Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 12
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Cantey, Paul T. Weeks, Jessica Edwards, Morven Rao, Suchitra Ostovar, G. Amin Dehority, Walter Alzona, Maria Swoboda, Sara Christiaens, Brooke Ballan, Wassim Hartley, John Terranella, Andrew Weatherhead, Jill Dunn, James J. Marx, Douglas P. Hicks, M. John Rauch, Ronald A. Smith, Christiana Dishop, Megan K. Handler, Michael H. Dudley, Roy W. R. Chundu, Kote Hobohm, Dan Feiz-Erfan, Iman Hakes, Joseph Berry, Ryan S. Stepensaski, Shelly Greenfield, Benjamin Shroeder, Laura Bishop, Henry de Almeida, Marcos Mathison, Blaine Eberhard, Mark Hughes, James M. and Wilson, Mary E. 2016. The Emergence of ZoonoticOnchocerca lupiInfection in the United States – A Case-Series. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 62, Issue. 6, p. 778.

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe and Otranto, Domenico 2016. Best Practices for Preventing Vector-Borne Diseases in Dogs and Humans. Trends in Parasitology, Vol. 32, Issue. 1, p. 43.

    Gordon, Catherine A. McManus, Donald P. Jones, Malcolm K. Gray, Darren J. and Gobert, Geoffrey N. 2016.

    Komnenou, Anastasia Th. Thomas, Angelos L. N. Papadopoulos, Elias and Koutinas, Alex F. 2016. Intraocular localization ofOnchocerca lupiadult worm in a dog with anterior uveitis: A case report. Veterinary Ophthalmology, Vol. 19, Issue. 3, p. 245.

    Tudor, Poliana Turcitu, Mihai Mateescu, Cosmin Dantas-Torres, Filipe Tudor, Niculae Bărbuceanu, Florica Ciuca, Lavinia Burcoveanu, Ioana Acatrinei, Dumitru Rinaldi, Laura Mateescu, Romanița Bădicu, Adina Ionașcu, Iuliana and Otranto, Domenico 2016. Zoonotic ocular onchocercosis caused by Onchocerca lupi in dogs in Romania. Parasitology Research, Vol. 115, Issue. 2, p. 859.

    Verocai, Guilherme G. Conboy, Gary Lejeune, Manigandan Marron, Fany Hanna, Paul MacDonald, Erin Skorobohach, Brian Wilcock, Brian Kutz, Susan J. and Gilleard, John S. 2016. Onchocerca lupiNematodes in Dogs Exported from the United States into Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 22, Issue. 8, p. 1477.

    Bergua, A Hohberger, B Held, J Muntau, B Tannich, E and Tappe, D 2015. Human case of Onchocerca lupi infection, Germany, August 2014. Eurosurveillance, Vol. 20, Issue. 16, p. 21099.

    Grácio, António J. Santos Richter, Joachim Komnenou, Anastasia Th. and Grácio, Maria Amélia 2015. Onchocerciasis caused by Onchocerca lupi: an emerging zoonotic infection. Systematic review. Parasitology Research, Vol. 114, Issue. 7, p. 2401.

    Hassan, Hassan K. Bolcen, Shanna Kubofcik, Joseph Nutman, Thomas B. Eberhard, Mark L. Middleton, Kelly Wekesa, Joseph Wakoli Ruedas, Gimena Nelson, Kimberly J. Dubielzig, Richard De Lombaert, Melissa Silverman, Bruce Schorling, Jamie J. Adler, Peter H. Unnasch, Thomas R. and Beeler, Emily S. 2015. Isolation ofOnchocerca lupiin Dogs and Black Flies, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 21, Issue. 5, p. 789.

    TAKAOKA, Hiroyuki 2015. Zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan: its causative <i>Onchocerca</i> species and vector black fly species. Medical Entomology and Zoology, Vol. 66, Issue. 2, p. 23.

    Uni, Shigehiko Fukuda, Masako Otsuka, Yasushi Hiramatsu, Nobuo Yokobayashi, Kenichi Takahashi, Hiroshi Murata, Susumu Kusatake, Kenji Morita, Eishin Maruyama, Haruhiko Hasegawa, Hideo Shiwaku, Kuninori Ramli, Rosli Azirun, Mohd and Takaoka, Hiroyuki 2015. New zoonotic cases of Onchocerca dewittei japonica (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in Honshu, Japan. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 8, Issue. 1, p. 59.

