1. Barker, D.J. Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. BMJ. 1995; 311, 171–174.
2. Gillman, M.W, et al. Meeting report on the 3rd International Congress on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Pediatr Res. 2007; 61, 625–629.
3. Leaders of the Group of Eight. Muskoka Declaration: recovery and new beginnings. http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/summit/2010muskoka/communique.html, Muskoka, Canada, 2010.
4. Government of Canada. Formative evaluation of Canada’s contribution to the Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) Initiative. Devlopment Evaluation Division, https://www.international.gc.ca/gac-amc/publications/evaluation/2016/eval_mnch-smne.aspx?lang=eng#summ Ottawa, ON, 2015.
5. Government of Canada. Audit of the Maternal, Newborn and Child Health commitments. Global Affairs Canada, https://www.international.gc.ca/gac-amc/publications/audits-verification/2016/mnch-smne.aspx?lang=eng#summary, Ottawa, ON, 2016.
6. Government of Canada. Canada’s forward strategy saving every woman, every child: within arm’s reach. https://www.who.int/pmnch/media/news/2014/canada_strategy.pdf (Office of the Prime Minister of Canada), Toronto, ON, 2014.
7. Belzak, L., Halverson, J. The opioid crisis in Canada: a national perspective. Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2018; 38, 224–233.
8. Wood, E. Strategies for reducing opioid-overdose deaths – lessons from Canada. N Engl J Med. 2018; 378, 1565–1567.
9. Crompton, S. What’s stressing the stressed? Main sources of stress among workers. Vol. Catalogue no. 11-008 Statistics, Canada, Ottawa, ON, 2011.
10. Smith, K. Trillion-dollar brain drain. Nature. 2011; 478, 15.
11. Ratnasingham, S., Cairney, J., Rehm, J., Manson, H., Kurdyak, P.A. Opening eyes, opening minds: the Ontario burden of mental illness and addictions report. Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences and Public Health Ontario, Toronto, ON, 2012.
12. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Community mental health and addiction information: A snapshot of data collection and reporting in Canada. CIHI, https://secure.cihi.ca/free_products/CIHI-comm-mental-health-en-web.pdf, Ottawa, ON, 2017.
13. Smetanin P, et al. The Life and Economic Impact of Major Mental Illnesses in Canada: 2011 to 2041. RiskAnalytica, on behalf of the Mental Health Commission of Canada 2011, Toronto, ON, 2011.
14. Sasaki, A., Matthews, S.G. Genome-wide epigenetic signatures of childhood adversity in early life: opportunities and challenges. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2019; 10, 65–72.
15. Barha, C.K., et al. Early post-conception maternal cortisol, children’s HPAA activity and DNA methylation profiles. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2019; 10, 73–87.
16. Huizink, A.C., Mulder, E.J., Buitelaar, J.K. Prenatal stress and risk for psychopathology: specific effects or induction of general susceptibility? Psychol Bull. 2004; 130, 115–142.
17. Rice, F., Jones, I., Thapar, A. The impact of gestational stress and prenatal growth on emotional problems in offspring: a review. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007; 115, 171–183.
18. Talge, N.M., et al. Antenatal maternal stress and long-term effects on child neurodevelopment: how and why? J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007; 48, 245–261.
19. Letourneau, N., et al. Intergenerational transmission of adverse childhood experiences via maternal depression and anxiety and moderation by child sex. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2019; 10, 88–99.
20. Aylott, A., et al. Like father like daughter: sex-specific parent-of-origin effects in the transmission of liability for psychotic symptoms to offspring. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2019; 10, 100–107.
21. Cairney, J, Streiner, D.L. Mental Disorders in Canada: An Epidemiological Perspective. 2010. University of Toronto Press: Toronto/Bufffalo/London.
22. Government of Canada. Climate change and health: health effects. Government of Canada, https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/climate-change-health.html, Ottawa, ON, 2018.
23. Olson, D.M., et al. Recent Canadian efforts to develop population-level pregnancy intervention studies to mitigate effects of natural disasters and other tragedies. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2019; 10, 108–114.
24. Maurice, C, et al. Prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of Canadian Arctic contaminants decreases male reproductive function in an aging rat model. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2018; 9, 511–518.
25. Sheppard, A.J., et al. Birth outcomes among First Nations, Inuit and Metis populations. Health Rep. 2017; 28, 11–16.
26. Anderson, I., et al. Indigenous and tribal peoples’ health (The Lancet-Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration): a population study. Lancet. 2016; 388, 131–157.
27. Gushulak, B.D., et al. Migration and health in Canada: health in the global village. CMAJ. 2011; 183, E952–958.
28. Tam, T. Chief Public Health Officer’s report on the state of public health in Canada 2018. Problematic substances use in youth. Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, 2018.
29. CSDH. Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2008.
30. Rollins, N.C., et al. Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices? Lancet. 2016; 387, 491–504.
31. Campbell, F., et al. Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health. Science. 2014; 343, 1478–1485.
32. Campbell-Lendrum, D, Wheeler, N, Maiero, M, Villalobos Prats, E, Neville, T. COP24 Special Report: Health and Climate Change. 2018. World Health Organisation: Geneva.
33. Martin, D., et al. Canada’s universal health-care system: achieving its potential. Lancet. 2018; 391, 1718–1735.
34. Phillips-Beck, W., et al. Early-life origins of disparities in chronic diseases among Indigenous youth:pathways to recovering health disparities from intergenerational trauma. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2019; 10, 115–122.
35. Bombay, A., et al. Suicidal thoughts and attempts in First Nations communities: links to parental Indian residential school attendance across development. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2019; 10, 123–131.
36. Fischer, B., et al. Illicit opioid use in Canada: comparing social, health, and drug use characteristics of untreated users in five cities (OPICAN study). J Urban Health. 2005; 82, 250–266.
37. Currie, C.L., Wild, T.C., Schopflocher, D.P., Laing, L., Veugelers, P. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience. Soc Sci Med. 2013; 88, 1–9.
38. Special Advisory Committee on the Epidemic of Opioid Overdoses. National Report: Apparent Opioid-related Deaths in Canada (January 2016 to June 2018). Public Health Agency of Canada, 2018.
39. Government of Canada. Background Document: Public Consultation on Strengthening Canada’s Approach to Substance Use Issues. Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, 2018.
40. Gouin, K., Murphy, K., Shah, P.S. Knowledge synthesis group on determinants of low birth weight preterm births. Effects of cocaine use during pregnancy on low birthweight and preterm birth: systematic review and metaanalyses. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 204, e341–312.
41. Patrick, S.W., et al. Prescription opioid epidemic and infant outcomes. Pediatrics. 2015; 135, 842–850.
42. Hwang, S.S., et al. Maternal substance use disorders and infant outcomes in the first year of life among Massachusetts singletons, 2003–2010. J Pediatr. 2017; 191, 69–75.
43. Krans, E.E., Cochran, G., Bogen, D.L. Caring for opioid-dependent pregnant women: prenatal and postpartum care considerations. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 58, 370–379.
44. Zador, D., Lyons Wall, P.M., Webster, I. High sugar intake in a group of women on methadone maintenance in south western Sydney, Australia. Addiction. 1996; 91, 1053–1061.
45. Tomedi, L.E., Bogen, D.L., Hanusa, B.H., Wisner, K.L., Bodnar, L.M. A pilot study of the nutritional status of opiate-using pregnant women on methadone maintenance therapy. Subst Use Misuse. 2012; 47, 286–295.
46. Shrestha, S., et al. Dietary intake among opioid- and alcohol-using pregnant women. Subst Use Misuse. 2018; 53, 260–269.
47. Miller, C., et al. Maternal and neonatal characteristics of a Canadian urban cohort receiving treatment for opioid use disorder during pregnancy. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2019; 10, 132–137.