Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Model study of the spatial distribution of the energy and mass balance of Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland

  • E.J. (Lisette) Klok (a1) and Johannes Oerlemans (a1)
Abstract

To investigate the spatial distribution of the energy- and mass-balance fluxes of a glacier, a two-dimensional mass-balance model was developed and applied to Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland. The model is driven by meteorological input from four synoptic weather stations located in the vicinity of Morteratschgletscher. The model results were compared to observations made on the glacier. The calculated mean specific mass balance is −0.47 m w.e. for 1999, and 0.23 m w.e. for 2000. Net shortwave radiation shows a minimum at around 3350 m a.s.l., due to the effects of shading, slope, aspect, reflection from the slopes, and obstruction of the sky. Ignoring these effects results in a 37% increase in the annual incoming shortwave radiation on the glacier, causing 0.34 m w.e. more ablation. A 1°C change in the air temperature results in a shift of 0.67 m w.e. in the mean specific mass balance, while altering the precipitation by 10% causes a change of 0.17 m w.e.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Model study of the spatial distribution of the energy and mass balance of Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Model study of the spatial distribution of the energy and mass balance of Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Model study of the spatial distribution of the energy and mass balance of Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Arnold, N. S., Willis, I. C., Sharp, M. J., Richards, K. S. and Lawson, W. J.. 1996. A distributed surface energy-balance model for a small valley glacier. I. Development and testing for Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Valais, Switzerland. J. Glacial., 42(140), 7789.
Braithwaite, R. J. 1995. Positive degree-day factors for ablation on the Greenland ice sheet studied by energy-balance modelling. J Glaciol., 41(137), 153160.
Dozier, J. and Frew, J.. 1990. Rapid calculation of terrain parameters for radiation modeling from digital elevation data. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, GE-28(5), 963969.
Escher-Vetter, H. 2000. Modelling meltwater production with a distributed energy balance method and runoff using a linear reservoir approach: results from Vernagtferner, Oetztal Alps, for the ablation seasons 1992 to 1995. Z. Gletscherkd. Glazialgeol, 36, 119150.
Greuell, W. 1992. Hintereisferner, Austria: mass-balance reconstruction and numerical modelling of the historical length variations. J Glaciol., 38(129), 233244.
Greuell, W and Böhm, R.. 1998. 2 m temperatures along melting mid-latitude glaciers, and implications for the sensitivity of the mass balance to variations in temperature. J. Glaciol., 44(146), 920.
Greuell, W., Knap, W. H. and Smeets, P. C.. 1997. Elevational changes in meteorological variables along a mid-latitude glacier during summer. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D22), 25,94125,954.
Gueymard, C. 1993. Critical analysis and performance assessment of clear-sky solar irradiance using theoretical and measured data. Solar Energy, 51(2), 121138.
Hock, R. 1999. A distributed temperature-index ice- and snowmelt model including potential direct solar radiation. J. Glaciol., 45(149), 101111.
Hock, R. and Noetzli, C.. 1997. Areal melt and discharge modelling of Storglaciären, Sweden. Ann. Glaciol., 24, 211216.
Houghton, H. G. 1954. On the annual heat balance of the Northern Hemisphere. J. Meteorol., 11(1), 19.
Iqbal, M. 1983. An introduction to solar radiation. New York, Academic Press.
Konzelmann, T., van de Wal, R. S. W., Greuell, J.W., Bintanja, R., Henneken, E. A. C. and Abe-Ouchi, A.. 1994. Parameterization of global and longwave incoming radiation for the Greenland ice sheet. Global Planet. Change, 9(1–2), 143164.
Meyers, T. P. and Dale, R. F.. 1983. Predicting daily insolation with hourly cloud height and coverage. J. Climate Appl. Meteorol., 22(4), 537545.
Oerlemans, J. 1992. Climate sensitivity of glaciers in southern Norway: application of an energy-balance model to Nigardsbreen, Hellstugubreen and Alfotbreen. J. Glaciol., 38(129), 223232.
Oerlemans, J. 2000a. Analysis of a 3 year meteorological record from the ablation zone of Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland: energy and mass balance. J. Glaciol., 46(155), 571579.
Oerlemans, J. 2000b. Holocene glacier fluctuations: is the current rate of retreat exceptional? Ann. Glaciol., 31, 3944.
Oerlemans, J. 2001. Glaciers and climate change: a meteorologist’s view. Lisse, etc., A. A. Balkema Publishers.
Oerlemans, J. and Grisogono, B.. 2002. Glacier wind and parameterisation of the related surface heat flux. Tellus 54A(5), 440452.
Oerlemans, J. and Klok, E. J.. In press. Energy balance of a glacier surface: analysis of AWS data from the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res.
Oerlemans, J. and Knap, W. H.. 1998. A 1 year record of global radiation and albedo in the ablation zone of Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland. J. Glaciol., 44(147), 231238.
Schneeberger, C., Albrecht, O., Blatter, H., Wild, M. and Hock, R.. 2001. Modelling the response of glaciers to a doubling in atmospheric CO2: a case study of Storglaciären. Climate Dyn., 17(11), 825834.
Schwarb, M. 2000. The Alpine precipitation climate: evaluation of a high-resolution analysis scheme using comprehensive rain-gauge data. (M.Sc. thesis, ETH Zürich. Institute for Climate Research.) (ETH Dissertation 13911.)
Smith, W. L. 1966. Note on the relationship between total precipitable water and surface dewpoint. J. Appl. Meteorol., 5(5), 726727.
Wallinga, J. and van de Wal, R. S.W.. 1998. Sensitivity of Rhonegletscher, Switzerland, to climate change: experiments with a one-dimensional flowline model. J. Glaciol., 44(147), 383393.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Glaciology
  • ISSN: 0022-1430
  • EISSN: 1727-5652
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-glaciology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 149 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 158 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 8th September 2017 - 17th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.