Skip to main content

Glacier hydromechanics: early insights and the lasting legacy of three works by Iken and colleagues

  • Gwenn E. Flowers (a1)

The association between basal hydrology and glacier sliding has become nearly synonymous with the early work of Almut Iken and colleagues. Their research published in the Journal of Glaciology from 1981 to 1986 made an indelible impact on the study of glacier hydromechanics by documenting strong correlations between basal water pressure and short-term ice-flow variations. With a passion for elucidating the physics of glacier-bed processes, Iken herself made fundamental contributions to our theoretical and empirical understanding of the sliding process. From the theoretical bound on basal shear stress, to the inferences drawn from detailed horizontal and vertical velocity measurements, the work of Iken and colleagues continues to inform the interpretation of data from alpine glaciers and has found increasing relevance to observations from the ice sheets.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Glacier hydromechanics: early insights and the lasting legacy of three works by Iken and colleagues
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Glacier hydromechanics: early insights and the lasting legacy of three works by Iken and colleagues
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Glacier hydromechanics: early insights and the lasting legacy of three works by Iken and colleagues
      Available formats
Hide All
Agassiz, L. 1847. Systeme glaciaire ou recherches sur les glaciers, leur mecanisme, leurancienne extension etle rolequ’ils ontjoue dans l’histoire de la terre. Premiere partie. Nouvelles etudes et experiences sur les glaciers actuels, leur structure, leur progression et leur action physique sur le sol. paris, Victor Masson.
Alley, R.B. 1989. Water-pressure coupling of sliding and bed deformation: I. Water system. J. Glaciol., 35(119), 108-118.
Alley, R.B. 1993. In search of ice-stream sticky spots. J. Glaciol., 39(133), 447-454.
Alley, R.B., Blankenship, D.D., Bentley, C.R. and Rooney, S.T.. 1986. Deformation of till beneath Ice Stream B, West Antarctica. Nature, 322(6074), 57-59.
Anderson, R.S. and 6 others. 2004. Strong feedbacks between hydrology and sliding of a small alpine glacier. J. Geophys. Res., 109(F3), F03005. (10.1029/2004JF000120.)
Anderson, S.P., Fernald, K.M.H., Anderson, R.S. and Humphrey, N.F.. 1999. Physical and chemical characterization of a spring flood event, Bench Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A.: evidence for water storage. J. Glaciol., 45(150), 177-189.
Bartholomaus, T.C., Anderson, R.S. and Anderson, S.P.. 2008. Response of glacier basal motion to transient water storage. Nature Geosci., 1(1), 33-37.
Bartholomew, I., Nienow, P., Mair, D., Hubbard, A., King, M.A. and Sole, A.. 2010. Seasonal evolution of subglacial drainage and acceleration in a Greenland outlet glacier. Nature Geosci., 3(6), 408-411.
Bentley, C.R. 1987. Antarctic ice streams: a review. J. Geophys. Res., 92(B9), 8843-8858.
Bindschadler, R. 1983. The importance of pressurized subglacial water in separation and sliding at the glacier bed. J. Glaciol., 29(101), 3-19.
Bingham, R.G., Nienow, P.W., Sharp, M.J. and Copland, L.. 2006. Hydrology and dynamics of a polythermal (mostly cold) High Arctic glacier. Earth Surf. Process. Landf., 31(12), 1463-1479.
Bjornsson, H. 1974. Explanation of jokulhlaups from Gnmsvotn, Vatnajokull, Iceland. Jokull, 24, 1-26.
Bjornsson, H. 1998. Hydrological characteristics of the drainage system beneath a surging glacier. Nature, 395(6704), 771-774.
Blake, E.W., Fischer, U.H. and Clarke, G.K.C.. 1994. Direct measurement of sliding at the glacier bed. J. Glaciol., 40(136), 595-599.
Blankenship, D.D., Bentley, C.R., Rooney, S.T. and Alley, R.B.. 1986. Seismic measurements reveal a saturated porous layer beneath an active Antarctic ice stream. Nature, 322(6074), 54-57.
Brennand, T.A. 2000. Deglacial meltwater drainage and glacio- dynamics: inferences from Laurentide eskers, Canada. Geomorphology, 32(3), 263-293.
Budd, W.F., Keage, P.L. and Blundy, N.A.. 1979. Empirical studies of ice sliding. J. Glaciol., 23(89), 157-170.
Bueler, E. and Brown, J.. 2009. Shallow shelf approximation as a ‘sliding law’ in a thermomechanically coupled ice sheet model. J. Geophys. Res., 114(F3), F03008. (10.1029/2008JF001179.)
Calvo, N., Durany, J., Munoz, A.I., Schiavi, E. and Vazquez, C.. 2006. A coupled multivalued model for ice streams and its numerical simulation. IMA J. Appl. Math., 71(1), 62-91.
Copland, L., Sharp, M.J. and Nienow, P.W.. 2003. Links between short-term velocity variations and the subglacial hydrology of a predominantly cold polythermal glacier. J. Glaciol., 49(166), 337-348.
Cuffey, K.M. and Paterson, W.S.B.. 2010. The physics of glaciers. Fourth edition. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann.
Dardis, G.F. and Hanvey, P.M.. 1994. Sedimentation in a drumlin lee-side subglacial wave cavity, northwest Ireland. Sediment. Geol., 91(1-4), 97-114.
Echelmeyer, K. and Harrison, W.D.. 1990. Jakobshavns Isbrre, West Greenland: seasonal variations in velocity – or lack thereof. J. Glaciol., 36(122), 82-88.
Engelhardt, H. and Kamb, B.. 1997. Basal hydraulic system of a West Antarctic ice stream: constraints from borehole observations. J. Glaciol., 43(144), 207-230.
Engelhardt, H., Humphrey, N., Kamb, B. and Fahnestock, M.. 1990. Physical conditions at the base of a fast moving Antarctic ice stream. Science, 248(4951), 57-59.
Fatland, D.R. and Lingle, C.S.. 2002. InSAR observations of the 1993-95 Bering Glacier (Alaska, U.S.A.) surge and a surge hypothesis. J. Glaciol., 48(162), 439-451.
Fischer, U.H. and Clarke, G.K.C.. 1997. Stick-slip sliding behaviour at the base of a glacier. Ann. Glaciol., 24, 390-396.
Fowler, A.C. 1979. A mathematical approach to the theory of glacier sliding. J. Glaciol., 23(89), 131-141.
Fowler, A.C. 1986. A sliding law for glaciers of constant viscosity in the presence of subglacial cavitation. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 407(1832), 147-170.
Fowler, A.C. 1987. Sliding with cavity formation. J. Glaciol., 33(115), 255-267.
Fowler, A.C. 1989. A mathematical analysis of glacier surges. SIAM J.Appl. Math, 49(1), 246-263.
Fricker, H.A. and Scambos, T.. 2009. Connected subglacial lake activity on lower Mercer and Whillans Ice Streams, West Antarctica, 2003-2008. J. Glaciol., 55(190), 303-315.
Fricker, H.A., Scambos, T., Bindschadler, R. and Padman, L.. 2007. An active subglacial water system in West Antarctica mapped from space. Science, 315(5818), 1544-1548.
Funk, M., Echelmeyer, K. and Iken, A.. 1994. Mechanisms of fast flow in Jakobshavns Isbrre, West Greenland: Part II. Modeling of englacial temperatures. J. Glaciol., 40(136), 569-585.
Gagliardini, O., Cohen, D., Rdback, P. and Zwinger, T.. 2007. Finite-element modeling of subglacial cavities and related friction law. J. Geophys. Res., 112(F2), F02027. (10.1029/ 2006JF000576.)
Gerrard, J.A.F., Perutz, M.F. and Roch, A.. 1952. Measurement of the velocity distribution along a vertical line through a glacier. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 213(1115), 546-558.
Gray, L., Joughin, I., Tulaczyk, S., Spikes, V.B., Bindschadler, R. and Jezek, K.. 2005. Evidence for subglacial water transport in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet through three-dimensional satellite radar interferometry. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(3), L03501. (10.1029/2004GL021387.)
Gudmundsson, G.H., Bauder, A., Luthi, M., Fischer, U.H. and Funk, M.. 1999. Estimating rates of basal motion and internal ice deformation from continuous tilt measurements. Ann. Glaciol., 28, 247-252.
Haefeli, R. 1957. Notes on the formation of ogives as pressure waves. J. Glaciol., 3(21), 27-29.
Hanson, B., Hooke, R.LeB. and Grace, E.M. Jr. 1998. Shortterm velocity and water-pressure variations down-glacier from a riegel, Storglaciaren, Sweden. J. Glaciol., 44(147), 359-367.
Harbor, J.M. 1992. Numerical modeling of the development of U- shaped valleys by glacial erosion. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 104(10), 1364-1375.
Harbor, J., Sharp, M., Copland, L., Hubbard, B., Nienow, P. and Mair, D.. 1997. The influence of subglacial drainage conditions on the velocity distribution within a glacier cross section. Geology, 25(8), 739-742.
Harper, J.T., Humphrey, N.F., Pfeffer, W.T. and Lazar, B.. 2007. Two modes of accelerated glacier sliding related to water. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(12), L12503. (10.1029/2007GL030233.)
Harrison, W.D., Raymond, C.F. and MacKeith, P.. 1986. Short period motion events on Variegated Glacier as observed by automatic photography and seismic methods. Ann. Glaciol., 8, 82-89.
Harrison, W.D., Echelmeyer, K.A. and Engelhardt, H.. 1993. Short- period observations of speed, strain and seismicity on Ice Stream B, Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 39(133), 463-470.
Hodge, S.M. 1976. Direct measurement of basal water pressures: a pilot study. J. Glaciol., 16(74), 205-218.
Hooke, R.LeB. 1991. Positive feedbacks associated with erosion of glacial cirques and overdeepenings. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 103(8), 1104-1108.
Hooke, R.LeB., Wold, B. and Hagen, J.O.. 1985. Subglacial hydrology and sediment transport at Bondhusbreen, southwest Norway. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 96(3), 388-397.
Hopkins, W. 1845. On the motion of glaciers, Philos. Mag. and J. Sci., 26(170), 1-16.
Hopkins, W. 1849. On the motion of glaciers. Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc., 8, 50-74.
Howat, I.M., Tulaczyk, S., Waddington, E. and Bjornsson, H.. 2008. Dynamic controls on glacier basal motion inferred from surface ice motion. J. Geophys. Res., 113(F3), F03015. (10.1029/ 2007JF000925.)
Iken, A. 1972. Measurements of water pressure in moulins as part of a movement study of the White Glacier, Axel Heiberg Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. J. Glaciol., 11(61), 53-58.
Iken, A. 1974. Velocity fluctuations of an Arctic valley glacier; a study of the White Glacier, Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Montreal, Que., McGill University. (Axel Heiberg Island Research Reports Glaciology 5.)
Iken, A. 1977. Movement of a large ice mass before breaking off. J. Glaciol., 19(81), 595-605.
Iken, A. 1978. Variations of surface velocities of some Alpine glaciers measured at intervals of a few hours. Comparison with Arctic glaciers. Z. Gletscherkd. Glazialgeol., 13(1/2), 23-35.
Iken, A. 1981. The effect of the subglacial water pressure on the sliding velocity of a glacier in an idealized numerical model. J. Glaciol., 27(97), 407-421.
Iken, A. and Bindschadler, R.A.. 1986. Combined measurements of subglacial water pressure and surface velocity of Findelen- gletscher, Switzerland: conclusions about drainage system and sliding mechanism. J. Glaciol., 32(110), 101-119.
Iken, A. and Truffer, M.. 1997. The relationship between subglacial water pressure and velocity of Findelengletscher, Switzerland, during its advance and retreat. J. Glaciol., 43(144), 328-338.
Iken, A., Rothlisberger, H. and Hutter, K.. 1977. Deep drilling with a hot water jet. Z. Gletscherkd. Glazialgeol., 12(2), 143-156.
Iken, A., Rothlisberger, H., Flotron, A. and Haeberli, W.. 1983. The uplift of Unteraargletscher at the beginning of the melt season – a consequence of water storage at the bed? J. Glaciol., 29(101), 28-47.
Iken, A., Echelmeyer, K., Harrison, W. and Funk, M.. 1993. Mechanisms of fast flow in Jakobshavns Isbrre, West Greenland: Part I. Measurements of temperature and water level in deep boreholes. J. Glaciol., 39(131), 15-25.
Iken, A., Fabri, K. and Funk, M.. 1996. Water storage and subglacial drainage conditions inferred from borehole measurements on Gornergletscher, Valais, Switzerland. J. Glaciol., 42(141), 233-248.
Iverson, N.R. 1991. Potential effects of subglacial water-pressure fluctuations on quarrying. J. Glaciol., 37(125), 27-36.
Iverson, N.R. 1999. Coupling between a glacier and a soft bed. II. Model results. J. Glaciol., 45(149), 41-53.
Jamieson, S.S.R., Hulton, N.R.J. and Hagdorn, M.. 2008. Modelling landscape evolution under ice sheets. Geomorphology, 97(1-2), 91-108.
Jansson, P. 1995. Water pressure and basal sliding on Storglaciaren, northern Sweden. J. Glaciol., 41(138), 232-240.
Jones, A.S. 1979. The flow of ice over a till bed. J. Glaciol., 22(87), 393-395.
Joughin, I., Das, S.B., King, M.A., Smith, B.E., Howat, I.M. and Moon, T.. 2008. Seasonal speedup along the western flank of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science, 320(5877), 781-783.
Joughin, I. and 6 others. 2009. Basal conditions for Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers, West Antarctica, determined using satellite and airborne data. J. Glaciol., 55(190), 245-257.
Kamb, B. 1970. Sliding motion of glaciers: theory and observation. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 8(4), 673-728.
Kamb, B. and Engelhardt, H.. 1987. Waves of accelerated motion in a glacier approaching surge: the mini-surges of Variegated Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A. J. Glaciol., 33(113), 27-46.
Kamb, B. and 7 others. 1985. Glacier surge mechanism: 1982-1983 surge of Variegated Glacier, Alaska. Science, 227(4686), 469-479.
Kamb, B., Engelhardt, H., Fahnestock, M.A., Humphrey, N., Meier, M. and Stone, D.. 1994. Mechanical and hydrologic basisforthe rapid motion of a large tidewater glacier. 2. Interpretation. J. Geophys. Res., 99(B8), 15,231-15,244.
Kavanaugh, J.L. and Clarke, G.K.C.. 2001. Abrupt glacier motion and reorganization of basal shear stress following the establishment of a connected drainage system. J. Glaciol., 47(158), 472-480.
Kessler, M.A. and Anderson, R.S.. 2004. Testing a numerical glacial hydrological model using spring speed-up events and outburst floods. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(18), L18503. (10.1029/ 2004GL020622.)
Lliboutry, L. 1958. Contribution a la theorie du frottement du glacier sur son lit. C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci., 247(3), 318-320.
Lliboutry, L. 1968. General theory of subglacial cavitation and sliding of temperate glaciers. J. Glaciol., 7(49), 21-58.
Lliboutry, L. 1979. Local friction laws for glaciers: a critical review and new openings. J. Glaciol., 23(89), 67-95.
Luthi, M., Funk, M., Iken, A., Gogineni, S. and Truffer, M.. 2002. Mechanisms of fast flow in Jakobshavn Isbr*, West Greenland. Part III. Measurements of ice deformation, temperature and crossborehole conductivity in boreholes to the bedrock. J. Glaciol., 48(162), 369-385.
MacGregor, K.R., Riihimaki, C.A. and Anderson, R.S.. 2005. Spatial and temporal evolution of rapid basal sliding on Bench Glacier, Alaska, USA. J. Glaciol., 51(172), 49-63.
MacGregor, K.R., Anderson, R.S. and Waddington, E.D.. 2009. Numerical modeling of glacial erosion and headwall processes in alpine valleys. Geomorphology, 103(2), 189-204.
Mair, D., Nienow, P., Willis, I. and Sharp, M.. 2001. Spatial patterns of glacier motion during a high-velocity event: Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland. J. Glaciol., 47(156), 9-20.
Mair, D., Willis, I., Fischer, U.H., Hubbard, B., Nienow, P. and Hubbard, A.. 2003. Hydrological controls on patterns of surface, internal and basal motion during three ‘spring events’: Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland. J. Glaciol., 49(167), 555-567.
Mathews, W.H. 1964. Water pressure under a glacier. J. Glaciol., 5(38), 235-240.
Meier, M. and 9 others. 1994. Mechanical and hydrologic basis for the rapid motion of a large tidewater glacier. 1. Observations. J. Geophys. Res., 99(B8), 15,219-15,229.
Meyssonnier, J. 1989. Ice flow over a bump: experiment and numerical simulations. J. Glaciol., 35(119), 85-97.
Morland, L.W. 1976a. Glacier sliding down an inclined wavy bed. J. Glaciol., 17(77), 447-462.
Morland, L.W. 1976b. Glacier sliding down an inclined wavy bed with friction. J. Glaciol., 17(77), 463-477.
Muller, F. and Iken, A.. 1973. Velocity fluctuations and water regime of Arctic valley glaciers. IASH Publ. 95 (Symposium at Cambridge 1969 – Hydrology of Glaciers), 165-182.
Naruse, R., Fukami, H. and Aniya, M.. 1992. Short-term variations in flow velocity of Glaciar Soler, Patagonia, Chile. J. Glaciol., 38(128), 152-156.
Nienow, P.W., Sharp, M. and Willis, I.C.. 1996. Sampling-rate effects on the properties of dye breakthrough curves from glaciers. J. Glaciol., 42(140), 184-189.
Nienow, P.W. and 6 others. 2005. Hydrological controls on diurnal ice flow variability in valley glaciers. J. Geophys. Res., 110(F4), F04002. (10.1029/2003JF000112.)
Nye, J.F. 1969. A calculation on the sliding of ice over a wavy surface using a Newtonian viscous approximation. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 311(1506), 445-467.
Nye, J.F. 1970. Glacier sliding without cavitation in a linear viscous approximation. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 315(1522), 381-403.
Nye, J.F. 1976. Water flow in glaciers: jokulhlaups, tunnels and veins. J. Glaciol., 17(76), 181-207.
O’Neel, S., Echelmeyer, K.A. and Motyka, R.J.. 2001. Short-term flow dynamics of a retreating tidewater glacier: LeConte Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A. J. Glaciol, 47(159), 567-578.
Pimentel, S., Flowers, G.E. and Schoof, C.G.. 2010. A hydrologically coupled higher-order flow-band model of ice dynamics with a Coulomb friction sliding law. J. Geophys. Res., 115(F4), F04023. (10.1029/2009JF001621.)
Piotrowski, J.A. and Tulaczyk, S.. 1999. Subglacial conditions under the last ice sheets in northwest Germany: ice-bed separation and enhanced basal sliding? Quat. Sci. Rev., 18(6), 737-751.
Purdie, H.L., Brook, M.S. and Fuller, I.C.. 2008. Seasonal variation in ablation and surface velocity on a temperate maritime glacier: Fox Glacier, New Zealand. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 40(1), 140-147.
Raymond, C.F. and Harrison, W.D.. 1988. Evolution of Variegated Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A., prior to its surge. J. Glaciol., 34(117), 154-169.
Raymond, C.F. and Malone, S.. 1986. Propagating strain anomalies duringmini-surgesofVariegatedGlacier, Alaska, USA. J. Glaciol., 32(111), 178-191.
Raymond, C.F., Benedict, R.J., Harrison, W.D., Echelmeyer, K.A. and Sturm, M.. 1995. Hydrological discharges and motion of Fels and Black Rapids Glaciers, Alaska, U.S.A.: implications for the structure of their drainage systems. J. Glaciol., 41(138), 290-304.
Raymond, M.J. and Gudmundsson, G.H.. 2005. On the relationship between surface and basal properties on glaciers, ice sheets, and ice streams. J. Geophys. Res., 110(B8), B08411. (10.1029/ 2005JB003681.)
Rippin, D.M., Willis, I.C., Arnold, N.S., Hodsonand, A.J. Brinkhaus, M.. 2005. Spatial and temporal variations in surface velocity and basal drag across the tongue of the polythermal glacier midre Lovenbreen, Svalbard. J. Glaciol., 51(175), 588-600.
Rothlisberger, H. 1972. Water pressure in intra- and subglacial channels. J. Glaciol., 11(62), 177-203.
Russell, A.J. and 6 others. 2006. Icelandic jokulhlaup impacts: implications for ice-sheet hydrology, sediment transfer and geomorphology. Geomorphology, 75(1-2), 33-64.
Sayag, R. and Tziperman, E.. 2009. Spatiotemporal dynamics of ice streams due to a triple-valued sliding law. J. Fluid Mech., 640, 483-505.
Schoof, C. 2005. The effect of cavitation on glacier sliding. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 461(2055)g, 609-627.
Schoof, C. 2010. Ice-sheet acceleration driven by melt supply variability. Nature, 468(7325), 803-806.
Schuler, T., Fischer, U.H. and Gudmundsson, G.H.. 2004. Diurnal variability of subglacial drainage conditions as revealed by tracer experiments. J. Geophys. Res., 109(F2), F02008. (10.1029/ 2003JF000082.)
Schweizer, J. and Iken, A.. 1992. The role of bed separation and friction in sliding over an undeformable bed. J. Glaciol., 38(128), 77-92.
Shepherd, A., Hubbard, A., Nienow, P., McMillan, M. and Joughin, I.. 2009. Greenland ice sheet motion coupled with daily melting in late summer. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36(1), L01501. (10.1029/ 2008GL035758.)
Shreve, R.L. 1972. Movement of water in glaciers. J. Glaciol., 11 (62), 205-214.
Sugiyama, S. and Gudmundsson, G.H.. 2004. Short-term variations in glacier flow controlled by subglacial water pressure at Lauter- aargletscher, Bernese Alps, Switzerland. J. Glaciol., 50(170), 353-362.
Sugiyama, S., Bauder, A., Weiss, P. and Funk, M.. 2007. Reversal of ice motion during the outburst of a glacier-dammed lake on Gornergletscher, Switzerland. J. Glaciol., 53(181), 172-180.
Truffer, M. and Iken, A.. 1998. The sliding velocity over a sinusoidal bed at high water pressure. J. Glaciol., 44(147), 379-382.
Van de Wal, R.S.W. and 6 others. 2008. Large and rapid melt- induced velocity changes in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science, 321(5885), 111-113.
Vieli, A., Jania, J., Blatter, H. and Funk, M.. 2004. Short-term velocity variations on Hansbreen, a tidewater glacier in Spitsbergen. J. Glaciol., 50(170), 389-398.
Weertman, J. 1957. On the sliding of glaciers. J. Glaciol., 3(21), 33-38.
Weertman, J. 1964. The theory of glacier sliding. J. Glaciol., 5(39), 287-303.
Weertman, J. 1972. General theory of water flow at the base of a glacier or ice sheet. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 10(1), 287-333.
Willis, I.C. 1995. Intra-annual variations in glacier motion: a review. Progr. Phys. Geogr., 19(1), 61-106.
Zmitrowicz, A. 2003. Glaciers and laws of friction and sliding. Acta Mech, 166(1-4), 185-206.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Glaciology
  • ISSN: 0022-1430
  • EISSN: 1727-5652
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-glaciology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed