fg92 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-05-29T09:44:38.313Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Staphylococci in heifer mastitis before and after parturition

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 June 2009

Vesa Myllys
Milk Laboratory, National Veterinary and Food Research Institute, Box 368, FIN-00231 Helsinki, Finland


Aseptic udder quarter secretion samples (n = 1112) from 200 mastitic and 65 non-mastitic control heifers from 160 different farms were collected for bacteriological examination and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently isolated bacteria (57·8%). The percentage of Staphylococcus aureus was 20·1, of streptococci 11·3 and of other pathogens 10·8. Staph. simulans, Staph. hyicus, Staph. xylosus and Staph. chromogenes were the most common CNS. Staph. simulans and Staph. hyicus were most frequently found in clinical samples after parturition, whereas other CNS were equally or more often found in control samples. Most CNS infections detected in the prepartum period were eliminated spontaneously or with antibiotic treatment during early lactation, but the infected quarters were more susceptible to new infection by other pathogens. Milk N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase activities were measured to monitor changes in inflammation. Among the CNS infections, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase activities were highest for Staph. hyicus and lowest for Staph. xylosus in the lactating mammary gland of heifers. CNS were resistant to trimethoprim–sulphonamide, ampicillin and erythromycin. Staph. aureus was more resistant than CNS to β-lactamase-sensitive penicillins.

Original articles
Copyright © Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research 1995

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Archer, G. R. 1990 Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci. In Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, pp. 15111518 (Eds Mandell, G. L., Douglas, R. G. and Bennett, J. E.). New York: Churchill LivingstoneGoogle Scholar
Birgersson, A., Jonsson, P. & Holmberg, O. 1992 Species identification and some characteristics of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine udders. Veterinary Microbiology 31 181189CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boddie, R. L., Nickerson, S. C., Owens, W. E. & Watts, J. L. 1987 Udder microflora in nonlactating heifers. Agri-Practice 8(2) 2225Google Scholar
Fox, L. K. & Roberson, J. R. 1993 Heifer mastitis: is it a problem? Proceedings, Annual Meeting, National Mastitis Council 32 187196Google Scholar
Honkanen-Buzalski, T. 1990 The role of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bovine mastitis. Proceedings, International Symposium on Bovine Mastitis, Indianapolis, IN, pp. 98102Google Scholar
Jonsson, P., Olsson, S. -O., Olofson, A. -S., Fälth, C., Holmberg, O. & Funke, H. 1991 Bacteriological investigations of clinical mastitis in heifers in Sweden. Journal of Dairy Research 58 179185CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klastrup, O. & Schmidt Madsen, P. 1974 [Standard methods for bacteriological investigation of quarter milk samples. Nordic recommendations.] Nordisk Veterinœrmedicin 26 197204Google Scholar
Langlois, B. E., Parlindungan, A. K., Harmon, R. J. & Akers, K. 1990 Biochemical characteristics of Staphylococcus species of human and bovine origin. Journal of Food Protection 53 119126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lerondelle, C. 1985 Non-clinical mammary infections of heifers. Kieler Milchwirtschaftliche Forschungsberichte 37 628Google Scholar
Madsen, P., Nielsen, S. M., Rasmussen, M. D., Klastrup, O., Jensen, N. E., Jensen, P. T., Schmidt Madsen, P., Larsen, B. & Hyldgaard-Jensen, J. 1987 [Investigation on Genetic Resistance to Bovine Mastitis.] Copenhagen: Frederiksberg BogtrykkeriGoogle Scholar
Mastitis Committee, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry 1989 Prevention of Mastitis. Helsinki: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (Memo no. 19/1989)Google Scholar
Matthews, K. R., Harmon, R. J. & Langlois, B. E. 1991 Effect of naturally occurring coagulase-negative staphylococci infections on new infections by mastitis pathogens in the bovine. Journal of Dairy Science 74 18551859CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matthews, K. R., Harmon, R. J. & Langlois, B. E. 1992 Prevalence of Staphylococcus species during the periparturient period in primiparous and multiparous cows. Journal of Dairy Science 75 18351839CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mattila, T. 1985 Diagnostic Problems in Bovine Mastitis. PhD Thesis, College of Veterinary Medicine, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
Munch-Petersen, E. 1970 Mastitis in bovine primiparae. Veterinary Record 87 568574CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Myllys, V., Honkanen-Buzalski, T., Virtanen, H., Pyörälä, S. & Müller, H. -P. 1994 Effect of abrasion of teat orifice epithelium on development of bovine staphylococcal mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 77 446452CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oliver, S. P. 1987 Intramammary infections in heifers at parturition and early lactation in a herd with a high prevalence of environmental mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 70 Suppl. 1 259Google Scholar
Oliver, S. P., Lewis, M. J., Gillespie, B. E. & Dowlen, H. H. 1992 Influence of prepartum antibiotic therapy on intramammary infections in primigravid heifers during early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 75 406414CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oliver, S. P. & Mitchell, B. A. 1983 Intramammary infections in primigravid heifers near parturition. Journal of Dairy Science 66 11801183CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pankey, J. W., Drechsler, P. A. & Wildman, E. E. 1991 Mastitis prevalence in primigravid heifers at parturition. Journal of Dairy Science 74 15501552CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Predari, S. C., Ligozzi, M. & Fontana, R. 1991 Genotypic identification of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphyloocci by polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 35 25682573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pyörälä, S. & Pyörälä, E. 1994 Efficacy of therapy in clinical mastitis during lactation. XVII Nordic Veterinary Congress, ReykjavikGoogle Scholar
Pyörälä, S. & Syväjärvi, J. 1987 Bovine acute mastitis. Part I. Journal of Veterinary Medicine B 34 573584CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schukken, Y. H., Smit, J. A. H., Grommers, F. J., Vandegeer, D. & Brand, A. 1989 Effect of freezing on bacteriologic culturing of mastitis milk samples. Journal of Dairy Science 72 19001906CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sobiraj, A., Ostertag, H. -U., Peip, D., Bostedt, H. & Kielwein, G. 1988 [Clinical and bacteriological findings on the frequency of mastitis in first lactating heifers during and shortly after parturition.] Tierärztliche Praxis 16 243249Google Scholar
Trinidad, P., Nickerson, S. C. & Alley, T. K. 1990 Prevalence of intramammary infection and teat canal colonization in unbred and primigravid dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 73 107114CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
White, D. G., Harmon, R. J., Matos, J. E. S. & Langlois, B. E. 1989 Isolation and identification of coagulase-negative staphyloccus species from bovine body sites and streak canals of nulliparoua heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 72 18861892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wildman, E. E., O'neil, J. K., Drechsler, P. A. & Pankey, J. W. 1990 Prevalence of mastitis in primiparous cows. Journal of Dairy Science 73 Suppl. 1 257Google Scholar
Woodward, W. D., Besser, T. E., Ward, A. C. S. & Corbeil, L. B. 1987 In vitro growth inhibition of mastitis pathogens by bovine teat skin normal flora. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 51 2731Google ScholarPubMed