    Otranto, Domenico Dantas-Torres, Filipe Giannelli, Alessio Latrofa, Maria Stefania Papadopoulos, Elias Cardoso, Luís and Cortes, Helder 2013. ZoonoticOnchocerca lupiInfection in Dogs, Greece and Portugal, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 19, Issue. 12, p. 2000.


Human ocular onchocerciasis caused by Onchocerca lupi (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) in Iran

  • G. Mowlavi (a1), F. Farzbod (a2), A. Kheirkhah (a2), I. Mobedi (a1), D.D. Bowman (a3) and S.R. Naddaf (a4)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 07 February 2013

Cases of canine onchocerciasis caused by Onchocerca lupi are increasingly reported from Europe and the western United States of America. The zoonotic role of this parasite had already been suspected in Europe as the clinical signs and histopathology seen in two ocular cases from Albania and the Crimean region were very similar to those of canine ocular onchocerciasis. In the most recent reports of human onchocerciasis, O. lupi has been morphologically and molecularly identified as the causative agent of ocular infestation in two patients from Turkey, and one patient from Tunisia. Here, we report an additional case of nodular lesions involving two, and possibly more, immature worms in a patient from Iran. The parasite was found to belong to the genus Onchocerca based on morphological features and the species was confirmed as O. lupi from a partial sequence analysis of 12S ribosomal DNA.

Corresponding author
* E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Z. Ali-Khan (1977) Tissue pathology and comparative microanatomy of Onchocerca from a resident of Ontario and other enzootic Onchocerca species from Canada and the U.S.A. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 71, 469482.

S. Azari-Hamidian , M.R. Yaghoobi-Ershadi , E. Javadian , M.R. Abai , I. Mobedi , Y.M. Linton & R.E. Harbach (2009) Distribution and ecology of mosquitoes in a focus of dirofilariasis in northwestern Iran, with the first finding of filarial larvae in naturally infected local mosquitoes. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 23, 111121.

W.E. Burr Jr, M.F. Brown & M.L. Eberhard (1998) Zoonotic Onchocerca (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in the cornea of a Colorado resident. Ophthalmology 105, 14941497.

R.W. Crosskey (2002) A taxonomic account of blackfly fauna of Iraq and Iran, including keys for species identification (Diptera: Simuliidae). Journal of Natural History 36, 18411886.

M.L. Eberhard , Y. Ortega , S. Dial , C.A. Schiller , A.W. Sears & E. Greiner (2000) Ocular Onchocerca infections in two dogs in western United States. Veterinary Parasitology 90, 333338.

Z. Egyed , T. Sreter , Z. Szell , B. Beszteri , O. Oravecz , K. Marialigeti & I. Varga (2001) Morphologic and genetic characterization of Onchocerca lupi infecting dogs. Veterinary Parasitology 102, 309319.

Z. Egyed , T. Sreter , Z. Szell , G. Nyiro , K. Marialigeti & I. Varga (2002) Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Onchocerca lupi and its Wolbachia endosymbiont. Veterinary Parasitology 108, 153161.

M. Fukuda , Y. Otsuka , S. Uni , O. Bain & H. Takaoka (2010a) Genetic evidence for the presence of two species of Onchocerca from the wild boar in Japan. Parasite 17, 3337.

M. Fukuda , Y. Otsuka , S. Uni , O. Bain & H. Takaoka (2010b) Molecular identification of infective larvae of three species of Onchocerca found in wild-caught females of Simulium bidentatum in Japan. Parasite 17, 3945.

M. Fukuda , Y. Otsuka , S. Uni , T. Boda , H. Daisaku , H. Hasegawa , H. Takaoka & O. Bain (2011) Zoonotic onchocerciasis in Hiroshima, Japan, and molecular analysis of a paraffin section of the agent for a reliable identification. Parasite 18, 185188.

H. Hashimoto , I. Murakami , S. Fujiwara , S. Takayasu , H. Takaoka , S. Uga , N. Akao , K. Kondo & H. Yoshimura (1990) A human case of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan. Journal of Dermatology 17, 5255.

A.V. Yankovsky (2010) On the fauna of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Iran. Entomological Review 90, 10791087.

A. Jamshidi , M. Jamshidi , I. Mobedi & M. Khosroara (2008) Periocular dirofilariasis in a young woman: a case report. Korean Journal of Parasitology 46, 265267.

