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    FOLKARD, SHELLEY G. and BIANCO, ALBERT E. 1995. The effects of H2 and non-H2 genes on the survival of Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae in the mouse. Parasite Immunology, Vol. 17, Issue. 7, p. 329.

    Lüder, C. G. K. Soboslay, P. T. Prince, A. M. Greene, B. M. Lucius, R. and Schulz-Key, H. 1993. Experimental onchocerciasis in chimpanzees: cellular responses and antigen recognition after immunization and challenge with Onchocerca volvulus infective third-stage larvae. Parasitology, Vol. 107, Issue. 01, p. 87.

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    Trees, A. J. Wahl, G. Kläger, S. and Renz, A. 1992. Age-related differences in parasitosis may indicate acquired immunity against microfilariae in cattle naturally infected with Onchocerca ochengi. Parasitology, Vol. 104, Issue. 02, p. 247.

    CARLOW, CLOTILDE K.S. DOBINSON, A.R. and BIANCO, A.E. 1988. Parasite-specific immune responses to Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae in normal and immunodeficient mice. Parasite Immunology, Vol. 10, Issue. 3, p. 309.

    Carlow, C. K. S. and Bianco, A. E. 1987. Resistance to Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae in mice conferred by egg antigens of homologous and heterologous Onchocerca species. Parasitology, Vol. 94, Issue. 03, p. 485.

    Townson, Simon Nelson, G. S. and Bianco, A. E. 1985. Immunity to Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae in mice. Journal of Helminthology, Vol. 59, Issue. 04, p. 337.

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Immunization of calves against the microfilariae of Onchocerca lienalis

  • Simon Townson (a1) and A. E. Bianco (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 18 November 2009

Three Jersey bull calves were immunized by subcutaneous injections of sonicated Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae suspended in phosphate buffered saline, and three control animals were injected with medium only. All calves received booster injections 27 days later, and were challenged with live microfilariae 44 days after the booster. Following challenge, only the immunized animals developed an elevated level of circulating eosinophils. When necropsied ten days after challenge there was a 97% reduction in recoveries of microfilariae from immunized animals compared to challenge controls. In human onchocerciasis it is the microfilariae which are the principal cause of pathology, and we believe that studies on O. lienalis in both the natural bovine host and in inbred rodents provide a promising model to investigate immunity to Onchocerca microfilariae.

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A. E. Butterworth (1980) Eosinophils and immunity to parasites. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 74 (Supplement), 3843.

B. Haas & P. Wenk (1981) Elimination of microfilariae (Litomosoides carinii Filaroidea) in the patent and the immunized cotton-rat. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 75, 143144.

C. D. Mackenzie (1980) Eosinophil leucocytes in filarial infections. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 74, (Supplement), 5158.

G. S. Nelson (1970) Onchocerciasis. In: Advances in Parasitology, 8, 173224. B. Dawes (Editor). Academic Press, London.

E. Zielke (1980) On the longevity and behaviour of microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis transfused to laboratory rodents. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 74, 456458.

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Journal of Helminthology
  • ISSN: 0022-149X
  • EISSN: 1475-2697
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-helminthology
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