Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Bovine intra-mammary challenge with Streptococcus dysgalactiae spp. Dysgalactiae to explore the effect on the response of Complement activity

  • Susan Maye (a1) (a2), James Flynn (a1), Catherine Stanton (a1), Gerald F. Fitzgerald (a2) and Philip M. Kelly (a1)...

Abstract

Recently published work as described by the authors highlighted the extent of Complement activity in bovine milk. Localised mastitis infection occurring in the mammary glands of dairy cows is readily detectable by the levels of somatic cells in milk. Thus, it is opportune to monitor Complement activity in milks in association with the animal's innate immune response to mammary infection. Preliminary screening of milk samples taken randomly showed that milk with a high somatic cell count (SCC) reduced growth of the Complement-sensitive strain E. coli O111 to a greater extent (P < 0·05) than when the marker microorganism was grown in milk heated for the purpose of inactivating Complement. A follow-up study set out to determine the effect on Complement activity when a sub-clinical mastitis infection was induced in the mammary gland of four lactating dairy cows. The effect of Str. dysgalactiae spp. dysgalactiae inoculation into selected individual udder quarters of the mammary glands of each animal was followed by monitoring of SCC levels in the milks from the segregated udder samples during subsequent milking. At 72 and 96 h post inoculation (PI), the SCCs for the challenged quarter were increased compared to normal values. At the same time, the bactericidal sequestration assay identified increased E. coli O111 inhibition that can be directly linked to greater Complement activity in those quarter milks affected by induced inflammation. Thus, it can be identified that the high SCC milks were more effective in limiting E. coli O111 growth. Milks from the unchallenged quarters in all four cows were significantly less effective at reducing growth of the assay strain (P < 0·05).

An ELISA assay targeting specific activation components of the Complement pathways confirmed that greater bacterial inhibition observed during the bactericidal sequestration assay was attributable to higher Complement activity in the milk samples from the affected quarters, i.e., with higher SCC. The induced infection was confirmed as self-limiting in three of the affected animals and their SCC returned to normal levels within 14 d PI, while the fourth cow required brief antibiotic intervention.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*For correspondence; e-mail: phil.kelly@teagasc.ie

References

Hide All
Butler, JE 1979 Immunologic aspects of breast feeding, anti-infectious activity of breast milk. Seminars in Perinatology 3 255270
Geiger, WB 1952 Involvement of a complement-like factor in the activation of blood protease. Journal of Immunology 69 597604
Goldman, A, Thorpe, L, Goldblum, R & Hanson, L 1986 Anti-inflammatory properties of human milk. Acta Paediatrica 75 689695
Hogan, JS, Todhunter, DA, Smith, KL & Schoenberger, PS 1989 Serum susceptibility of coliforms isolated from bovine intramammary infections. Journal of Dairy Science 72 18931899
ISO 2004 Milk – Quantitative Determination of Bacteriological Quality – Guidance for Establishing and Verifying a Conversion Relationship Between Routine Method Results and Anchor Method Results, EN ISO 21187. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization
ISO 2006 Milk – Enumeration of Somatic Cells – Part 2: Guidance on the Operation of Fluoro-opto-Electronic Counters. EN ISO 13366-2 113. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization
ISO 2013 Milk – Bacterial Count – Protocol for the Evaluation of Alternative Methods (Reference Method), EN ISO 16297–1. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization
Hammarström, L & Weiner, CK 2008 Targeted antibodies in dairy-based products. In: Bosze, Z (Ed) Bioactive Components of Milk pp 321343. Springer New York, USA
Jakaitis, BM & Denning, PW 2014 Human breast milk and the gastrointestinal innate immune system. Clinics in Perinatology 41 423435
Janeway, CA, Travers, P, Walport, M & Schlomchik, M 2001 Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. 5th edition. New York: Garland Science
Lepow, IH, Wurz, L, Ratnoff, OD & Pillemer, L 1954 Studies on the mechanism of inactivation of human Complement by plasmin and by antigen-antibody aggregates I. The requirement for a factor resembling C′ 1 and the role of Ca++. Journal of Immunology 73 146158
Maye, S, Stanton, C, Fitzgerald, GF & Kelly, PM 2015 Detection and characterisation of Complement protein activity in bovine milk by bactericidal sequestration assay. Journal of Dairy Research 82 328333
McFarland, J 1907 The nephelometer: an instrument for estimating the number of bacteria in suspensions used for calculating the opsonic index and for vaccines. Journal of the American Medical Association 49 11761178
Newburg, DSW & Allan, W 2007 Protection of the neonate by the innate immune system of developing gut and of human milk. Pediatric Research 61 28
Ogundele, MO 2001 Role and significance of the complement system in mucosal immunity: particular reference to the human breast milk complement. Immunology and Cell Biology 79 110
Ogundele, MO 2002 Effects of storage on the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of human milk. British Journal of Biomedical Science 59 205
Pyörälä, S & Mattila, T 1987 Inflammatory changes during experimental bovine mastitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis . Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 34 574581
Rainard, PPB & Caffin, JP 1984 Assessment of hemolytic and bactericidal complement activities in normal and mastitic bovine milk. Journal of Dairy Science 67 614619
Reiter, B & Brock, JH 1975 Inhibition of Escherichia coli by bovine colostrum and post-colostral milk. I. Complement-mediated bactericidal activity of antibodies to a serum susceptible strain of E. coli of the serotype O 111. Immunology 28 71
Sambrook, J & Russell, DW 2001 Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual (3-volume set), New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Cold Spring Harbor
Sordillo, LM 2009 Current concepts on immunity and mastitis. Advances in Dairy Technology 21 111119
Sordillo, LM & Streicher, KL 2002 Mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 7 135146
Tasnim, S 2014 Effect of breast feeding on child development: at birth and beyond. South East Asia Journal of Public Health 4 48
Todhunter, D, Smith, KL & Hogan, JS 1990 Intramammary challenge of the bovine mammary gland with coliform bacteria during early involution. Journal of Dairy Science 73 12171224
Wang, Y, Lin, L, Yin, C, Othtani, S, Aoyama, K, Lu, C, Sun, X & Yoshikai, Y 2014 Oral administration of bovine milk from cows hyperimmunized with intestinal bacterin stimulates lamina propria T lymphocytes to produce Th1-biased cytokines in mice. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 15 54585471

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed