Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

THE HOMOSEXUAL LIFESTYLE: TIME USE IN SAME-SEX HOUSEHOLDS

  • Michael E. Martell (a1) and Leanne Roncolato (a2)
Abstract

We are among the first to use American time-use data to investigate non-market behavior in gay and lesbian households. We contribute to a literature that has documented a gay disadvantage and lesbian advantage in the labor market. Many have proposed that this pattern reflects, relative to their heterosexual counterparts, higher levels of household labor among gay men and lower levels of household labor among lesbian women. Results show that gay men, parents in particular, spend more time in household production than heterosexual men. We find evidence of different time-use patterns for lesbians, but they are driven by characteristics not sexual orientation. These results also contribute to the economics of the household showing that time use in same-sex households with weaker gender constructs does not conform to the predictions of models that highlight comparative advantage as a source of specialization.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      THE HOMOSEXUAL LIFESTYLE: TIME USE IN SAME-SEX HOUSEHOLDS
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      THE HOMOSEXUAL LIFESTYLE: TIME USE IN SAME-SEX HOUSEHOLDS
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      THE HOMOSEXUAL LIFESTYLE: TIME USE IN SAME-SEX HOUSEHOLDS
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence to: Michael E. Martell, Department of Economics, Bard College, P.O. Box 5000, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504; e-mail: mmartell@bard.edu.
References
Hide All
Abraham, Katharine G., Maitland, Aaron and Bianchi, Suzanne (2006) Nonresponse in the american time use survey: Who is missing from the data and how much does it matter? Public Opinion Quarterly 70 (5), 676703.
Agarwal, Bina (1997) “Bargaining”and gender relations: Within and beyond the household. Feminist Economics 3 (1), 151.
Ahmed, Ali M., Andersson, Lina and Hammarstedt, Mats (2011) Inter- and intra-household earnings differentials among homosexual and heterosexual couples. British Journal of Industrial Relations 49 (2), 248278.
Ahmed, Ali M., Andersson, Lina and Hammarstedt, Mats (2013) Sexual orientation and full-time monthly earnings, by public and private sector: Evidence from Swedish register data. Review of Economics of the Household 11 (1), 83108.
Ahmed, Ali M. and Hammarstedt, Mats (2010) Sexual orientation and earnings: A register data-based approach to identify homosexuals. Journal of Population Economics 23 (3), 835849.
Allen, Douglas W. (2015) Household production and sexual orientation. Economic Inquiry 53 (1), 406418.
Antecol, Heather, Jong, Anneke and Steinberger, Michael (2008) The sexual orientation wage gap: The role of occupational sorting, human capital and discrimination. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 61 (4), 518543.
Antecol, Heather and Steinberger, Michael D. (2013) Labor supply differences between married heterosexual women and partnered lesbians: A semi-parametric decomposition approach. Economic Inquiry 51 (1), 783805.
Arabsheibani, G. Reza, Marin, Alan, and Wadsworth, Jonathan (2004) In the pink: Homosexual-heterosexual wage differentials in the U.K. International Journal of Manpower 25 (3), 343354.
Badgett, M. V. Lee (1995) The wage effects of sexual orientation discrimination. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 54 (3), 726739.
Baumle, Amanda K. and Poston, Dudley L. (2011) The economic cost of homosexuality: Multilevel analyses. Social Forces 89 (3), 10051031.
Becker, G. S. (1981) A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge: Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Berg, Nathan and Lien, Donald (2002) Measuring the effect of sexual orientation on income: Evidence of discrimination? Contemporary Economic Policy 20 (4), 394414.
Biblarz, Timothy J. and Savci, Evren (2010) Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender families. Journal of Marriage and Family 72 (3), 480497.
Black, Dan, Sanders, Seth and Taylor, Lowell (2007) The economics of lesbian and gay families. Journal of Economic Perspectives 21 (2), 5370.
Blau, Francine and Kahn, Lawrence (2005) Changes in the Labor Supply of Behavior of Married Women: 1980–2000. NBER working paper 11230, http://www.nber.org/papers/w11230. National Bureau of Economic Research.
Bredtman, Julia (2014) The intra-household division of labor: An empirical analysis of spousal influences on individual time allocation. LABOUR: Review of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations 28 (1), 139.
Budlender, Debbie (2000) The political economy of women’s budgets in the south. World Development 28 (7), 13651378.
Carpenter, Christopher S. (2007) Revisiting the income penalty for behaviorally gay men: Evidence from NHANES III. Labour Economics 14, 2534.
Carter, Michael and Katz, Elizabeth (1997) Separate spheres and the conjugal contract: Understanding the impact of gender-biased development. In Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Developing Countries: Methods, Models and Policies, pp. 95111. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Chiappori, Pierre-Andre (1992) Collective labor supply and welfare. Journal of Political Economy 100 (3), 437467.
Chiappori, Pierre-André, Fortin, Bernard and Lacroix, Guy (2002) Marriage market, divorce legislation, and household labor supply. Journal of political Economy 110 (1), 3772.
Clain, Suzanne Heller and Leppel, Karen (2001) An investigation into sexual orientation discrimination as an explanation for wage differences. Applied Economics 33, 3747.
Clarke, Geoff and Sevak, Purvi (2013) The disappearing gay income penalty. Economics Letters 121, 542545.
Cushing-Daniels, Brendan and Yeung, Tsz-Ying (2009) Wage penalties and sexual orientation: An update using the General Social Survey. Contemporary Economic Policy 27 (2), 164175.
Dalton, Susan E. and Bielby, Denise D. (2000) “That’s our kind of constellation” lesbian mothers negotiate institutionalized understandings of gender within the family. Gender & Society 14 (1), 3661.
Daneshvary, Nasser, Waddoups, C. Jeffrey and Wimmer, Bradley S. (2008) Educational attainment and the lesbian wage premium. Journal of Labor Research 29, 365379.
Daneshvary, Nasser, Waddoups, C. Jeffrey and Wimmer, Bradley S. (2009) Previous marriage and the lesbian wage premium. Industrial Relations 48 (3), 432453.
Doss, Cheryl R. (1996) Testing among models of intrahousehold resource allocation. World Development 24 (10), 15971609.
Folbre, N. (2008) Valuing Children: Rethinking the Economics of the Family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Frazis, H. and Stewart, J. (2007) Where does the time go? Concepts and measurement in the american time use survey. In Hard-to-Measure Goods and Services: Essays in Honor of Zvi Griliches, pp. 7397. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Frazis, Harley and Stewart, Jay (2012) How to think about time-use data: What inferences can we make about long-and short-run time use from time diaries? Annals of Economics and Statistics/ANNALES D’ÉCONOMIE ET DE STATISTIQUE 105–106, 231245.
Gates, Gary J. (2013) Same-sex and different-sex couples in the American community survey: 2005–2011. UCLA: The Williams Institute. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8dk71277
Gates, Gary J. and Cooke, Abigail M. (2011) United states census snapshot: 2010. UCLA: The Williams Institute Retrieved from: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/4j23r1rx.
Giddings, Lisa, Nunley, John M., Schneebaum, Alyssa, and Zietz, Joachim (2014) Birth cohort and the specialization gay between same-sex and different-sex couples. Demography 51, 509534.
Greene, W. (2002) Econometric Analysis, 5th ed. New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Haider-Markel, Donald P. and Meier, Kenneth J. (1996) The politics of gay and lesbian rights: Expanding the scope of the conflict. The Journal of Politics 58 (2), 332349.
Hener, Timo (2015) Do couples bargain over fertility? Annals of Economics and Statistics/Annales d’Économie et de Statistique 117–118, 211231.
Hersch, Joni and Stratton, Leslie (1997) Housework, fixed effects, and wages of married workers. Journal of Human Resources 32 (2), 285307.
Jepsen, Christopher and Jepsen, Lisa K. (2015) Labor-market specialization within same-sex and different-sex couples. Industrial Relations 54 (1), 109130.
Jepsen, Lisa K. (2007) Comparing the earnings of cohabiting lesbians, cohabiting heterosexual women, and married women: Evidence from the 2000 Census. Industrial Relations 46 (4), 699727.
Kimmel, Jean and Connelly, Rachel (2007) Mothers’ time choices: Caregiving, leisure, home production and paid work. Journal of Human Resources 42 (3), 643681.
Klawitter, Marieka (2011) Multilevel analysis of the effects of antidiscrimination policies on earnings by sexual orientation. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 30 (2), 334358.
Klawitter, Marieka (2015) Meta-analysis of the effects of sexual orientation on earnings. Industrial Relations 54 (1), 432.
Klawitter, Marieka and Flatt, Victor (1998) The effects of state and local anti-discrimination policies on earnings for gays and lesbians. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 4, 658686.
Lundberg, Shelly and Pollak, Robert A (1994) Noncooperative bargaining models of marriage. The American Economic Review 84 (2), 132137.
Lundberg, Shelly and Pollak, Robert A (1996) Bargaining and distribution in marriage. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 10 (3), 139158.
Manser, Marilyn and Brown, Murray (1980) Marriage and household decision-making: A bargaining analysis. International Economic Review 21 (1), 3144.
Martell, Michael E. (2013a) Differences do not matter: Exploring the wage gap for same-sex behaving men. Eastern Economic Journal 39 (1), 4571.
Martell, Michael E. (2013b) Do ENDAs end discrimination for behaviorally gay men? Journal of Labor Research 34 (2), 147169.
Martell, Michael E. (2014) How ENDAs extend the workweek: Legal protection and the labor supply of behaviorally gay men. Contemporary Economic Policy 32 (3), 560577.
Masterson, Thomas (2012) An empirical analysis of gender bias in education spending in paraguay. World Development 40 (3), 583593.
McElroy, Marjorie B. and Horney, Mary Jean (1981) Nash-bargained household decisions: Toward a generalization of the theory of demand. International Economic Review 22 (2), 333349.
Movement Advancement Project (2014) Snapshot: LGBT legal equality by state. Date Accessed: November 10, 2014.
Oerton, Sarah (1998) Reclaiming the ‘housewife’? Lesbians and household work. Journal of Lesbian Studies 2 (4), 6983.
Orrefice, Sonia (2011) Sexual orientation and household decision making: Same-sex couples’ balance of power and labor supply choices. Labour Economics 18 (2), 145158.
Padavic, Irene and Butterfield, Jonniann (2011) Mothers, fathers, and “mathers” negotiating a lesbian co-parental identity. Gender & Society 25 (2), 176196.
Peplau, Letitia A. and Fingerhut, Adam (2004) The paradox of the lesbian worker. Journal of Social Issues 60 (4), 719735.
Plug, E. and Berkhout, P. (2008) Sexual Orientation, Disclosure and Earnings. IZA discussion paper 3290. Institute for the Study of Labor.
Raley, Sara, Bianchi, Suzanne M. and Wang, Wendy (2012) When do fathers care? mothers’ economic contribution and fathers’ involvement in child care. American Journal of Sociology 117 (5), 14221459.
Ruggles, Steven, Genadek, Katie, Goeken, Ronal, Grover, Josiah, and Sobek, Matthew (2015) Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 6.0. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
Ruppanner, Leah and Maume, David J. (2016) The state of domestic affairs: Housework, gender and state-level institutional logics. Social Science Research.
Ryan, Maura and Berkowitz, Dana (2009) Constructing gay and lesbian parent families “beyond the closet”. Qualitative sociology 32 (2), 153172.
Sabia, Joseph J. (2015) Fluidity in sexual identity, unmeasured heterogeneity, and the earnings effects of sexual orientation. Industrial Relations 54 (1), 3358.
Sayer, Liane C. (2005) Gender, time and inequality: Trends in women’s and men’s paid work, unpaid work and free time. Social Forces 84 (1), 258303.
Schneebaum, A. (2013) The Economics of Same-Sex Couple Households: Essays on Work, Wages, and Poverty. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
Sen, A. K. (1990) Gender and cooperative conflict. In Tinker, I. (ed.), Persistent Inequalities, pp. 123149. New York: Oxford University Press.
Solon, Gary, Haider, Steven J. and Wooldridge, Jeffrey M. (2015) What are we weighting for? The Journal of Human Resources 50 (2), 301316.
Stewart, Jay (2013) Tobit or not tobit? Journal of Economic and Social Measurement 38 (3), 263290.
Stratton, Leslie S. (2015) The determinants of housework time. IZA World of Labor 133, 110.
US Bureau of Labor Statistics (2013) American time use survey activity lexicon. Available at http://www.bls.gov/tus/lexiconnoex0312.pdf Date Accessed: December 10, 2014.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Demographic Economics
  • ISSN: 2054-0892
  • EISSN: 2054-0906
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-demographic-economics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed