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Henry II as a Founder of Monasteries1

  • Elizabeth M. Hallam (a1)
Abstract

Gerald of Wales is primarily responsible for the generally accepted view of Henry II as a founder of monasteries. In his De Principis Instructione Liber he gives an account of the penance imposed on the king at Avranches in 1172 for his part in Becket's murder, and its commutation. Gerald reveals that instead of leading a Crusade to the Holy Land in person, and, we learn from other sources, maintaining two hundred knights there for a year at his own expense, Henry delayed for three years. He thus eventually gained from the pope a commutation to encompass the founding of three monasteries. These were, says Gerald, Waltham, where a group of holy secular canons were replaced with canons regular, Amesbury, where he violenter intrusit nuns from Fontevrault, and the third was probably Witham where a group of patient and holy men humbly bore hardship and the lack of a roof over their heads. ‘Sed quid attinet humana versutia contra divina consilia?’ asks Gerald. In a long passage he elaborates his theme that the Almighty will not be deceived by such a shamming, paltry, effort.

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page 113 note 2 Cambrensis Giraldus, Opera, ed. Brewer J. S., Dimock J. F. and Warner G. F., R.S.London 18611891, viii, 169–72.

page 113 note 3 Diceto Ralph de, Opera Historica, ed. Stubbs W., R.S.London 1876, i. 352; Roger of Howden, Chronica, ed. Stubbs W., R.S. 18691871, ii, 118–9; Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi, ed. Stubbs W., R.S.London 1867, i, 136–7, 165, 173–4; Niger Ralph, Chronicle, ed. Anstruther R., London 1851, 168.

page 114 note 1 Poole A. L., From Domesday Book to Magna Carta, 2nd ed., Oxford 1955, 229 n.2.

page 114 note 2 Brown R. A. and Colvin H. M., A History of the King's Works: I. The Middle Ages, H.M.S.O., London 1963, i. 8890.

page 114 note 3 Appleby J. T., ‘The ecclesiastical foundations of Henry II’, Catholic Historical Review, xlviii (19621963), 205–15.

page 114 note 4 Warren W. L., Henry II, London 1973, 212; although cf. Kemp B. R., ‘The foundation of Reading Abbey and the growth of its possessions and privileges in the twelfth century,’ unpublished Ph.D thesis, university of Reading, 1966, passim. Dr. Kemp does not see Henry 11 as being particularly generous towards Reading.

page 114 note 5 R. Foreville, ‘La place de la Chartreuse du Liget parmi les fondations pieuses de Henri II Plantagenet’, Colloque de Loches, 1973, in Mémoires de la Société Archéologique de Touraine, ix. 13–22; the houses she adds are Le Liget near Loches, the hospital of Le Mont-aux-Malades at Rouen, the Hôtel-Dieu at Argentan, the Grandmontine cells of Bois-Rahier and, perhaps, Pommier-Aigre. These are all discussed further below.

page 115 note 1 Stubbs W., A Historical Introduction to the Rolls Series, London 1902, 93.

page 115 note 2 E.g., Giraldus, iv. 215, 219–20; viii, 165–6; Warren, 207–18.

page 115 note 3 Magna Vita Sancti Hugonis, ed. Douie D. L. and Farmer H., (NMT, 19611962), i, 70; cf. Richarson H. G. and Sayles G. O., The Governance of Medieval England, Edinburgh 1963, 330–1, who maintain that the work, written by Adam of Eynsham, is more a ‘romance’ than a serious account. But in the case of Henry 11 many of the characteristics described are corroborated by other contemporary sources; see above, n. 2 and Poole, From Domesday Book, 318–21; and see below, 119 n. 3.

page 115 note 4 Giraldus, viii. 255–6.

page 115 note 5 Knowles M. D., Thomas Becket, London 1970, 37.

page 115 note 6 See Hallam E. M., ‘Aspects of the Monastic patronage of the English and French Royal houses, c. 1130–1270’, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, university of London, 1976, 78133.

page 116 note 1 Crozet R., ‘Textes et documents rélatifs à l'histoire des arts en Poitou’, Archives Historiques du Poitou, liii (1942), 50, no. 94; Hallam E. M., ‘Henry II, Richard I and the Order of Grandmont’, Journal of Medieval History, i (1975), 169.

page 116 note 2 Ed. Delisle L. and Berger E., Recueil des Actes de Henri II, Paris 19091927, ii. 108–9, no. dxxxiv.

page 116 note 3 Ibid., ii, 158–9, no. dlxxiv.

page 116 note 4 Ibid., ii. 47, no. ccccxcvi; ii. 87–8, no. dxxiv.

page 116 note 5 Ed. Johnson C., Dialogus de Scaccario, (NMT, 1950), 51.

page 116 note 6 Giraldus, iv. 258.

page 116 note 7 Actes de Henri II, introduction, 154–5.

page 116 note 8 For discussions of this problem, see Wood S., English Monasteries and their Patrons in the Thirteenth Century, Oxford 1955, esp. 628; ed. Lot F. and Fawtier R., Histoire des Institutions Françaises au Moyen Age, iii, Institutions Ecclésiastiques, by J. F. Lemarignier, J. Gaudemet, G. Mollat, Paris 1963, 243–56.

page 117 note 1 All these houses are discussed further below.

page 117 note 2 Sainte-Marthe D. and Piolin P., Gallia Christiana in Provinciis Ecclesiasticis Distributa, Paris 17391770, 1870–7, ii, 211; below, 127 nn. 2–4.

page 117 note 3 Hallam, ‘Grandmont’, 174–5.

page 117 note 4 Boase T. S. R., ‘Fontevrault and the Plantagenets’, Journal of the British Archeological Association, 3rd. ser., xxxiv (1971), 111.

page 117 note 5 Crozet, ‘Textes et documents’, 50, no. 194; ed. Round J. H., Calendar of Documents Preserved in France, i, 918–1206, London 1899, 381, no. 1080; 394, no. 1108; Actes de Henri II, e.g. ii. 53–7, no. diii.

page 118 note 1 Gesta Henrici, i. 135–6.

page 118 note 2 Knowles M. D., The Episcopal Colleagues of Archbishop Thomas Becket, Cambridge 1951, 22–3, 27–8, 51.

page 118 note 3 Howden, ii. 118–9; Gesta Henrici, i. 135–6, 165; Actes de Henri II, ii, 113–6, no. dxxxix; B. L. Harl. Charter 58 H.11.

page 118 note 4 This is well summarised in King's Works, i. 88–9.

page 118 note 5 Pipe Roll 10 Henry 11, 30; 11 Henry 11, 22; Actes de Henri II, 385–6, no. ccxxxviii; Knowles M. D. and Hadcock R. N., Medieval Religious Houses, England and Wales, 2nd. ed., London 1971, 105; VCH, Bedfordshire, i. 403.

page 118 note 6 Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, ed. Robertson J. C. and Sheppard J. B., R.S., London 18751885, vi. 165–6.

page 118 note 7 Thompson E. M., The Carthusian Order in England, London 1930, 4950; this was probably on the urging of John of Salisbury.

page 118 note 8 Giraldus, viii. 169–72.

page 118 note 9 Coulteaux J. le, Annales Ordinis Cartusiensis, Montreux 18871891, ii. 449–53; Foreville (passim) also discusses the two houses.

page 119 note 1 Magna Vita; Thompson E. M., ‘A fragment of the Witham charterhouse chronicle’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, xvi (1932), 482506.

page 119 note 2 Magna Vita, i. 56–103.

page 119 note 3 Governance of Medieval England, 330–1.

page 119 note 4 King's Works, i. 90.

page 119 note 5 ‘Witham chronicle’, 499.

page 119 note 6 Ed. Sir N. Pevsner, The Buildings of England, North and West Somerset, 341–2; summaries of the Witham excavations in Medieval Archeology, xi (1967), 275–6, and xii (1968), 168–9.

page 119 note 7 Dugdale W., Monasticon Anglicanum, ed. Caley J., Ellis H. and Bandinel B., London 18171830, vi(i). 1; Foreville, 19.

page 119 note 8 Martène E. and Durand A., Thesaurus Novus Anecdotorum, Paris 1717, i. 570; Archives Départementales Indre-et-Loire, H. 167, fol. 123; Actes de Henri II, ii. 373–4, no. dccxlii.

page 119 note 9 Actes de Henri II, ii. 308.no. dclxxxiv (1172/3–1189).

page 119 note 10 A.D. Indre-et-Loire, h. 167. fol. 124.

page 120 note 1 Valléry-Radot J., ‘La chartreuse du Liget et la Courrorie’, Congrès Archéologique, cvi (1948), 153–72.

page 120 note 2 Knowles M. D., ‘The revolt of the lay-brothers at Sempringham’, English Historical Review, 1 (1935), 465–87; Becquet J., ‘La première crise de l'Ordre de Grandmont’, Bull. Soc. Archéologique et Historique du Limousin, lxxxvii (1960), 283324.

page 120 note 3 Monasticon, vi(ii). 966, no. 1.

page 120 note 4 PR 10 Henry II, 22; 16 Henry 11, 140; 1 Richard 1, 55.

page 120 note 5 Graham R., Saint Gilbert of Sempringham and the Gilbertines, London 1901, 168; Monasticon, vi (i), 967.

page 120 note 6 B. L. Cott. Claudius D. ix, fol. 28.

page 121 note 1 Gesta Henrici, i. 7; François-Souchal G., ‘Les Emaux de Grandmont au XIIe siècle (suite)’, Bulletin Monumental, cxxi (1963), 123150, for Henry's artistic patronage of the Order, and Hallam, ‘Grandmont’, 169–71.

page 121 note 2 Becket Materials, vii. 447.

page 121 note 3 Discussed fully in Hallam, ‘Grandmont’.

page 121 note 4 Gaborit J. R., ‘L’Architecture de L'Ordre de Grandmont’, unpublished doctoral thesis, Ecole des Chartes, 1963, i. 85.

page 121 note 5 Actes de Henri II, ii. 159–61, no. dlxxv; Angers, Bibliothèque Municipale, MS. 845, fol. 232.

page 121 note 6 Alouis V.. ‘Luc´ et ses environs’, Revue Historique et Arch´ologique du Maine, ix (1881), 289–90; Oury G. M., ‘Grandmontains au Maine’, La Province du Maine, lxxiii (1971), 128; Hallam, ‘Grandmont’, 176–7.

page 121 note 7 Actes de Henri II, ii. 83–4.no. dxx; A.D. Indre-et-Loire G 22(4) (1172–8).

page 121 note 8 Oury G. and Arnoult M. C., ‘Les Grandmontains au Bois-Rahier près de Tours’, Bull. Soc. Arch, de Touraine, xxxviii (1973), 245–61; Actes de Henri II, ii. 120–2, no. dlxv; B.N. MS. Lat. 9067. fol. 287; the cell may date from before 1175, when Raoul de Bré gave it a piece of woodland next to its existing estates—A.D. Indre-et-Loire G 22 (1).

page 122 note 1 He gave a charter to the house c. 1178–83 which may have later been altered somewhat to suppress references to the founder, Renaud de Vou, and his disgraced brother, Etienne de Marçay, formerly seneschal of Anjou; Actes de Henri II, ii. 237–8; Becquet J., ‘Le bullaire de L'Ordre de Grandmont’, Revue Mabillon, xlvi (1956), 91–2, no. 14; A.D. Maine-et-Lore G 870; Hallam, ‘Grandmont’, 175–6, 182–3 for a general confirmation from Richard I.

page 122 note 2 Actes de Henri II, ii, 356–7, no. dccxxix (1178–89); A.D. Indre-et-Loire, H 720; Foreville, 17.

page 122 note 3 Gaborit, ii. 432; Tours, Bibl. Mun. MS. 1217, fol. 64.

page 122 note 4 Actes de Henri II, i. 239–40, no. cxxxii; J. Levèsque, Annales Ordinis Grandmontis, Trier 1662, 112; L. Delisle, Examen de Treize Chartes de l'Ordre de Grammont, Caen 1854, no. 13.

page 122 note 5 Actes de Henri II, ii. 350–2, no. dccxxvii; A.D. Seine-Maritime, D. 230; Gallia Christiana, xi, 47; Gaborit, ii. 400; J. R. Gaborit, ‘Nôtre-Dame du Parc, prieuré Grandmonain de Rouen’, Bull. Soc. Nat. Ant. de France, Proceedings for 1970, 73–7.

page 122 note 6 A.D. Vendée, H. 190, printed in Hallam, ‘Grandmont’, 183–5, fig. 2.

page 122 note 7 Regula of St. Stephen in Migne, Patrologia Latina, cciv, 1137–62.

page 122 note 8 As shown in A.D. Maine-et-Loire, G. 870, fol. 3, printed in Hallam, ‘Grandmont’, 182–3; Giraldus, iv. 258, explains the system of lay-buyers.

page 122 note 9 Duclos H., Histoire de Royaumont, sa Fondation par Saint Louis et son Influence sur la France, Paris 1867, i. passim; the situation is similar to that of the minority of Louis IX of France when he and his mother Blanche of Castile worked together in the foundation of the Cistercian abbey of Royaumont.

page 123 note 1 Knowles and Hadcock, 125–6; P.R. 2–4 Henry II, 44, 184.

page 123 note 2 Ed. Hilton R. H., The Stoneleigh Leger-Book, Dugdale Soc. xxiv, Oxford 1960, from Warwickshire County record office, Stratford-on-Avon, unclass. MSS. no. 1.

page 123 note 3 Stoneleigh Leger-Book, xiii, 10–11.

page 123 note 4 Z. N. and Brooke C. N. L., ‘Henry II, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine’, EHR, lxi (1946), 84–6; Stoneleigh Leger-Book, xiii.

page 123 note 5 Stoneleigh Leger-Book, 10–12; ed. Cronne H. A. and Davis R. H. C., Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, iii, Oxford 1968, 309, nos. 838–9.

page 123 note 6 Stoneleigh Leger-Book, 12–16; Regesta Regum, iii, 309–10, nos. 840–1.

page 123 note 7 Davis R. H. C., King Stephen, London 1967, 98103; Knowles and Hadcock, 119. 116–7, 65 (Faversham was an unaffiliated Cluniac house, like Reading, on which it was based); also the less reliable Hill B. D., English Cistercian Houses and their Patrons in the Twelfth Century, University of Illinois, 1968, 97–8, 102–7; Gallia Christiana, x. 1616.

page 123 note 8 Monasticon, v. 563–4, nos. i-ii; Knowles and Hadcock, 125; Regesla Regum, iii. 247, no. 666; B. L. Harl. MS. 6717, fol. 5; Wilts. County Record Office, Trowbridge, MSS. 4731–4, no. 4.

page 124 note 1 Regesta Regun, iii. 308–9, nos. 836–7.

page 124 note 2 Knowles and Hadcock, 125.

page 124 note 3 Gallia Christiana, xiv. 665–7; Regesta Regum, iii. 223–4, no. 607.

page 124 note 4 Gallia Christiana, xiv. 330 and inst. 85; Actes de Henri II, i. 448–9, no. ccc; B.N. MS. Lat. 10044, fols. 1–12.

page 124 note 5 Gallia Christiana, ii, 211.

page 124 note 6 Knowles and Hadcock, 178; VCH, Essex, ii.. 166–72; Compton R. H., ‘The foundation of Waltham Abbey’, JBAA, liii (1897), 137–47; B. L. Cott. Tib. C. IV, fols. 49–52.

page 124 note 7 Diceto, i. 395–6.

page 124 note 8 Howden, ii. 118; Gesta Henrici, i. 134–5; P.R. 24 Henry 11, 19.

page 125 note 1 Gesta Henrici, i. 173–4.

page 125 note 2 Gesta Henrici, i. 316–7.

page 125 note 5 King's Works, i. 88–9.

page 125 note 4 Memorials of Richard I, ed. Stubbs W., R.S.London, 18641865, ii. 533.

page 125 note 5 Monasticon, vi(i). 63–4; Giraldus, viii. 169–72.

page 125 note 6 Gwynne A., ‘The early history of St.-Thomas’ Abbey’, Jnl. Royal Soc. of Antiquaries of Ireland, lxxxiv (1954), 135; Bodl. MS. Rawlinson 13499, fol. 1.

page 125 note 7 Gallia Christiana, xi. 941; Regesta Regum, iii. 61, no. 168.

page 125 note 8 E.g. Actes de Henri II, i. 243, no. cxxxv (1156–60); ii. 416–7, no. dcclxiv (1185–9).

page 126 note 1 Gallia Christiana, xi. 758; Regesta Regum, iii. 304–5, nos. 824–6; Talabardon C., ‘Les premiers chartes de Silly-en-Gouffern’, Bull. Soc. Hisl. et Arch, de L'Orne, xci (1973), 58; Henry may also have been an important patron of St. Augustine's, Bristol, before he became king: Regesta Regum, iii. 47, no. 126, and Knowles and Hadcock, op. cit., 150.

page 126 note 2 Monasticon, vi (i). 473–5; P.R. 10 Henry 11, 15; 11 Henry 11, 86.

page 126 note 3 PR 10 Henry 11, 15; P.R. 11 Henry 11, 86.

page 126 note 4 Pevsner, Notts, 114–5.

page 126 note 5 In Yorks; Knowles and Hadcock, 262; W. Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum, ii London 1656, 98.

page 126 note 6 PR 25 Henry 11. 56–7, shows an increase in an existing grant to the canons from the county issues, ‘pro servicio capelle de Clarendon’; VCH, Wilts, iii. 289; Monasticon, vi (i), 416.

page 126 note 7 Knowles and Hadcock, 177, 181; Monasticon, vi (ii), 1028–9; VCH, Lincs, ii. 170.

page 126 note 8 Knowles and Hadcock, 365; Westlake H., Hornchurch Priory, a Kalendar of Documents in the Possession of… New College, Oxford, London 1923, 29, no. 78; 40–1, no. 146; 45, no. 168.

page 126 note 9 VCH, Essex, ii. 188; Knowles and Hadcock, 376; Pevsner, Essex, 292.

page 126 note 10 VCH, Derby, ii. 84; Knowles and Hadcock, 35.

page 127 note 1 Actes de Henri II, ii. 296–7, no. dclxxviii; Duchemin P., Petit-Quévilly et le Prieuré de S. Julien, Pont-Audemer 1890, 9; Coutan le Docteur, ‘La chapelle S. Julien du Petit-Quévilli’, Bulletin Monumental, lxxxiv (1926), 238–49.

page 127 note 2 Actes de Henri II, ii. 206–8, nos. dciv–v; Mussat A., ‘L'Hôpital S. Jean d'Angers’, Congrès Archéologique, cxxii (1964), 7887.

page 127 note 3 A.D. Maine-et-Loire, B 46, fol. 1; B. 18, fol. 1; Port C., Cartulaire de L'Hôtel-Dieu d'Angers, Angers 1870, Introduction.

page 127 note 4 A.D. Maine-et-Loire, E I, fol. 7; A I fols. 1–2; B 12, fol. 3.

page 127 note 5 Actes de Henri II, ii. 207–8; Présence, xxxiv (October 1973), supplément; Vassas R., ‘La Maison-Dieu de Coëffort au Mans’, Bulletin Monumental, cxii (1954), 6187.

page 127 note 6 Laffetay J., Histoire du Diocèse de Bayeux, Bayeux 1885, i. 142–5; Abbayes et Prieurés de L'Ancienne France, vii. 122.

page 128 note 1 Again based largely on local tradition: Germain J. A., Histoire d'Argentan, Alençon 1843, 129; A.D. Orne H 5216–22 and B.N. MS. n.a. Lat. 1245, fol. 7 contain only thirteenth-century documents. But cf. Foreville, 17 and Foreville R., ‘Les origines Normands de la famille Becket et le culte de Saint Thomas en Normandie’, Mélanges offerts à P. Andrieu-Guitrancourt, L'Annié Canonique, xvii (1972), 433–81, especially 431, 470.

page 128 note 2 He transferred the canons and the lepers from the earlier foundation of St. Jacques to a new church built specially for them. Foreville, 17; Langlois P., Histoire du Prieuré du Mont-aux-Malades … 1120–1820, Rouen 1851, 83–4, 425–8 (pièces, 12–13); Actes de Henri H, i. 547–9, no. cccxxi; i. 571–2, no. cccxl; ii. 87–8, no. dxxiv; ii. 280–1, no. dclxv, show that he was generous to the house throughout the reign.

page 128 note 3 Lees B. A., Records of the Templars in England in the Twelfth Century, the Inquest of 1185, Brit. Acad. ix, London 1935, lxxxvi; Monasticon, vi(ii). 821.

page 128 note 4 P.R.O. E 163/1/1A; C 47/12/5; Lees, 142–3; Marshall G., ‘The church of the Knights Templar at Garway’, Trans. Woolhope Club, xxvi (19271929), 86101.

page 128 note 5 Ed. Stapleton T., Magni Rotuli Scaccarii Normanniae, Soc. of Antiquaries of London, London 18401844, i. 70; Actes de Henri II, ii. 86–7, no. dxxiii (1172–8); A.N. S 5198 A.

page 128 note 6 Ed. Sweetman H. S., Calendar of Documents Relating to Ireland, HMSO, London 18751886, i. 13, no. 85.

page 128 note 7 Knowles and Hadcock, 304; Harris H. J., ‘The Knights Hopitaller in Hereford’, Trans. Woolhope Club, xxxi (19421945), 132–40.

page 129 note 1 Knowles and Hadcock, 302; ed. Weaver F. W., A Cartulary of Buckland Priory, 1152–1432, Som. Rec. Soc. xxv (1909), 16, nos. 1, 3, 7.

page 129 note 2 Gallia Christiana, xi. 239–44; Monasticon, vi(ii). 1100.

page 129 note 3 Gallagher P., ‘The Monastery of Mortemer-en-Lyons in the Twelfth Century, its History and Cartulary’, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Nôtre-Dame, 1970, 719; B.N. MS. Lat. 18369, fols. 3–4.

page 129 note 4 Brooke C. N. L., ‘Princes and Kings as patrons of Monasteries, Normandy and England’, Il Monachesimo e la Riforma Ecclesiastica, 1049–1122, La Mendola, 1968, Milan, 1971, 136–44 for Henry I's monastic patronage; Kemp, Reading Abbey, 43–8.

page 129 note 5 Knowles and Hadcock, 353.

page 129 note 6 Knowles and Hadcock, 116–7; Regesta Regum, iii. 294–5, no. 800; iii. 76, no. 207.

page 129 note 7 Knowles and Hadcock, 407; Regesta Regum, iii. 365–7, nos. 989–94.

page 129 note 8 Warren, 218–9; William of Newburgh, Historia Rerum Anglicanum, ed. Howlett R. in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I, RS., London 18841885, i. 103, comments on Henry's resumption of land at the beginning of his reign.

page 130 note 1 Pacaut M., Louis VII et son Royaume, Paris 1964, 120–2.

page 130 note 2 Hallam, Aspects, 195–9.

page 130 note 3 Ibid., 354–9.

page 130 note 4 Baldwin J. R., ‘Philip-Augustus and the Norman Church’, French Historical Studies, vi (1969), 130; and ed. Delisle L., Cartulaire Normand …, in Mem. Soc. Ant. Normandie, xvi, Caen 1825, passim.

page 130 note 5 Gallia Christiana, x. 1503; A.N. LL 1469; Duby G., Le Dimanche de Bouvines, Paris 1973, 178–81.

page 130 note 6 Gallia Christiana, xii. 236 and inst. 35–6, 41–2; and e.g. St. Jean-Baptiste-de-Nemours, Gallia Christiana, xii. inst. 50.

page 130 note 7 Knowles and Hadcock, 74, 154, 119, 65 and above, 129 nn. 2–7.

page 130 note 8 Knowles and Hadcock, 115; ed. J. Andrieux, Cartulaire de L'Abbaye de Bonport, Evreux 1862, Introduction. Richard also founded e.g. Premonstratensian Lieu-Dieu-en-Jard and Benedictine Gourfailles in the Vendée, and John a number of small hospitals in England as Count of Mortain; e.g. St. Lawrence's, Bristol, c. 1199; Knowles and Hadcock, 347.

page 131 note 1 Appleby follows Giraldus in considering them parsimonious, and Brown and Colvin, generous; see above, 113 n. 2, 114 nn. 2–3.

page 131 note 2 Ramsey J. H., A History of the Revenues of the Kings of England, 1066–1399, Oxford 1925, i. 191. This work is more useful for indicating fluctuations in revenue than for providing anything approaching accurate totals. The totals for lands and pensions is calculated from the pipe rolls, but the sums allowed for lands probably represent the nominal value as in the ancient farm rather than any ‘real’ value.

page 131 note 3 Ramsey, i. 363; ii. 86, 88–9; King's Works, i. 109, 155–7, 248–57; Knoop D. and Jones G. P., ‘The first three years in the building of Vale Royal Abbey, 1278–1280’, Trans. Quatuor Coronati Lodge, xliv (1931), 547.

page 131 note 4 Palma L., ‘La poverta nell’ “ordo” di Grandmont’, Aevum, xlviii (1974), 270–87; above, 122 nn. 7–8.

page 132 note 1 C. N. L. Brooke, ‘Princes and Kings’, 138–40.

page 132 note 2 The pattern of the creation of large numbers of monastic foundations by an ageing king is by no means standard; e.g. Henry III of England and Louis IX of France founded most of their religious houses early in their reigns; Hallam, Aspects, Appendix i, 377–81.

page 132 note 3 Foreville, 15–16.

page 132 note 4 Warren, 135.

page 132 note 5 Gervase of Canterbury, Opera, ed. Stubbs W., RS., London 18791880, i. 248–9; Gesta Henrici, i. 72.

1 I would like to thank Professor C. N. L. Brooke, Professor J. C. Holt and Dr. B. R. Kemp for valuable advice on many aspects of this subject.

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