Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Overall recession and mass budget of Gangotri Glacier, Garhwal Himalayas, from 1965 to 2015 using remote sensing data

  • ATANU BHATTACHARYA (a1), TOBIAS BOLCH (a1) (a2), KRITI MUKHERJEE (a1), TINO PIECZONKA (a1), JAN KROPÁČEK (a3) and MANFRED F. BUCHROITHNER (a1)...
Abstract

Thinning rates for the debris-covered Gangotri Glacier and its tributary glaciers during the period 1968–2014, length variation and area vacated at the snout from 1965 to 2015, and seasonal variation of ice-surface velocity for the last two decades have been investigated in this study. It was found that the mass loss of Gangotri and its tributary glaciers was slightly less than those reported for other debris-covered glaciers in the Himalayan regions. The average velocity during 2006–14 decreased by ~6.7% as compared with that during 1993–2006. The debris-covered area of the main trunk of Gangotri Glacier increased significantly from 1965 until 2015 with the maximum rate of increase (0.8 ± 0.2 km2 a−1) during 2006–15. The retreat (~9.0 ± 3.5 m a−1) was less in recent years (2006–2015) but the down-wasting (0.34 ± 0.2 m a−1) in the same period (2006–2014) was higher than that (0.20 ± 0.1 m a−1) during 1968–2006. The study reinforced the established fact that the glacier length change is a delayed response to climate change and, in addition, is affected by debris cover, whereas glacier mass balance is a more direct and immediate response. Therefore, it is recommended to study the glacier mass balance and not only the glacier extent, to conclude about a glacier's response to climate change.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Overall recession and mass budget of Gangotri Glacier, Garhwal Himalayas, from 1965 to 2015 using remote sensing data
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Overall recession and mass budget of Gangotri Glacier, Garhwal Himalayas, from 1965 to 2015 using remote sensing data
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Overall recession and mass budget of Gangotri Glacier, Garhwal Himalayas, from 1965 to 2015 using remote sensing data
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.
Corresponding author
*Correspondence: Atanu Bhattacharya; Tobias Bolch <atanudeq@gmail.com; tobias.bolch@geo.uzh.ch>
References
Hide All
Ahmad, S and Hasnain, SI (2004) Analysis of satellite imageries for characterization of glaciomorphological features of the Gangotri Glacier, Ganga headwater, Garhwal Himalayas. In Srivastava, D, Gupta, KR and Mukherjee, S eds. Proceedings of Workshop on Gangotri Glacier, 26–28 March 2003, Lucknow, India, No.80, 6167. Geological Survey of India (GSI), Calcuttta
Altmaier, A and Kany, C (2002) Digital surface model generation from CORONA satellite images. ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens., 56(4), 221235 (doi: 10.1016/S0924-2716(02)00046-1)
Anderson, RS and 6 others (2004) Strong feedbacks between hydrology and sliding of a small alpine glacier. J. Geophys. Res., 109, F03005 (doi: 10.1029/2004JF000120)
Auden, JB (1937) Snout of the Gangotri Glacier, Tehri Garhwal. Rec. Geol. Surv. India, 72, 135140
Azam, MF and 10 others (2012) From balance to imbalance: a shift in the dynamic behaviour of Chhota Shigri glacier, western Himalaya, India. J. Glaciol., 58(208), 315324 (doi: 10.3189/2012JoG11J123)
Bahuguna, IM and 5 others (2007) Himalayan glacier retreat using IRS 1C PAN stereo data. Int. J. Remote Sens., 28(2), 437442 (doi: 10.1080/01431160500486674)
Bartholomaus, TC, Anderson, RS and Anderson, SP (2008) Response of glacier basal motion to transient water storage. Nature Geosci., 1, 3337 (doi: 10.1038/ngeo.2007.52)
Bhambri, R and Bolch, T (2009) Glacier mapping: a review with special reference to the Indian Himalayas. Prog. Phys. Geog., 33(5), 672704 (doi: 10.1177/0309133309348112)
Bhambri, R and Chaujar, RK (2009) Recession of Gangotri glacier (1962–2006) measured through remote sensing data. In Proceeding of National Seminar on Management Strategies for the Indian Himalaya: Development and Conservation. HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar, India, vol. 1, 254264
Bhambri, R, Bolch, T, Chaujar, RK and Kulshreshta, SC (2011a) Glacier changes in the Garhwal Himalayas, India 1968–2006 based on remote sensing. J. Glaciol., 57(203), 543556 (doi: 10.3189/002214311796905604)
Bhambri, R, Bolch, T and Chaujar, RK (2011b) Mapping of debris-covered glaciers in the Garhwal Himalayas using ASTER DEMs and thermal data. Int. J. Remote. Sens., 32(23), 80958119 (doi: 10.1080/01431161.2010.532821)
Bhambri, R, Bolch, T and Chaujar, RK (2012) Frontal recession of Gangotri Glacier, Garhwal Himalayas, from 1965 to 2006, measured through high-resolution remote sensing data. Curr. Sci., 102(3), 489494
Bolch, T, Buchroithner, MF, Kunert, A and Kamp, U (2007) Automated delineation of debris-covered glaciers based on ASTER data. In Gomarasca, M.A., ed. GeoInformation in Europe. Proceedings of the 27th EARSeL Symposium, 4–7 June, 2007, Bozen, Italy. Millpress, Rotterdam, 403410
Bolch, T, Buchroithner, MF, Pieczonka, T and Kunert, A (2008a) Planimetric and volumetric glacier changes in the Khumbu Himalaya 1962–2005 using Corona and ASTER data. J. Glaciol., 54(187), 592600 (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3189/002214308786570782)
Bolch, T, Buchroithner, MF, Peters, J, Baessler, M and Bajracharya, S (2008b) Identification of glacier motion and potentially dangerous glacier lakes at Mt. Everest area/Nepal using spaceborne imagery. Nat. Hazard Earth. Syst. Sci., 8(6), 13291340 (doi: 10.5194/nhess-8-1329-2008)
Bolch, T and 7 others (2010) A glacier inventory for the western Nyainqentanglha Range and the Nam Co Basin, Tibet, and glacier changes 1976–2009. Cryosphere, 4, 419433 (doi: 10.5194/tc-4-419-2010)
Bolch, T, Pieczonka, T and Benn, DI (2011) Multi-decadal mass loss of glaciers in the Everest area (Nepal Himalaya) derived from stereo imagery. Cryosphere, 5, 349358 (doi: 10.5194/tc-5-349-2011)
Bolch, T and 11 others (2012) The state and fate of Himalayan Glaciers. Science, 336(6079), 310314 (doi: 10.1126/science.1215828)
Burnett, MG (2012) Hexagon (KH-9) Mapping Program and Evolution. National Reconnaissance Office, Chantilly, Virginia
Dobhal, DP, Gergan, JT and Thayyen, RJ (2008) Mass balance studies of the Dokriani Glacier from 1992 to 2000, Garhwal Himalaya, India. Bull. Glaciol. Res., 25, 917
Farr, TG and Kobrick, M (2000) Shuttle radar topography mission produces a wealth of data. EOS Trans. AGU, 81(48), 583585 (doi: 10.1029/EO081i048p00583)
Frey, H and 9 others (2014) Estimating the volume of glaciers in the Himalayan-karakoram region using different methods. Cryosphere, 8, 23132333 (doi: 10.5194/tc-8-2313-2014)
Galiatsatos, N, Donoghue, DNM and Philip, G (2008) High resolution elevation data derived from stereoscopic CORONA imagery with minimal ground Control: an approach using Ikonos and SRTM Data. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens., 74(9), 10931106 (doi: 10.14358/PERS.73.9.1093)
Gantayat, P, Kulkarni, AV and Srinivasan, J (2014) Estimation of ice thickness using surface velocities and slope: case study at Gangotri glacier, India. J. Glaciol., 60(220), 277282 (doi: 10.3189/2014JoG13J078)
Gardelle, J, Berthier, E, Arnaud, Y and Kääb, A (2013) Region-wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir–Karakoram–Himalaya during 1999–2011. Cryosphere, 7, 12631286 (doi: 10.5194/tc-7–1263-2013)
Gautam, CK and Mukherjee, BP (1989) Mass-balance vis-à-vis snout position of Tipra bank glacier District chamoli, Uttar Pradesh. In Proceedings of the national meet on Himalayan Glaciology, 5–6th June. New Delhi, India, 141148
Hall, DK, Bayr, KJ, Schöner, W, Bindschadler, RA and Chien, JYL (2003) Consideration of the errors inherent in mapping historical glacier positions in Austria from the ground and space. Remote Sens. Environ., 86(4), 566577 (doi: 10.1016/S0034-4257(03)00134-2)
Harper, JT, Humphrey, NF, Pfeffer, WT and Lazar, B (2007) Two modes of accelerated glacier sliding related to water. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L12503 (doi: 10.1029/2007GL030233)
Heid, T and Kääb, A (2012) Repeat optical satellite images reveal widespread and long term decrease in land-terminating glacier speeds. Cryosphere, 6, 467478 (doi: 10.5194/tc-6–467-2012)
Holzer, N and 5 others (2015) Four decades of glacier variations at Muztagh Ata (eastern Pamir): a multi-sensor study including Hexagon KH-9 and Pléiades data. Cryosphere, 9, 20712088 (doi: 10.5194/tc-9-2071-2015)
Huss, M (2013) Density assumptions for converting geodetic glacier volume change to mass change. Cryosphere, 7, 877887 (doi: 10.5194/tc-7-877-2013)
Huss, M, Jouvet, G, Farinotti, D and Bauder, A (2010) Future high-mountain hydrology: a new parameterization of glacier retreat. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 815829 (doi: 10.5194/hess-14-815-2010).
Immerzeel, WW, van Beek, LPH and Bierkens, MFP (2010) Climate change will affect the Asian water towers. Science, 328(5984), 13821385 (doi: 10.1126/science.1183188)
Iwata, S, Aoki, T, Kadota, T, Seko, K and Yamaguchi, S (2000) Morphological evolution of the debris cover on Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, between 1978 and 1995. In Nakawo, M, Raymond, CF and Fountain, A eds. Proceedings of Debris Covered Glaciers, IAHS Publ. Seattle, vol. 264, 311, International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS)
Jangpangi, BS (1958) Report on the survey and glaciological study of the Gangotri glacier, Tehri Garhwal District: Glacier No. 3, Arwa Valley: Satopanth and Bhagirath Kharak glaciers, Garhwal District, Uttar Pradesh. Mem. Geol. Surv. India, p.18
Jarvis, A, Reuter, HI, Nelson, A and Guevara, E (2008) Hole-filled SRTM for globe Version 4. (available from the CGIAR_CSI SRTM 90 m, database). http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org
Kamp, U, Byrne, M and Bolch, T (2011) Mapping glacier fluctuations between 1975 and 2008 in the Greater Himalaya Range of Zanskar, South Ladakh. J. Mt. Sci., 8(3), 374389 (doi: 10.1007/s11629-011-2007-9)
Kargel JS and 16 others (2005) Multispectral imaging contributions to global land ice measurements from space. Remote Sens. Environ., 99(1–2), 187219 (doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2005.07.004)
Kargel, JS, Cogley, JG, Leonard, GJ, Haritashya, U and Byers, A (2011) Himalayan glaciers: the big picture is a montage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 108(36), 1470914710 (doi: 10.1073/pnas.1111663108)
Kaser, G, Großhauser, M and Marzeion, B (2010) Contribution potential of glaciers to water availability in different climate regimes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107(47), 2022320227 (doi: 10.1073/pnas.1008162107)
Koblet, T and 6 others (2010) Reanalysis of multi-temporal aerial images of Storglaciären, Sweden (1959–1999)- part 1: determination of length, area, and volume changes. Cryosphere, 4, 333343 (doi: 10.5194/tc-4-333-2010)
Kumar, K, Dumka, RK, Miral, MS, Satyal, GS and Pant, M (2008) Estimation of retreat rate of Gangotri glacier using rapid static and kinematic GPS survey. Curr. Sci., 94(2), 258262
Kumar, R, Areendran, G and Rao, P (2009) Witnessing change: Glaciers in the Indian Himalayas. WWF, India, pp. 48
Kääb, A (2005) Combination of SRTM3 and repeat ASTER data for deriving alpine glacier flow velocities in the Bhutan Himalaya. Remote Sens. Environ., 94(4), 463474 (doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2004.11.003)
Kääb, A and Vollmer, M (2000) Surface geometry, thickness changes and flow fields on creeping mountain permafrost: automatic extraction by digital image analysis. Permafrost Periglac. Processes, 11(4), 315326 (doi: 10.1002/1099-1530(200012)11:4<315::AID-PPP365>3.0.CO;2-J)
Kääb, A and 6 others (2002) Glacier monitoring from ASTER imagery: Accuracy and Applications. Proceedings of EARSeL-LISSIG-Workshop Observing our Cryosphere from Space, 11–13th March, Bern, Number 2, 4353
Kääb, A, Lefauconnier, B and Melvold, K (2005) Flow field of Kronebreen, Svalbard, using repeated Landsat 7 and ASTER data. Ann. Glaciol., 42(1), 713 (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3189/172756405781812916)
Kääb, A, Treichler, D, Nuth, C and Berthier, E (2015) Brief communication: contending estimates of 2003–2008 glacier mass balance over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya. Crosphere, 9, 557564 (doi: 10.5194/tc-9-557-2015)
Lambrecht, A, Mayer, C, Aizen, V, Floricioiu, D and Surazakov, A (2014) The evolution of Fedchenko glacier in the Pamir, Tajikistan, during the past eight decades. J. Glaciol., 60(220), 233244 (doi: 10.3189/2014JoG13J110)
Lamsal, D, Sawagaki, T and Watanabe, T (2011) Digital terrain modelling using corona and ALOS PRISM data to investigate the distal part of Imja Glacier, Khumbu Himal, Nepal. J. Mt. Sci., 8, 390402 (doi: 10.1007/s11629-011-2064-0)
Lee, DS, Storey, JC, Choate, MJ and Hayes, RW (2004) Four years of Landsat-7 on-orbit geometric calibration and performance. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 42(12), 27862795 (doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2004.836769)
Leprince, S, Barbot, S, Ayoub, F and Avouac, JP (2007) Automatic and precise orthorectification, coregistration, and subpixel correlation of satellite images, application to ground deformation measurements. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 45(6), 15291558 (doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2006.888937)
Li, J and Heap, AD (2008) A Review of Spatial Interpolation Methods for Environmental Scientists. Geoscience Australia, Record 2008/23, 137 pp. ISBN 978 1 921498 28 2
Luckman, A, Quincey, D and Bevan, S (2007) The potential of satellite radar interferometry and feature tracking for monitoring flow rates of Himalayan glaciers. Remote Sens. Environ., 111(2–3), 172181 (doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2007.05.019)
Mattson, LE, Gardner, JS and Young, GJ (1993) Ablation on Debris Covered Glaciers: an example from the Rakhiot Glacier, Punjab, Himalaya. Symposium at Kathmandu, Nepal, Nov. 1992- Snow and Glacier Hydrology, IAHS publ. 218, 289296
McDonald, RA (1995) CORONA-success for space reconnaissance, a look into the Cold War, and a revolution for intelligence. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens., 61(6), 689720
Mukherjee, BP and Sangewar, CV (2001) Recession of Gangotri glacier through 20th century. Geological Survey of India Special Publication, Number 65, pp. 13
Maussion, F and 5 others (2014) Precipitation seasonality and variability over the Tibetan Plateau as resolved by the High Asia Reanalysis. J. Climate, 27, 19101927 (doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00282.1)
Müller, F (1968) Mittelfristige Schwankungen der Ober-flaechengeschwindigkeiten des Khumbugletschers am Mount Everest. Schweizerische Bauzeitung, 86(31), 569573 (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5169/seals-70102)
Nainwal, HC, Negi, BDS, Chaudhary, M, Sajwan, KS and Gaurav, A (2008) Temporal changes in rate of recession: evidence from Satopanth and Bhagirath Kharak glaciers, Uttarakhand, using Total Station Survey. Curr. Sci., 94(5), 653660
Naithani, AK, Nainwal, HC, Sati, KK and Prasad, C (2001) Geomorphological evidences of retreat of the Gangotri glacier and its characteristics. Curr. Sci., 80(1), 8794
Negi, HS, Thakur, NK, Ganju, A and Snehmani, (2012) Monitoring of Gangotri glacier using remote sensing and ground observations. J. Earth. Syst. Sci., 121(4), 855866 (doi: 10.1007/s12040-012-0199-1)
Nuimura, T, Fujita, K, Yamaguchi, S and Sharma, RR (2012) Elevation changes of glaciers revealed by multitemporal digital elevation models calibrated by GPS survey in the Khumbu region, Nepal Himalayas, 1992–2008. J. Glaciol., 58(210), 648656 (doi: 10.3189/2012JoG11J061)
Nuth, C and Kääb, A (2011) Co-registration and bias corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantifying glacier thickness change. Cryosphere, 5, 271290 (doi: 10.5194/tc-5–271-2011)
Oberoi, LK, Maruthi, KV and Siddiqui, MA (2000) Secular movement studies of the selected glaciers in Pindar and Vishnuganga basins, Almora and Chamoli districts, Uttaranchal. Geol. Surv. India Rec., 135(8), 114115
Paul, F (2008) Calculation of glacier elevation changes with SRTM: is there an elevation dependent bias? J. Glaciol., 54(188), 945946 (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3189/002214308787779960)
Paul, F and 19 others (2013) On the accuracy of glacier outlines derived from remote sensing data. Ann. Glaciol., 54(63), 171182 (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3189/2013AoG63A296)
Pellicciotti, F and 5 others (2015) Mass-balance changes of the debris-covered glaciers in the Langtang Himal, Nepal, from 1974 to 1999. J. Glaciol., 61(226), 373386 (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3189/2015JoG13J237)
Pieczonka, T, Bolch, T and Buchroithner, MF (2011) Generation and evaluation of multitemporal digital terrain models of the Mt. Everest area from different optical sensors. ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens., 66(6), 927940 (doi: 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2011.07.003)
Pieczonka, T and Bolch, T (2015) Region wide glacier mass budgets and area changes for the Central Tien Shan between 1975 and 1999 using Hexagon KH-9 imagery. Global. Planet. Change, 128, 113 (doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.11.014)
Pieczonka, T, Bolch, T, Wie, J and Liu, S (2013) Heterogeneous mass loss of glaciers in the Aksu-Tarim Catchment (Central Tien Shan) revealed by 1976 KH-9 Hexagon and 2009 SPOT-5 stereo imagery. Remote Sens. Environ., 130, 233244 (doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2012.11.020)
Racoviteanu, AE, Arnaud, Y, Williams, MW and Ordonez, J (2008) Decadal changes in glacier parameters in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, derived from remote sensing. J. Glaciol., 54(186), 499510 (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3189/002214308785836922)
Raina, VK (2004) Is the Gangotri glacier receding at an alarming rate? J. Geol. Soc. India., 64, 819821
Raina, VK (2009) Himalayan glaciers: a state-of-art review of glacial studies, glacial retreat and climate change. Kosi-Katarmal, Ministry of Environment and Forests. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development. (MoEFF Discussion Paper.), p. 60
Raina, VK and Srivastava, D (2008) Glacier Atlas of India. Geological Society of India, Bangalore, First Edition, ISBN: 81-85867-80-9, p. 316
Rodriguez, E, Morris, CS and Belz, JE (2006) A global assessment of the SRTM performance. Photogramm. Eng. Remote. Sens., 72(3), 249260 (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14358/PERS.72.3.249)
Sakai, A, Takeuchi, N, Fujita, K and Nakawo, M (2000) Role of supraglacial ponds in the ablation process of a debris-covered glacier in the Nepal Himalayas. IAHS publ. 265 (Symposium at Seattle, Washington, USA, Sep. 2000- Debris-Covered Glaciers, 119130
Sakai, A, Nakawo, M and Fujita, K (2002) Distribution characteristics and energy balance of ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers, Nepal Himalaya. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 34(1), 1219 (doi: 10.2307/1552503)
Saraswat, P and 5 others (2013) Recent changes in the snout position and surface velocity of Gangotri glacier observed from space. Int. J. Remote Sens., 34(24), 86538668 (doi: 10.1080/01431161.2013.845923)
Scherler, D, Leprince, S and Strecker, MR (2008) Glacier-surface velocities in alpine terrain from optical satellite imagery-Accuracy improvement and quality assessment. Remote Sens. Environ., 112(10), 38063819 (doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2008.05.018)
Schwitter, MP and Raymond, CF (1993) Changes in the longitudinal profile of glaciers during advance and retreat. J. Glaciol., 39(133), 582590 (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3198/1993JoG39-133-582-590)
Singh, P, Haritashya, UK, Ramasastri, KS and Kumar, N (2005) Prevailing weather conditions during summer seasons around Gangotri Glacier. Curr. Sci., 88(5), 753760
Singh, P, Haritashya, UK, Kumar, N and Singh, Y (2006) Hydrological characteristics of the Gangotri glacier, central Himalayas, India. J. Hydrol., 327(1–2), 5567 (doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.11.060)
Singh, P, Haritashya, UK and Kumar, N (2007) Meteorological study for Gangotri Glacier and its comparison with other high altitude meteorological stations in central Himalayan region. Nord. Hydrol., 38(1), 5977 (doi: 10.2166/nh.2007.028)
Singh, P, Haritashya, UK and Kumar, N (2008) Modelling and estimation of different components of streamflow for Gangotri basin, Himalayas. Hydrol. Sc. J., 53(2), 309322 (doi: 10.1623/ hysj.53.2.309)
Singh, P, Polglase, L and Wilson, D (2009) Role of snow and glacier melt runoff modeling in hydropower projects in the Himalayan region. In Jain, SK, Singh, VP, Kumar, V, Kumar, R, Singh, RD and Sharma, KD eds. Proceedings of the International Conference on Water, Environment, Energy and Society (WEES–2009), 12–16 January 2009, New Delhi, India. Vol. 1. National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, 366371
Srivastava, D (2004) Recession of Gangotri glacier. In Srivastava, D, Gupta, KR and Mukerji, S eds. Proceedings of Workshop on Gangotri glacier, 26–28 March, Lucknow, India, Geological Survey of India, Special Publication, Number 80, pp. 2132
Srivastava, D (2012) Status Report on Gangotri Glacier. Science and Engineering Research Board, Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, Himalayan Glaciology Technical Report, No. 3, pp. 102
Storey, JC and Choate, MJ (2004) Landsat-5 bumper-mode geometric correction. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 42, 26952703 (doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2004.836390)
Surazakov, A and Aizen, V (2010) Positional accuracy evaluation of declassified Hexagon KH-9 mapping camera imagery. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens., 76(5), 603608 (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14358/PERS.76.5.603)
Tangari, AK, Chandra, R and Yadav, SKS (2004) Temporal monitoring of the snout, equilibrium line and ablation zone of Gangotri glacier through remote sensing and GIS techniques – an attempt at deciphering the climatic variability. In Srivastava, D, Gupta, KR and Mukerji, S eds. Proceedings of Workshop on Gangotri glacier, 26–28 March, Geological Survey of India, Lucknow, India, Special Publication, Number 80, pp. 145153
Thayyen, RJ (2008) Lower recession rate of Gangotri glacier during 1971–2004. Curr. Sci., 95(1), 910
Thayyen, RJ and Gergan, JT (2010) Role of glaciers in watershed hydrology: a preliminary study of a Himalayan catchment. Cryosphere, 4(1), 115128 (doi: 10.5194/tc-4-115-2010)
Toutin, T (2002) 3D Topographic mapping with ASTER stereo data in rugged topography. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 40, 22412247 (doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2002.802878)
Vincent, C and 10 others (2013) Balanced conditions or slight mass gain of glaciers in the Lahaul and Spiti region (northern India, Himalaya) during the nineties preceded recent mass loss. Cryosphere, 7, 569582 (doi: 10.5194/tc-7-569-2013)
Vohra, CP (1980) Some problems of glacier inventory in the Himalayas. Proceedings of the Workshop of Riederalp, 17–22 September 1978, IAHS-AISH Publication, vol. 126, pp. 6774
Vohra, CP (1981) Himalayan glaciers. In Lall, JS and Moddie, AD eds. The Himalayan Aspect of Change. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, India, 138151
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Glaciology
  • ISSN: 0022-1430
  • EISSN: 1727-5652
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-glaciology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Bhattacharya supplementary material
Figure S2

 Unknown (26.1 MB)
26.1 MB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Bhattacharya supplementary material
Table S2

 Word (66 KB)
66 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Bhattacharya supplementary material
Figure S1

 Unknown (11.1 MB)
11.1 MB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Bhattacharya supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (63 KB)
63 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Bhattacharya supplementary material
Table S3

 Word (44 KB)
44 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 38
Total number of PDF views: 424 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 586 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 9th September 2016 - 19th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.