Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-t4qhp Total loading time: 0.392 Render date: 2022-08-18T05:36:08.077Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Street drug use during pregnancy: potential programming effects on preschool wheeze

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 November 2012

M. E. Alton
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
S. C. Tough
Affiliation:
Department of Paediatrics and Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
P. J. Mandhane
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
A. L. Kozyrskyj*
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
*
*Address for correspondence: Dr A. L. Kozyrskyj, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, 3-527 Edmonton Clinic Health Academy, 11405-87 Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1C9 Canada. (Email kozyrsky@ualberta.ca)

Abstract

Street drug use during pregnancy is detrimental to fetal development. Although the prevalence of wheeze is high in offspring of substance-abusing mothers, nothing is known about the role of street drug use during pregnancy in its development. We investigated the impact of maternal street drug use and distress during pregnancy on the development of wheeze and allergy in preschool children. Questionnaire data were accessed from the Community Perinatal Care trial of 791 mother–child pairs in Calgary, Alberta. Using logistic regression, the association between maternal substance use and distress during pregnancy, and wheeze and allergy at age 3 years was determined in boys and girls. After adjusting for alcohol use during pregnancy, pre- and postnatal tobacco use, preterm birth, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, daycare attendance and maternal socioeconomic status, maternal street drug use during pregnancy [odds ratio (OR): 5.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30–19.4] and severe maternal distress during pregnancy (OR: 5.79, 95% CI: 1.25–26.8) were associated with wheeze in girls. In boys, an independent association was found between severe distress during pregnancy (OR: 3.85, 95% CI: 1.11–13.3) and allergies, but there was no association with maternal street drug use. In conclusion, we found an association between maternal street drug use and wheeze in preschool girls that could not be accounted for by maternal distress, smoking or alcohol use during pregnancy. Prenatal programming effects of street drugs may explain this association.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press and the International Society for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 2012 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1.Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings, NSDUH Series H-34, 2008. Office of Applied Studies: Rockville, MD, USA.Google Scholar
2.Tough, SC, Johnston, DW, Siever, JE, et al. Does supplementary prenatal nursing and home visitation support improve resource use in a universal health care system? A randomized controlled trial in Canada. Birth. 2006; 33, 183194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3.Moore, DG, Turner, JD, Parrott, AC, et al. During pregnancy, recreational drug-using women stop taking ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) and reduce alcohol consumption, but continue to smoke tobacco and cannabis: initial findings from the development and infancy study. J Psychopharmacol. 2010; 24, 14031410.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4.Pinto, SM, Dodd, S, Walkinshaw, SA, et al. Substance abuse during pregnancy: effect on pregnancy outcomes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010; 150, 137141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5.Kelly, JJ, Davis, PG, Henschke, PN. The drug epidemic: effects on newborn infants and health resource consumption at a tertiary perinatal centre. J Paediatr Child Health. 2000; 36, 262264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6.Bandstra, ES, Morrow, CE, Mansoor, E, Accornero, VH. Prenatal drug exposure: infant and toddler outcomes. J Addict Dis. 2010; 29, 245258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7.Streissguth, AP, Barr, HM, Martin, DC. Offspring effects and pregnancy complications related to self-reported maternal alcohol use. Dev Pharmacol Ther. 1982; 5, 2132.Google ScholarPubMed
8.Lester, BM, Tronick, EZ, Lagasse, L, et al. The maternal lifestyle study: effects of substance exposure during pregnancy on neurodevelopmental outcome in 1-month-old infants. Pediatrics. 2002; 110, 11821192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9.Morrow, CE, Bandstra, ES, Anthony, JC, et al. Influence of prenatal cocaine exposure on early language development: longitudinal findings from four months to three years of age. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2003; 24, 3950.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10.Salisbury, AL, Ponder, KL, Padbury, JF, Lester, BM. Fetal effects of psychoactive drugs. Clin Perinatol. 2009; 36, 595619.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11.Fried, PA, Watkinson, B, Gray, R. Differential effects on cognitive functioning in 13- to 16-year-olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marijuana. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2003; 25, 427436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12.Goldschmidt, L, Day, NL, Richardson, GA. Effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on child behavior problems at age 10. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2000; 22, 325336.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13.Conners, NA, Bradley, RH, Mansell, LW, et al. Children of mothers with serious substance abuse problems: an accumulation of risks. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2004; 30, 85100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14.Schaubel, D, Johansen, H, Dutta, M, et al. Neonatal characteristics as risk factors for preschool asthma. J Asthma. 1996; 33, 255264.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15.Lester, BM, LaGasse, LL. Children of addicted women. J Addict Dis. 2010; 29, 259276.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16.Karlix, JL, Behnke, M, vis-Eyler, F, et al. Cocaine suppresses fetal immune system. Pediatr Res. 1998; 44, 4346.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
17.Basu, S, Dittel, BN. Unraveling the complexities of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) immune regulation in health and disease. Immunol Res. 2011; 51, 2638.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
18.Fride, E. Multiple roles for the endocannabinoid system during the earliest stages of life: pre- and postnatal development. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008; 20(Suppl 1), 7581.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19.Viveros, MP, Marco, EM, Lopez-Gallardo, M, Garcia-Segura, LM, Wagner, EJ. Framework for sex differences in adolescent neurobiology: a focus on cannabinoids. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011; 35, 17401751.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20.Viveros, MP, Marco, EM, Lopez-Gallardo, M, Garcia-Segura, LM, Wagner, EJ. Framework for sex differences in adolescent neurobiology: a focus on cannabinoids. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011; 35, 17401751.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
21.Simmons, LA, Havens, JR, Whiting, JB, Holz, JL, Bada, H. Illicit drug use among women with children in the United States: 2002–2003. Ann Epidemiol. 2009; 19, 187193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
22.Wright, RJ. Prenatal maternal stress and early caregiving experiences: implications for childhood asthma risk. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2007; 21(S3), 814.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23.Leung, E, Tasker, SL, Atkinson, L, et al. Perceived maternal stress during pregnancy and its relation to infant stress reactivity at 2 days and 10 months of postnatal life. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2010; 49, 158165.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
24.Wood, RA, Bloomberg, GR, Kattan, M, et al. Relationships among environmental exposures, cord blood cytokine responses, allergy, and wheeze at 1 year of age in an inner-city birth cohort (Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma study). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011; 127, 913919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25.Wright, RJ. Perinatal stress and early life programming of lung structure and function. Biol Psychol. 2010; 84, 4656.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
26.Pajulo, M, Savonlahti, E, Sourander, A, Helenius, H, Piha, J. Antenatal depression, substance dependency and social support. J Affect Disord. 2001; 65, 917.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
27.Salisbury, AL, Lester, BM, Seifer, R, et al. Prenatal cocaine use and maternal depression: effects on infant neurobehavior. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007; 29, 331340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
28.Clifton, VL. Review: sex and the human placenta: mediating differential strategies of fetal growth and survival. Placenta. 2010; 31(Suppl), S33S39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
29.Kajantie, E, Phillips, DI. The effects of sex and hormonal status on the physiological response to acute psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2006; 31, 151178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
30.Funkhouser, AW, Butz, AM, Feng, TI, McCaul, ME, Rosenstein, BJ. Prenatal care and drug use in pregnant women. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1993; 33, 19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
31.Heil, SH, Jones, HE, Arria, A, et al. Unintended pregnancy in opioid-abusing women. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2011; 40, 199202.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
32.Holtrop, JS, Meghea, C, Raffo, JE, et al. Smoking among pregnant women with Medicaid insurance: are mental health factors related? Matern Child Health J. 2010; 14, 971977.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
33.Erickson, AC, Arbour, LT. Heavy smoking during pregnancy as a marker for other risk factors of adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study in British Columbia, Canada. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12, 102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
34.Tough, SC, Siever, JE, Leew, S, et al. Maternal mental health predicts risk of developmental problems at 3 years of age: follow up of a community based trial. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2008; 8, 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
35.Kellner, R. A symptom questionnaire. J Clin Psychiatry. 1987; 48, 268274.Google Scholar
36.Doyle, LW, Anderson, PJ. Pulmonary and neurological follow-up of extremely preterm infants. Neonatology. 2010; 97, 388394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
37.Martinez, FD, Wright, AL, Taussig, LM, et al. Asthma and wheezing in the first six years of life. The Group Health Medical Associates. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332, 133138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38.Saglani, S, Bush, A. Asthma in preschool children: the next challenge. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009; 9, 141145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
39.Kuehni, CE, Davis, A, Brooke, AM, Silverman, M. Are all wheezing disorders in very young (preschool) children increasing in prevalence? Lancet. 2001; 357, 18211825.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
40.Castro-Rodriguez, JA, Holberg, CJ, Wright, AL, Martinez, FD. A clinical index to define risk of asthma in young children with recurrent wheezing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000; 162(Pt 1), 14031406.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
41.Wright, RJ, Cohen, S, Carey, V, Weiss, ST, Gold, DR. Parental stress as a predictor of wheezing in infancy: a prospective birth-cohort study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002; 165, 358365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
42.Midodzi, WK, Rowe, BH, Majaesic, CM, Saunders, LD, Senthilselvan, A. Early life factors associated with incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma in preschool children: results from the Canadian early childhood development cohort study. J Asthma. 2010; 47, 713.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
43.Alati, R, Al, MA, O'Callaghan, M, Najman, JM, Williams, GM. In utero and postnatal maternal smoking and asthma in adolescence. Epidemiology. 2006; 17, 138144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
44.Lannero, E, Wickman, M, Pershagen, G, Nordvall, L. Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of recurrent wheezing during the first years of life (BAMSE). Respir Res. 2006; 7, 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
45.Jaakkola, JJ, Ahmed, P, Ieromnimon, A, et al. Preterm delivery and asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006; 118, 823830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
46.Devereux, G. Session 1: Allergic disease: nutrition as a potential determinant of asthma. Proc Nutr Soc. 2010; 69, 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
47.Kozyrskyj, AL, Kendall, GE, Jacoby, P, Sly, PD, Zubrick, SR. Association between socioeconomic status and the development of asthma: analyses of income trajectories. Am J Public Health. 2010; 100, 540546.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
48.Akinbami, L. The state of childhood asthma, United States, 1980–2005. Adv Data. 2006; 381, 124.Google Scholar
49.Kozyrskyj, AL, Mai, XM, McGrath, P, et al. Continued exposure to maternal distress in early life is associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008; 177, 142147.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
50.Cookson, H, Granell, R, Joinson, C, Ben-Shlomo, Y, Henderson, AJ. Mothers’ anxiety during pregnancy is associated with asthma in their children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009; 123, 847853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
51.Liu, CA, Wang, CL, Chuang, H, et al. Prenatal prediction of infant atopy by maternal but not paternal total IgE levels. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003; 112, 899904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
52.Seckl, JR, Holmes, MC. Mechanisms of disease: glucocorticoids, their placental metabolism and fetal ‘programming’ of adult pathophysiology. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 3, 479488.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
53.Zaichkin, J, Houston, RF. The drug-exposed mother and infant: a regional center experience. Neonatal Netw. 1993; 12, 4149.Google ScholarPubMed
54.Patelarou, E, Chochlidaki, M, Vivilaki, V, Brokalaki, H. Is there a link between wheezing in early childhood and adverse birth outcomes? A systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009; 6, 27522761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
55.Erkkola, M, Kaila, M, Nwaru, BI, et al. Maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy is inversely associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis in 5-year-old children. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009; 39, 875882.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
56.Li, W, Green, TJ, Innis, SM, et al. Suboptimal vitamin D levels in pregnant women despite supplement use. Can J Public Health. 2011; 102, 308312.Google ScholarPubMed
57.Daley, M, Shepard, DS, Bury-Maynard, D. Changes in quality of life for pregnant women in substance user treatment: developing a quality of life index for the addictions. Subst Use Misuse. 2005; 40, 375394.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
58.Grella, CE. Services for perinatal women with substance abuse and mental health disorders: the unmet need. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1997; 29, 6778.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
59.Chen, E, Martin, AD, Matthews, KA. Understanding health disparities: the role of race and socioeconomic status in children's health. Am J Public Health. 2006; 96, 702708.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
60.Viveros, MP, Marco, EM, Lopez-Gallardo, M, Garcia-Segura, LM, Wagner, EJ. Framework for sex differences in adolescent neurobiology: a focus on cannabinoids. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011; 35, 17401751.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
61.Lester, BM, LaGasse, LL. Children of addicted women. J Addict Dis. 2010; 29, 259276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
62.Viveros, MP, Marco, EM, Lopez-Gallardo, M, Garcia-Segura, LM, Wagner, EJ. Framework for sex differences in adolescent neurobiology: a focus on cannabinoids. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011; 35, 17401751.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
63.Dow-Edwards, D. Sex differences in the effects of cocaine abuse across the life span. Physiol Behav. 2010; 100, 208215.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
64.Lowe, AJ, Carlin, JB, Bennett, CM, et al. Do boys do the atopic march while girls dawdle? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008; 121, 11901195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
65.Becklake, MR, Kauffmann, F. Gender differences in airway behaviour over the human life span. Thorax. 1999; 54, 11191138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
66.Lester, BM, Padbury, JF. Third pathophysiology of prenatal cocaine exposure. Dev Neurosci. 2009; 31, 2335.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
67.Trezza, V, Cuomo, V, Vanderschuren, LJ. Cannabis and the developing brain: insights from behavior. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008; 585, 441452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
68.Bavis, RW, Mitchell, GS. Long-term effects of the perinatal environment on respiratory control. J Appl Physiol. 2008; 104, 12201229.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
69.Fava, GA, Kellner, R, Perini, GI, et al. Italian validation of the Symptom Rating Test (SRT) and Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). Can J Psychiatry. 1983; 28, 117123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
70.Bull, MJ, Luo, D, Maruyama, G. Symptom Questionnaire anxiety and depression scales: reliability and validity. J Nurs Meas. 1994; 2, 2536.Google ScholarPubMed
71.Tough, SC, Siever, JD, Johnston, DW. Retaining women in a prenatal care randomized controlled trial in Canada: implications for program planning. BMC Public Health. 2007; 7, 148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
72.Holloway, JW, Yang, IA, Holgate, ST. Genetics of allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010; 125(Suppl 2), S81S94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
73.Najt, P, Fusar-Poly, P, Brambilla, P. Co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders: a review on the potential predictors and clinical outcomes. Psychiatry Res. 2010; 186, 159164.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
74.Kuczkowski, KM. The effects of drug abuse on pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 19, 578585.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
75.Vardavas, CI, Chatzi, L, Patelarou, E, et al. Smoking and smoking cessation during early pregnancy and its effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes and fetal growth. Eur J Pediatr. 2010; 169, 741748.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Street drug use during pregnancy: potential programming effects on preschool wheeze
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Street drug use during pregnancy: potential programming effects on preschool wheeze
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Street drug use during pregnancy: potential programming effects on preschool wheeze
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *