1.Sharp, GC, Lawlor, DA, Richardson, SS. It’s the mother!: How assumptions about the causal primacy of maternal effects influence research on the developmental origins of health and disease. Soc Sci Med. 2018; 213, 20–27.
2.Kiernan, K. Fathers and Partners in National and International Birth Cohort Studies, 2014.
3.Wright, J, Small, N, Raynor, P, et al. Cohort profile: The Born in Bradford multi-ethnic family cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. 2013; 42, 978–991.
4.Tyrrell, J, Huikari, V, Christie, JT, et al. Genetic variation in the 15q25 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5–CHRNA3–CHRNB4) interacts with maternal self-reported smoking status during pregnancy to influence birth weight. Hum Mol Genet. 2012; 21, 5344–5358.
5.Mamluk, L, Edwards, HB, Savović, J, et al. Low alcohol consumption and pregnancy and childhood outcomes: time to change guidelines indicating apparently ‘safe’ levels of alcohol during pregnancy? A systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ Open. 2017; 7, e015410.
6.Lawlor, DA. The Society for Social Medicine John Pemberton Lecture 2011. Developmental overnutrition—an old hypothesis with new importance? Int J Epidemiol. 2013; 42, 7–29.
7.Lawlor, DA, Relton, C, Sattar, N, Nelson, SM. Maternal adiposity—a determinant of perinatal and offspring outcomes? Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2012; 8, 679–688.
8.Taylor, AE, Carslake, D, Mola, CL de, et al. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and offspring depression: a cross cohort and negative control study. Sci Rep. 2017; 7, 12579.
9.Stern, JM, Simes, RJ. Publication bias: evidence of delayed publication in a cohort study of clinical research projects. BMJ. 1997; 315, 640–645.
11.McBride, CM, Baucom, DH, Peterson, BL, et al. Prenatal and postpartum smoking abstinence. Am J Prev Med. 2004; 27, 232–238.
12.Farrar, D, Duley, L. Commentary: but why should women be weighed routinely during pregnancy? Int J Epidemiol. 2007; 36, 1283–1284.
International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Consensus Panel, Metzger, BE, Gabbe, SG, et al. International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33, 676–682.
14.Farrar, D, Fairley, L, Santorelli, G, et al. Association between hyperglycaemia and adverse perinatal outcomes in South Asian and white British women: analysis of data from the Born in Bradford cohort. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015; 3, 795–804.
15.Richardson, SS, Daniels, CR, Gillman, MW, et al. Society: don’t blame the mothers. Nature. 2014; 512, 131–132.
16.Amnesty International. Criminalizing pregnancy: policing pregnant women who use drugs in the USA, 2017.
17.Müller, R, Hanson, C, Hanson, M, et al. The biosocial genome? EMBO Rep. 2017; 18, 1677–1682.
19.Soubry, A. Epigenetics as a driver of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: did we forget the fathers? Bioessays. 2018; 40, 1700113.
20.Braun, JM, Messerlian, C, Hauser, R. Fathers matter: why it’s time to consider the impact of paternal environmental exposures on children’s health. Curr Epidemiol Rep. 2017; 4, 46–55.