M. Koehsler , A. Soleiman , H. Aspock , H. Auer & J. Walochnik (2007) Onchocerca jakutensis filariasis in humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13, 17491752.

A.L. Labelle , J.B. Daniels , M. Dix & P. Labelle (2011) Onchocerca lupi causing ocular disease in two cats. Veterinary Ophthalmology 14 (Suppl. 1), 105110.

A. Mirzayans & H. Maghsoodloo (1977) Filarial infection of Equidae in the Tehran area of Iran. Tropical Animal Health and Production 9, 1920.

D. Otranto & M.L. Eberhard (2011) Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye. Parasites & Vectors 4, 41.

D. Otranto , N. Sakru , G. Testini , V.P. Gurlu , K. Yakar , R.P. Lia , F. Dantas-Torres & O. Bain (2011) Case report: First evidence of human zoonotic infection by Onchocerca lupi (Spirurida, Onchocercidae). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84, 5558.

D. Otranto , F. Dantas-Torres , Z. Cebeci , B. Yeniad , N. Buyukbabani , O.B. Boral , A. Gustinelli , T. Mounir , Y. Mutafchiev & O. Bain (2012a) Human ocular filariasis: further evidence on the zoonotic role of Onchocerca lupi. Parasites & Vectors 5, 84.

D. Otranto , F. Dantas-Torres , E. Papadopoulos , D. Petric , A.I. Cupina & O. Bain (2012b) Tracking the vector of Onchocerca lupi in a rural area of Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases 18, 11961200.

S. Pampiglione , N. Vakalis , A. Lyssimachou , G. Kouppari & T.C. Orihel (2001) Subconjunctival zoonotic Onchocerca in an Albanian man. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 95, 827832.

F.O. Richards Jr, B. Boatin , M. Sauerbrey & A. Seketeli (2001a) Control of onchocerciasis today: status and challenges. Trends in Parasitology 17, 558563.

F. Sallo , M.L. Eberhard , E. Fok , F. Baska & I. Hatvani (2005) Zoonotic intravitreal Onchocerca in Hungary. Ophthalmology 112, 502504.

T. Sreter & Z. Szell (2008) Onchocercosis: a newly recognized disease in dogs. Veterinary Parasitology 151, 113.

T. Sreter , Z. Szell , Z. Egyed & I. Varga (2002) Subconjunctival zoonotic onchocerciasis in man: aberrant infection with Onchocerca lupi? Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 96, 497502.

Z. Sreter-Lancz , Z. Szell & T. Sreter (2007) Molecular genetic comparison of Onchocerca sp. infecting dogs in Europe with other spirurid nematodes including Onchocerca lienalis. Veterinary Parasitology 148, 365370.

Z. Szell , T. Sreter , I. Erdelyi & I. Varga (2001) Ocular onchocercosis in dogs: aberrant infection in an accidental host or lupi onchocercosis? Veterinary Parasitology 101, 115125.

H. Takaoka , O. Bain , S. Tajimi , K. Kashima , I. Nakayama , M. Korenaga , C. Aoki & Y. Otsuka (1996) Second case of zoonotic Onchocerca infection in a resident of Oita in Japan. Parasite 3, 179182.

H. Takaoka , O. Bain , S. Uni , M. Korenaga , W.J. Kozek , C. Shirasaka , C. Aoki , Y. Otsuka , M. Fukuda , Y. Eshita & T. Daa (2004) Zoonotic onchocerciasis caused by a parasite from wild boar in Oita, Japan. A comprehensive analysis of morphological characteristics of the worms for its diagnosis. Parasite 11, 285292.

H. Takaoka , T. Yanagi , T. Daa , S. Anzai , C. Aoki , M. Fukuda , S. Uni & O. Bain (2005) An Onchocerca species of wild boar found in the subcutaneous nodule of a resident of Oita, Japan. Parasitology International 54, 9193.

H. Takaoka , M. Fukuda , Y. Otsuka , C. Aoki , S. Uni & O. Bain (2012) Blackfly vectors of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 26, 372378.

K. Tamura , D. Peterson , N. Peterson , G. Stecher , M. Nei & S. Kumar (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28, 27312739.

M.K. Zarfoss , R.R. Dubielzig , M.L. Eberhard & K.S. Schmidt (2005) Canine ocular onchocerciasis in the United States: two new cases and a review of the literature. Veterinary Ophthalmology 8, 5157.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Helminthology
  • ISSN: 0022-149X
  • EISSN: 1475-2697
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-helminthology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *