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Understanding the epigenetics of neurodevelopmental disorders and DOHaD

  • T. Kubota (a1), K. Miyake (a1), N. Hariya (a1) and K. Mochizuki (a2)

Abstract

The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis refers to the concept that ‘malnutrition during the fetal period induces a nature of thrift in fetuses, such that they have a higher change of developing non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, if they grow up in the current well-fed society.’ Epigenetics is a chemical change in DNA and histones that affects how genes are expressed without alterations of DNA sequences. Several lines of evidence suggest that malnutrition during the fetal period alters the epigenetic expression status of metabolic genes in the fetus and that this altered expression can persist, and possibly lead to metabolic disorders. Similarly, mental stress during the neonatal period can alter the epigenetic expression status of neuronal genes in neonates. Moreover, such environmental, stress-induced, epigenetic changes are transmitted to the next generation via an acquired epigenetic status in sperm. The advantage of epigenetic modifications over changes in genetic sequences is their potential reversibility; thus, epigenetic alterations are potentially reversed with gene expression. Therefore, we potentially establish ‘preemptive medicine,’ that, in combination with early detection of abnormal epigenetic status and early administration of epigenetic-restoring drugs may prevent the development of disorders associated with the DOHaD.

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Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: T. Kubota, Department of Epigenetic Medicine, Fuculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimokato, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan. (Email: takeot@yamanashi.ac.jp)

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