Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Statistical properties of proportional residual energy intake as a new measure of energetic efficiency

  • Pouya Zamani (a1)

Abstract

Traditional ratio measures of efficiency, including feed conversion ratio (FCR), gross milk efficiency (GME), gross energy efficiency (GEE) and net energy efficiency (NEE) may have some statistical problems including high correlations with milk yield. Residual energy intake (REI) or residual feed intake (RFI) is another criterion, proposed to overcome the problems attributed to the traditional ratio criteria, but it does not account for production or intake levels. For example, the same REI value could be considerable for low producing and negligible for high producing cows. The aim of this study was to propose a new measure of efficiency to overcome the problems attributed to the previous criteria. A total of 1478 monthly records of 268 lactating Holstein cows were used for this study. In addition to FCR, GME, GEE, NEE and REI, a new criterion called proportional residual energy intake (PREI) was calculated as REI to net energy intake ratio and defined as proportion of net energy intake lost as REI. The PREI had an average of −0·02 and range of −0·36 to 0·27, meaning that the least efficient cow lost 0·27 of her net energy intake as REI, while the most efficient animal saved 0·36 of her net energy intake as less REI. Traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) had high correlations with milk and fat corrected milk yields (absolute values from 0·469 to 0·816), while the REI and PREI had low correlations (0·000 to 0·069) with milk production. The results showed that the traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) are highly influenced by production traits, while the REI and PREI are independent of production level. Moreover, the PREI adjusts the REI magnitude for intake level. It seems that the PREI could be considered as a worthwhile measure of efficiency for future studies.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*For correspondence; e-mail: pzamani@basu.ac.ir

References

Hide All
Blake, RW & Custodio, AA 1984 Feed efficiency: a composite trait of dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 67 20752083
Brody, S 1945 Bioenergetics and Growth. New York, NY: Reinhold Publ. Co.
Buttazzoni, L & Mao, IL 1989 Genetic parameters of estimated net energy efficiencies for milk production, maintenance and body weight change in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 72 671677
Connor, EE, Hutchison, JL & Norman, HD 2012 Estimating feed efficiency of lactating dairy cattle using residual feed intake. In Feed Efficiency in the Beef Industry, pp 159–173 (Ed. Hill, RA). Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Connor, EE, Hutchison, JL, Norman, HD, Olson, KM, Van Tassell, CP, Leith, JM & Baldwin, RL 2013. Use of residual feed intake in Holsteins during early lactation shows potential to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection. Journal of Animal Science 91 39785977
Hurley, AM, López-Villalobos, N, McParland, S, Kennedy, E, Lewis, E, O'Donovan, M, Burke, JL & Berry, DP 2016 Inter-relationships among alternative definitions of feed efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 99 468479
Kennedy, BW, van der Werf, JHJ & Meuwissen, THE 1993 Genetic and statistical properties of residual feed intake. Journal of Animal Science 71 32393250
Khansefid, M, Pryce, JE, Bolormaa, S, Miller, SP, Wang, Z, Li, C & Goddard, ME 2014 Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multibreed cattle population. Journal of Animal Science 92 32703283
Koch, RM, Swiger, LA, Chambers, D & Gregory, KE 1963 Efficiency of food use in beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 22 486494
Korver, S 1988 Genetic aspects of feed intake and feed efficiency in dairy cattle: a review. Livestock Production Science 20 113
Liinamo, AE, Mäntysaari, P, Lidauer, MH & Mäntysaari, EA 2015 Genetic parameters for residual energy intake and energy conversion efficiency in Nordic Red dairy cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, A-Animal Science 65 6372
Manafiazar, G, McFadden, T, Goonewardene, L, Okine, E, Basarab, J, Li, P & Wang, Z 2013 Prediction of residual feed intake for first-lactation dairy cows using orthogonal polynomial random regression. Journal of Dairy Science 96 79918001
Manafiazar, G, Goonewardene, L, Miglior, F, Crews, DH Jr, Basarab, JA, Okine, E & Wang, Z 2016 Genetic and phenotypic correlations among feed efficiency, production and selected conformation traits in dairy cows. Animal 10 381389
Mäntysaari, P, Liinamo, AE & Mäntysaari, EA 2012 Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 95 32003211
Miraei-Ashtiani, SR, Zamani, P, Nik-Khah, A, Moradi-Shahrbabak, M, Naserian, A & Akbari, F 2005 Study the importance of net energy efficiency in breeding programs of Holstein dairy cattle. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 9 201209
National Research Council 2001 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press
Ngwerume, F & Mao, IL 1992 Estimation of residual energy intake for lactating cows using an animal model. Journal of Dairy Science 75 22832287
Prendiville, R, Pierce, KM, Delaby, L & Buckley, F 2011 Animal performance and production efficiencies of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey and Jersey × Holstein-Friesian cows throughout lactation. Livestock Science 138 2533
Ross, SA, Chagunda, MGG, Topp, CFE & Ennos, R 2015 Biological efficiency profiles over the lactation period in multiparous high-producing dairy cows under divergent production systems. Archives of Animal Breeding 58 127135
Wang, S, Roy, GL, Lee, AJ, McAllister, AJ, Batra, TR, Lin, CY, Vesely, JA, Wauthy, JM & Winter, KA 1992 Evaluation of various measures of and factors influencing feed efficiency of dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 75 12731280
Xue, B, Yan, T, Ferris, CF & Mayne, CS 2011 Milk production and energy efficiency of Holstein and Jersey-Holstein crossbred dairy cows offered diets containing grass silage. Journal of Dairy Science 94 14551464
Zamani, P 2012 Efficiency of lactation. In Milk Production – An Up-to-Date Overview of Animal Nutrition, Management and Health, pp. 139150 (Ed. Chaiyabutr, N). Croatia: InTech
Zamani, P, Miraei-Ashtiani, SR & Mohammadi, H 2008 Genetic parameters of residual energy intake and its correlations with other traits in Holstein dairy cattle. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 32 255261
Zamani, P, Miraei-Ashtiani, SR, Alipour, D, Aliarabi, H & Saki, AA 2011 Genetic parameters of protein efficiency and its relationships with yield traits in lactating dairy cows. Livestock Science 138 272277

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed