Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Why do the dark and light ogives of Forbes bands have similar surface mass balances?

  • C. VINCENT (a1), M. DUMONT (a2), D. SIX (a1), F. BRUN (a1), G. PICARD (a1) and L. ARNAUD (a1)...

Abstract

Band ogives are a striking and enigmatic feature of Mer de Glace glacier flow. The surface mass balances (SMBs) of these ogives have been thoroughly investigated over a period of 12 years. We find similar cumulative SMBs over this period, ranging between −64.1 and −66.2 m w.e., on the dark and light ogives even though the dark ogive albedo is ~40% lower than that of the light ogives. We, therefore, looked for another process that could compensate for the large difference of absorbed short-wave radiation between dark and light ogives. Based on in situ roughness measurements, our numerical modeling experiments demonstrate that a significant difference in turbulent flux over the dark and light ogives due to different surface roughnesses could compensate for the difference in radiative forcing. Our results discard theories for the genesis of band ogives that are based on the assumption of a strong ice ablation contrast between dark and light ogives. More generally, our study demonstrates that future roughness changes are as important to analyze as the radiative impacts of a potential increase of aerosols or debris at the surface of glaciers.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Why do the dark and light ogives of Forbes bands have similar surface mass balances?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Why do the dark and light ogives of Forbes bands have similar surface mass balances?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Why do the dark and light ogives of Forbes bands have similar surface mass balances?
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Correspondence: C. Vincent <christian.vincent@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr>

References

Hide All
Agassiz, L (1840) Etudes sur les glaciers. Jent et Gassmann, Neuchâtel
Agisoft (2014) PhotoScan Professional 1.0.0 user manual. St Petersburg
Allen, CR, Kamb, WB, Meier, MF and Sharp, RP (1960) Structure of the lower blue glacier, Washington. J. Geol., 68(6), 601625
Atherton, D (1963) Comparisons of ogives systems under various regimes. J. Glaciol., 4(35), 547557
Berthier, E and Vincent, C (2012) Relative contribution of surface mass-balance and ice-flux changes to the accelerated thinning of Mer de Glace, French Alps, over 1979–2008. J. Glaciol., 58, 209, 2012 (doi: 10.3189/2012JoG11J083)
Brock, BW, Willis, IC and Sharp, MJ (2006) Measurement and parameterization of aerodynamic roughness length variations at Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. J. Glaciol., 52(177), 281297
Brun, E, David, P, Sudul, M and Brunot, G (1992) A numerical model to simulate snow-cover stratigraphy for operational avalanche forecasting. J. Glaciol., 38(128), 1322
Brun, F and 9 others (2016) Quantifying volume loss from ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers using high resolution terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry. J. Glaciol., 62(234), 684695 (doi: 10.1017/jog2016.542016)
Cathles, LM, Abbot, DS, Bassis, JN and Macayeal, DR (2011) Modeling surface-roughness/solar-ablation feedback: application to small-scale surface channels and crevasses of the Greenland ice sheet. Ann. Glaciol., 52(59), 99108 (doi: 10.3189/172756411799096268)
Cuffey, KM and Paterson, WSB (2010) The physics of glaciers, 4th edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford
Dumont, M and 7 others (2017) In situ continuous visible and near-infrared spectroscopy of an alpine snowpack. Cryosphere, 11, 10911110 (doi: 10.5194/tc-11-1091-2017)
Durand, Y and 5 others (2009) Reanalysis of 44 year of climate in the French Alps (1958–2002): methodology, model validation, climatology, and trends for Air temperature and precipitation. J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 48, 429449 (doi: 10.1175/2008JAMC1808.1)
Fisher, JE (1962). Ogives of the Forbes type on Alpine glaciers and a study of their origins. J. Glaciol., 4(31), 5361
Forbes, JD (1845) Travels through the Alpes of Savoy and other parts of the Pennin chain with observations on the phenome of glaciers, 2nd edn., Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 456 p
Goodsell, B, Hambrey, MJ and Glasser, NF (2002) Formation of band ogives and associated structures at Bas Glacier d'Arolla, Valais, Switzerland. J. Glaciol., 48(161), 287300
Greuell, W and Genthon, C (2004) Modelling land-ice surface mass balance. In Bamber, JL and Payne, AJ, eds. Mass balance of the cryosphere: observations and modelling of contemporary and future changes, pp. 117168. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Guy, B, Daigneault, M and Thomas, G (2002) Réflexions sur la formation des bandes de Forbes: l'instabilité de la fusion de la glace sale. C.R. Geosci., 334, 10611070
Haefeli, R (1951) Some observations on glacier flow. J. Glaciol., 1(9), 496500
Hock, R and Holmgren, B (1996) Some aspects of energy balance and ablation of Storglaciaren, northen Sweden. Geogr. Ann. 78A(2–3), 121131
Irvine-Fynn, TDL, Sanz-Ablanedo, E, Rutter, N, Smith, MW and Chandler, JH (2014) Measuring glacier surface roughness using plot-scale, close range digital photogrammetry. J. Glaciol., 60(223), 957969 (doi: 10.3189/2014JoG14J032)
King, CAM and Lewis, WV (1961) A tentative theory of ogive formation. J. Glaciol., 3(29), 913938
Kraaijenbrink, PDA, Immerzeel, WW, Pellicciotti, F, de Jong, SM and Shea, JM (2016) Object-based analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle imagery to map and characterise surface features on a debris-covered glacier. Remote Sens. Environ., 186 581595 (doi. org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.09.013)
Lafaysse, M and 5 others (2017) A multiphysical ensemble system of numerical snow modelling. Cryosphere, 11, 11731198 (doi: 10.5194/tc-11-1173-2017)
Leighton, FB (1951) Ogives of the east twin glacier, Alaska: their nature and origin. J. Geol., 59(6), 578589
Lettau, H (1969) Note on aerodynamic roughness-parameter estimation on the basis of roughness-element description. J. Appl. Meteorology, 8, 828832
Lhermitte, S, Abermann, J and Kinnard, C (2014) Albedo over rough snow and ice surfaces. Cryosphere, 8, 10691086 (doi: 10.5194/tc-8-1069-2014)
Libois, Q and 6 others (2015) Summertime evolution of snow specific surface area close to the surface on the Antarctic Plateau. Cryosphere, 9, 23832398 (doi: 10.5194/tc-9-2383-2015)
Lliboutry, L and Reynaud, L (1981) Global dynamics of a temperate valley glacier, Mer de Glace, and past velocities deduced from Forbes bands. J. Glaciol. 27, 207226
Munro, DS (1989) Surface roughness and bulk heat transfer on a glacier: comparison with eddy correlation. J. Glaciol., 35(121), 343348
Noilhan, J and Mahfouf, JF (1996) The ISBA land surface parameterization scheme, global planet. Change, 17, 145159
Nye, JF (1958) A theory of wave formation in glaciers. International Association of Scientific Hydrology, Publication 47 (Symposium at Chamonix 1958 – Physics of movement of the ice), 139154
Oerlemans, J (2001) Glaciers and climate change: a meteorologist's view. Lisse, Netherlands, A.A. Balkema
Oerlemans, J, Giesen, RH and Van den Broeke, MR (2009) Retreating alpine glaciers: increased melt rates due to accumulation of dust (Vadret da Moteratsch, Switzerland). J. Glaciol., 55(192), 729736
Painter, TH and 5 others (2013). End of the little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon. PNAS, 110(38), 1521615221 (doi: 10.1073/pnas.1302570110)
Picard, G, Libois, Q, Arnaud, L, Verin, G and Dumont, M (2016a) Development and calibration of an automatic spectral albedometer to estimate near-surface snow SSA time series. Cryosphere, 10, 12971316 (doi: 10.5194/tc-10-1297-2016)
Picard, G, Arnaud, L, Panel, JM and Morin, S (2016b) Design of a scanning laser meter for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of snow depth and its application in the Alps and in Antarctica. Cryosphere, 10, 14951511 (doi: 10.5194/tc-10-1495-2016)
Posamentier, HW (1978) Thoughts on ogive formation. J. Glaciol., 20(82), 218220
Reid, TD and Brock, BW (2010) An energy-balance model for debris-covered glaciers including heat conduction through the debris layer. J. Glaciol., 56(199), 903916 (doi: 10.3189/002214310794457218)
Reynaud, L (1979) Reconstruction of past velocities of Mer de Glace using Forbes bands. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie, 15(2), 149163
Ricchiazzi, P, Yang, S, Gautier, C and Sowle, D (1998) SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallel radiative transfer in the Earth's atmosphere. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79(10), 21012114
Réveillet, M, Vincent, C, Six, D and Rabatel, A (2017) Which empirical model is best suited to simulated glacier mass balances? J. Glaciol. 62(237), 3954 (doi: 10.1017/jog.2016.110)
Rounce, DR, Quincey, DJ and McKinney, DC (2015) Debris-covered glacier energy balance model for Imja–Lhotse Shar Glacier in the Everest region of Nepal. Cryosphere, 9, 22952310 (doi: 10.5194/tc-9-2295-2015)
Schaepman-Strub, G, Schaepman, ME, Painter, TH, Dangel, S and Martonchik, JV (2006) Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing—definitions and case studies. Remote Sens. Environ., 103(1), 2742
Smeets, CJPP, Duynkerke, PG and Vugts, HF (1999) Observed wind profiles and turbulence fluxes over an ice surface with changing surface roughness, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 92(1), 101123
Smith, MW and 6 others (2016) Aerodynamic roughness of ice surfaces derived from high resolution topographic data. J. Geophys. Res., 121(4), 748756
Thibert, E, Blanc, R, Vincent, C and Eckert, N (2008) Glaciological and volumetric mass-balance measurements: error analysis over 51 years for Glacier de Sarennes, French Alps. J. Glaciol., 54(186), 522532
Vallon, M (1967) Contribution à l’étude de la Mer de Glace. (Thesis, University of Grenoble), 133 p
Vallon, M (1968) Errors in the determination of ablation using stakes. J. Glaciol., 7(49), 132133
Vincent, C, Harter, M, Gilbert, A, Berthier, E and Six, D (2014) Future fluctuations of Mer de Glace, French Alps, assessed using a parameterized model calibrated with past thickness changes. Ann. Glaciol., 55(66) (doi: 10.3189/2014AoG66A050)
Vionnet, V and 7 others (2012) The detailed snowpack scheme crocus and its implementation in SURFEX v7. 2. Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 773791
Waddington, ED (1986) Waves ogives. J. Glaciol., 32(112), 325334

Keywords

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Vincent et al. supplementary material
Vincent et al. supplementary material 1

 Unknown (7.8 MB)
7.8 MB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed