A new nematode species, Philometroides acreanensis n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from female specimens recovered from the stomach wall of the freshwater catfish Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes (Pimelodidae) collected in the Acre River (Amazon River basin), Acre State, Brazil. Based on examination by light and scanning electron microscopy, the new species differs from the two other South American congeneric species mainly in the body length of the gravid female (240–280 mm), the length of the oesophagus (1.25 mm in holotype) representing 0.5% of the entire body length, the range of cuticular embossment, as well as the location in the host (stomach), order of the fish host (Siluriformes) and the geographical distribution (Amazon River drainage system). This is the third known species of Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 reported from South America. A key to species of Philometroides occurring in the fish of America is provided.
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