Skip to main content Accessibility help

The impact of organic vs. inorganic selenium on dairy goat productivity and expression of selected genes in milk somatic cells

  • Daria Reczyńska (a1), Bożena Witek (a2), Justyna Jarczak (a3), Michał Czopowicz (a4), Marcin Mickiewicz (a4), Jarosław Kaba (a4), Lech Zwierzchowski (a1) and Emilia Bagnicka (a1)...

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of diet supplemented with selenized yeast (Se-yeast) on milk yield and milk composition of goats and expression of casein and mammary-gland-immune system genes in milk somatic cells (MSC). Twenty-four dairy goats in their second to fourth lactations were divided into control and experimental groups, balanced according to lactation number and breed (Polish White or Fawn Improved). Morning milk and blood samples were collected four times during lactation (on the 21st, 70th, 120th, 180th day after kidding). The control and experimental groups were fed diets with 0.7 mg inorganic Se/goat/day (sodium selenite) or 0.6 mg organic Se/goat/day (selenized yeast), respectively. Milk, fat and protein yields during lactation as well as average somatic cell count, fat, protein and lactose contents in milk were evaluated. Microelements in milk and blood serum and biochemical parameters in blood serum were determined at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The expression levels of the genes encoding αS1-casein (CSN1S1), αS2-casein (CSN1S2), κ-casein (CSN3), interleukin 8 (IL-8), serum amyloid A3 (SAA3), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), bactenecin 7.5 (BAC7.5), bactenecin 5 (BAC5), β2-defensin (GBD2), hepcidin (HAMP), chemokine 4 (CCL4), tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), cathelicidin-7 (MAP34) and cathelicidin-6 (MAP28) were determined in MSC. Milk, fat, and protein yields were higher and somatic cell count (SCC expressed as natural logarithm) was lower in the milk of goats fed organic Se. The Se concentration in milk was twice as high in the organic vs. inorganic treatment groups at the end of the experiment, while there were no differences in studied biochemical parameters between groups. The transcript levels of CSN1S2 and BAC7.5 were higher and IL-8 was lower in MSC of Se-yeast treated groups. Such results may indicate better health status of mammary glands of goats treated with organic Se as well as positive impact of selenized yeast on the goat's milk composition. Differences in the IL-1β and IL-8 transcript levels were also noted between the stages of lactation, with the highest expression at the peak of lactation (day 70), highlighting the metabolic burden at this time. We concluded that the Se-yeast supplementation improved the productivity and health status of goats and could have significant economic impact on farmer's income.

Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Emilia Bagnicka, E-mail:
Hide All
AOAC (2006) Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 18th Edn. Arlington, VA, USA: Association of Analytical Communities.
Bagnicka, E, Winnicka, A, Jóźwik, A, Rzewuska, M, Strzałkowska, N, Kościuczuk, E, Prusak, B, Kaba, J, Horbańczuk, JO and Krzyżewski, J (2011) Relationship between somatic cell count and bacterial pathogens in goat milk. Small Ruminant Research 100, 7277.
Bagnicka, E, Jarczak, J, Kaba, J, Kościuczuk, EM, Czopowicz, M and Krzyżewski, J (2016) Effect of organic vs. Inorganic selenium supplementation on the milk production traits of polish dairy goats. In Kukovics, S. (ed.), Sustainable Goat Breeding and Goat Farming in Central and Eastern European Countries. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 237241.
Bagnicka, E, Kościuczuk, EM, Jarczak, J, Jóźwik, A, Strzałkowska, N, Słoniewska, D and Krzyżewski, J (2017) The effect of inorganic and organic selenium added to diets on milk yield, milk chemical and mineral composition and the blood serum metabolic profile of dairy cows. Animal Science Papers and Reports 35, 1733.
Bagnicka, E, Reczyńska, D, Czopowicz, M, Jarczak, J, Mickiewicz, M, Słoniewska, D and Kaba, J (2018) The expression of immune related genes in blood leukocytes of goats infected with small ruminant lentivirus. 11th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Proceedings 11.211. 11–16 February 2018. Auckland, New Zealand.
Barger, JL, Kayo, T, Pugh, TD, Vann, JA, Power, R, Dawson, K, Weindruch, R and Prolla, TA (2011) Gene expression profiling reveals differential effect of sodium selenite, selenomethionine, and yeast-derived selenium in the mouse. Genes & Nutrition 7, 155165.
Bellioni-Businco, B, Paganelli, R, Lucenti, P, Giampietro, PG, Perborn, H and Businco, L (1999, Allergenicity of goat's milk in children with cow's milk allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 103, 11911194.
Bonfatti, V, Di Martino, G, Cecchinato, A, Degano, L and Carnier, P (2010) Effects of β-κ-casein (CSN2-CSN3) haplotypes, β-lactoglobulin (BLG) genotypes, and detailed protein composition on coagulation properties of individual milk of Simmental cows. Journal of Dairy Science 93, 38093817.
Boutinaud, M, Herve, L and Lollivier, V (2015) Mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary transcripts. Frontiers in Genetics 6, 323.
Brennan, KM, Crowdus, CA, Cantor, AH, Pescatore, AJ, Barger, JL, Horgan, K, Xiao, R, Power, RF and Dawson, KA (2011) Effect of organic and inorganic dietary selenium supplementation on gene expression profiles in oviduct tissue from broiler-breeder hens. Animal Reproduction Science 125, 108188.
Ceballos, A, Sánchez, J, Stryhn, H, Sánchez, J, Montgomery, JB, Barkema, HW and Wichtel, JJ (2009) Meta-analysis of the effect of oral selenium supplementation on milk selenium concentration in cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 324342.
Enamorado-Báez, SM, Abril, JM and Gómez-Guzmán, JM (2013) Determination of 25 trace element concentrations in biological reference materials by ICP-MS following different microwave-assisted acid digestion methods based on scaling masses of digested samples. ISRN Analytical Chemistry 1–14 Article ID 851713.
Gong, J, Ni, L, Wang, D, Shi, B and Yan, S (2014) Effect of dietary organic selenium on milk selenium concentration and antioxidant and immune status in midlactation dairy cows. Livestock Science 170, 8490.
Hesketh, J (2008) Nutrigenomics and selenium: gene expression patterns, physiological targets, and genetics. Annual Review of Nutrition 28, 157177.
IZ PIB-INRA (2009) Normy żywienia przeżuwaczy: wartość pokarmowa francuskich i krajowych pasz dla przeżuwaczy. In Polish, Strzetelski J. (ed.), [Standard of Ruminants’ Feeding: Nutrient Value of French and Domestic Fodders for Ruminants]. Cracow, Poland: Research Institute of Animal Production, pp. 109119.
Jarczak, J, Kaba, J and Bagnicka, E (2014 a) The validation of housekeeping genes as a reference in quantitative real time PCR analysis: application in the milk somatic cells and frozen whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Gene 549, 280285.
Jarczak, J, Kościuczuk, E, Ostrowska, M, Lisowski, P, Strzałkowska, N, Jóźwik, A, Krzyżewski, J, Zwierzchowski, L, Słoniewska, D and Bagnicka, E (2014 b) The effects of diet supplementation with yeast on the expression of selected immune system genes in the milk somatic cells of dairy goats. Animal Science Papers and Reports 32, 4153.
Jarczak, J, Kaba, J, Reczyńska, D and Bagnicka, E (2016) Impaired expression of cytokines as a result of viral infections with an emphasis on small ruminant lentivirus infection in goats. Viruses 8, 186.
Juniper, DT, Phipps, RH, Jones, AK and Bertin, G (2006) Selenium supplementation of lactating dairy cows: effect on selenium concentration in blood, milk, urine, and feces. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 35443551.
Kachuee, R, Moeini, MM and Souri, M (2013) The effect of dietary organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on serum Se, Cu, Fe and Zn status during the late pregnancy in Merghoz goats and their kids. Small Ruminant Research 110, 2027.
Knowles, SO, Grace, ND, Wurms, J and Lee, J (1999) Significance of amount and form of dietary selenium on blood, milk, and casein selenium concentrations in grazing cows. Journal of Dairy Science 82, 429437.
Kościuczuk, EM, Lisowski, P, Jarczak, J, Strzałkowska, N, Jóźwik, A, Horbańczuk, J, Krzyżewski, J, Zwierzchowski, L and Bagnicka, E (2012) Cathelicidins: family of antimicrobial peptides. A review. Molecular Biology Reports 39, 1095710970.
Kruzhel, B, Bakowska, M, Vovk, S, Nowakowska, E and Sergei, P (2014) Selenium in the diet of ruminants. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Zootechnica 13, 516.
Krzyżewski, J, Bagnicka, E and Horbańczuk, JO (2014) The effect of selenium supplementation to the diet of dairy cows and goats on production traits and animal health – a review. Animal Science Papers and Reports 32, 283299.
Lad, SS, Aparnathi, KD, Mehta, B and Velpula, S (2017) Goat milk in human nutrition and health – A review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6, 17811792.
Mehdi, Y and Dufrasne, I (2016) Selenium in cattle: a review. Molecules 21 545559.
Montgomery, JB, Wichtel, JJ, Wichtel, MG, McNiven, AA, McClure, JT, Markham, F and Horohov, DW (2012) Effects of selenium source on measures of selenium status and immune function in horses. The Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 76, 281291.
Oltramari, CE, Pinheiro, MG, de Miranda, MS, Arcaro, LRP, Castelni, L, Toledo, LM, Ambrόsio, LA, Leme, PR, Manella, MQ and Jứnior, IA (2014) Selenium sources in the diet of dairy cows and their effects on milk production an quality, on udder health and on physiological indicators of heat stress. Italian Journal of Animal Science 13, 4852.
Pechová, A, Janštová, B, Mišurová, L, Dračková, M, Vorlová, L and Pavlata, L (2008) Impact of supplementation of various selenium forms in goats on quality and composition of milk, cheese and yoghurt. Acta Veterinaria Brno 77, 407414.
Petrera, F, Calmari, L and Bertin, G (2009) Effect of either sodium selenite or Se-yeast supplementation on selenium status and milk characteristics in dairy goats. Small Ruminant Research 82, 130138.
Pfaffl, MW (2001) A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT–PCR. Nucleic Acids Research 29, e45e45.
Phipps, RH, Grandison, AS, Jones, AK, Juniper, DT, Ramos-Morales, E and Bertin, G (2008) Selenium supplementation of lactating dairy cows: effects on milk production and total selenium content and speciation in blood, milk and cheese. Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience 2, 16101618.
Poławska, E, Zdanowska-Sąsiadek, Ż, Horbańczuk, J, Pomianowski, JF, Jóźwik, A, Tolik, D, Raes, K and De Smet, S (2016) Effect of dietary organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on chemical, mineral and fatty acid composition of ostrich meat. CyTA – Journal of Food 14, 8487.
Reczyńska, D, Zalewska, M, Czopowicz, M, Kaba, J, Zwierzchowski, L and Bagnicka, E (2018) Small ruminant lentivirus infection influences expression of acute phase proteins and cathelicidin genes in milk somatic cells and peripheral blood leukocytes of dairy goats. Veterinary Research 49, 113.
Ren, Y, Wang, Q, Shi, L, Yue, W, Zhang, C and Lei, F (2011) Effects of maternal and dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on the expression of p34cdc2 and Cyclin B1 of germ cells of their offspring in goats. Animal Reproduction Science 123, 187191.
Silvestre, FT, Rutigliano, HM, Thatcher, WW, Santos, JE-P and Staples, CR (2007) Effect of selenium source on production, reproduction and immunity of lactating dairy cows. In 18th Annual Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symposium. Gainesville, USA University of Florida.
Smith, KL, Hogan, JS and Weiss, WP (1997) Dietary vitamin E and selenium affect mastitis and milk quality. Journal of Animal Science 75, 16591665.
Suhajda, A, Hegóczki, J, Janzsó, B, Pais, J and Vareczkey, G (2000) Preparation of selenium yeasts I. Preparation of selenium – enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 14, 4347.
Winkel, LHE, Vriens, B, Jones, GD, Schneider, LS, Pilon-Smits, E and Banuelos, GS (2015) Selenium cycling across soil-plant-atmosphere interfaces: a critical review. Nutrients 7, 41994239.
Ziaei, N (2015) Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on reproductive indices and biochemical metabolites in Raieni goats. Journal of Applied Animal Research 4, 426430.
Zhang, L, Liu, XR, Liu, JZ, An, XP, Zhou, ZQ, Cao, BY and Song, YX (2018) Supplemented Organic and Inorganic Selenium Affects Milk Performance and Selenium Concentration in Milk and Tissues in the Guanzhong Dairy Goat. Biological Trace Element Research 183, 254260.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Dairy Research
  • ISSN: 0022-0299
  • EISSN: 1469-7629
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-dairy-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Reczyńska et al. supplementary material
Reczyńska et al. supplementary material 1

 PDF (433 KB)
433 KB


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed