Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Immune reactivity against a variety of mammalian milks and plant-based milk substitutes

  • Aristo Vojdani (a1) (a2), Chris Turnpaugh (a3) and Elroy Vojdani (a4)

Abstract

The research reported here seeks to evaluate the allergenicity and antigenicity of different mammalian and plant-based milks/milk substitutes in healthy subjects. We used ELISA to measure IgE and IgG antibodies against cow, goat, sheep, camel, human milks, and soy, almond, and coconut plant-based milk substitutes, as well as IgA antibodies against all these apart from human milk, in 500 individuals in order to find the percentage of antibody elevation. IgG and IgE positivity showed that human milk was the least antigenic and allergenic, followed by camel milk. Cow's milk showed the highest percentage of elevation or reactivity. Among plant-based milk substitutes, the almond-based substitute was the most allergenic with the highest IgE reactivity, while the coconut milk substitute was lowest. For IgG and IgA immuno-reactivity, soy was first, with coconut again the lowest. We found IgE and IgG immune reactivity against coconut, almond and soymilks in some individuals who were non-reactive to mammalian milk, therefore, we should not assume that consumption of these milks is automatically without risk of allergenic response. We selected 24 samples out of the original 500 for the measurement of IgE antibodies against five different types of cow's milk, from non-organic to organic, A1 and A2. Statistical variance analysis detected no significant difference in IgE, IgG and IgA immune reactivities of the five different cow milks. Our results showed that if an individual is immuno-reactive to cow's milk, organic or not, the probability of reacting to goat and sheep milk is very high. Overall, the results presented here showed that for individuals allergic to cow's milk, the least allergenic alternatives in descending order are human, camel, sheep, and goat milks. Before choosing an alternative for cow's milk, one must go through accurate and quantitative blood testing for determination of IgE, IgG and IgA antibodies against different mammalian and plant-based milks/milk substitutes.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*For correspondence; e-mail: drari@msn.com

References

Hide All
Agrawal, RP, Swami, SC, Beniwal, R, Kochar, DK & Kotbari, RP 2002 Effect of camel milk on glycemic control, risk factors and diabetes quality of life in type 1 diabetes: a randomized prospective controlled study. International Journal Diabetes Development Country 22 7074
Al Hashem, F 2009 Camel's milk protects against aluminum chloride-induced toxicity in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 5 98108
American Academy of Pediatrics 2000 Committee on nutrition. Hypoallergenic infant formula. Pediatrics 106 354359
Boehm, G & Stahl, B 2007 Oligosaccharides from milk. Journal of Nutrition 137 847S849S
Dallas, DC, Murray, NM, Gan, J 2015 Proteolytic systems in milk: perspectives on the evolutionary function within the mammary gland and the infant. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 20 133147
De Noni, I 2008 Release of β-casomorphins 5 and 7 during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion of bovine β-casein variants and milk-based infant formulas. Food Chemistry 110 897903
El Agamy, EL 2007 The challenges of cow's milk protein allergy. Small Ruminant Research 68 6472
El Fakharany, EM, Abedelbaky, N, Haroum, BM, Sanchez, L, Redwan, NA & Redwan, EM 2012 Anti-infectivity of camel polyclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus in Huh7.5 hepatoma. Virology Journal 9 201
El Hatmi, H, Girardet, JM, Gaillard, JL, Yahyaoui, MH & Attia, H 2007 Characterization of whey proteins of camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk and colostrums. Small Ruminant Research 70 267271
El Hatmi, H, Jrad, Z, Khorchani, T, Dary, A & Girardet, JM 2014 Fast protein liquid chromatography of camel alpha-lactalbumin fraction with radical scavenging activity. Emirate Journal of Food and Agriculture 4 309316
El Hatmi, H, Jrad, Z, Salhi, I & Khorchani, T 2015 Comparison of composition and whey protein fractions of human, camel, donkey, goat and cow's milk. Mljekarstvo/ Dairy 65 159167
Ereifej, KI, Alu'datt, MH, AlKhalidi, HA, Alli, I & Rababah, T 2011 Comparison and characterization of fat and protein composition of camel milk from eight Jordanian locations. Food Chemistry 127 282289
Fiocchi, A, Brazek, J, Schunemann, H, Bahna, SL, von Berg, A, Beyer, K, Bozzola, M, Bradsher, J, Compalati, E, Ebisawa, M, Guzman, MA, Li, H, Heine, RG, Keith, P, Lack, G, Landi, M, Martelli, A, Rance, F, Sampson, H, Stein, A, Terracciano, L & Vieths, S (2010) World Allergy Organization (WAO) diagnosis and rationale for action against cow's milk allergy (DRACMA) guidelines. World Allergy Organ Journal 3 57161
Givens, I, Aikman, P, Gibson, T & Brown, R 2013 Proportions of A1, A2, B and C β-casein protein variants in retail milk in the UK. Food Chemistry 139 549552
Greer, FR, Sicherer, SH & Burks, AW 2008 Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas. Pediatrics 121 183191
Katz, Y, Goldberg, MR, Zadik-Mnuhin, G, Leshno, M & Heyman, E 2008 Cross-sensitization between milk proteins: reactivity to a “kosher” epitope? Israel Medical Association Journal 10 8588
Katz, Y, Rajuan, N, Goldberg, MR, Eisenberg, E, Heyman, E, Cohen, A & Leshno, M 2010 Early exposure to cow's milk protein is protective against IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy. Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology 126 7782e1
Luyt, D, Bali, H, Makwana, N, Green, MR, Bravin, K, Nasser, SM & Clark, AT 2014 BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of cow's milk allergy. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 44 642672
Onizawa, Y, Noguchi, E, Okada, M, Sumazaki, R & Hayashi, D 2016 The Association of the delayed introduction of cow's milk with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergies. Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology: In Practice 4(3) 481488
Taylor, SL & Hefle, SL 2001 Food allergies and other food sensitivities. Food Technology 55 6883
Truswell, AS 2005 The A2 milk case: a critical review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 623631
Virtanen, SM, Nevalainen, J, Kronberg-Kippila, C, Ahonen, S, Tapanainen, H, Uusitalo, L, Takkinen, HM, Niinisto, S.Overaskainen, ML, Kenward, MG, Veijola, R, Ilonen, J, Simell, O & Knip, M 2012 Food consumption and advanced B cell autoimmunity in young children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes: a nested case-control design. American Journal Clinical Nutrition 95 471478
Walsh, J, Meyer, R, Shah, N, Quekett, J & Fox, AR 2016 Differentiating milk allergy (IgE and non-IgE mediated) from lactose intolerance. British Journal of General Practice 66 e609e611
Wernery, U 2001 Camelid immunoglobulins and their importance for the new-born – a review. Journal of Veterinary Medicine B48 561568
World Health Organization 2007 Global surveillance, prevention, and control of chronic respiratory diseases: a comprehensive approach. http://www.who.int/gard/publications/GARD%20Book%202007.pdf
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Dairy Research
  • ISSN: 0022-0299
  • EISSN: 1469-7629
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-dairy-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Vojdani et al. supplementary material
Vojdani et al. supplementary material 1

 PDF (182 KB)
182 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed