Skip to main content Accesibility Help

Point prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in ruminants in southern Punjab, Pakistan

  • Muhammad Asif Raza (a1), Zafar Iqbal (a1), Abdul Jabbar (a1) and Muhammad Yaseen (a2)

The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in ruminants in an irrigated area of lower Punjab (Pakistan). For this purpose, 100 faecal samples were collected from sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes. Parasitological procedures including direct and indirect methods (sedimentation and floatation) and coproculture were used for the identification of helminths. The overall prevalence of helminthiasis was 51% in cattle, 47% in buffaloes, 62% in sheep and 52% in goats, with nematodes being the most common helminths. The prevalence of helminths was higher in young animals compared with adults in cattle (P < 0.0001), buffaloes (P < 0.0001), sheep (P < 0.059) and goats (P = 0.010). The prevalence of different species of helminths also varied in different age groups, with Toxocara vitulorum being higher in calves than adults both in cattle (P = 0.017) and buffaloes (P < 0.0001). Sex-wise prevalence of helminths was higher in males than females for buffaloes (P < 0.0001) and sheep (P = 0.014) in contrast to cattle and goats.

Corresponding author
Hide All
Ahmed, M. & Ansari, J.A. (1987) Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats in Aligarh (India). Indian Veterinary Medical Journal 11, 165170.
Al-Quaisy, H.H.K., Al-Zubaidy, A.J., Altaf, K.I. & Makkiawi, A. (1987) The pathogenicity of haemonchosis in sheep and goats in Iraq. I. Clinical, parasitological and haematological findings. Veterinary Parasitology 24, 221228.
Anonymous (2000) District census report of Muzaffargarh (1998). Islamabad, Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan.
Anwar, A.H., Hayat, C.S. & Amir, M.I. (1996) Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis and comparative efficacy of anthelmintics in parasitized buffalo calves. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 16, 160163.
Asanji, M.F. & Williams, M.O. (1987) Variables affecting population dynamics of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of small farm ruminants in Sierra Leone. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production, Africa 35, 308313.
Bali, M.K. & Singh, R.P. (1977) Studies on the prevalence of Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in Hissar. Haryana Agriculture University Journal of Research 8, 143148.
Barger, I.A. (1982) Helminth parasites and animal production. pp. 133155in Symons, L.E.A., Donald, A.D. & Dineen, J.K. (Eds) Biology and control of endoparasites. Sydney, Academic Press.
Barnes, E.H. & Dobson, R.J. (1990) Population dynamics of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep: computer model to simulate grazing systems and the evolution of anthelmintic resistance. International Journal for Parasitology 20, 823831.
Beveridge, I. & Ford, G.E. (1982) The trichostrongylid parasites of sheep in South Australia and their regional distribution. Australian Veterinary Journal 59, 177179.
Charles, T.P. (1989) Seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats in Pernambuco state, Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology 30, 335343.
Das, K.M. & Singh, G.B. (1955) Calf ascariasis in India. A nine years' survey with special reference to Hetrazan. British Veterinary Journal 111, 342347.
Dorny, P., Symons, C., Jalila, A., Vercruysse, J. & Sani, R. (1995) Stronglye infections in sheep and goats under the traditional husbandry system in Peninsular Malaysia. Veterinary Parasitology 56, 121136.
El-Moukdad, A.R. (1979) Helminths of cattle in Syria. Angewandte Parasitologie 20, 1116.
El-Sayed, H.M. (1997) Helminth parasites of sheep in Dakahlia Province Egypt. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 38, 4854.
Enyenihi, U.K. (1969) Pathogenicity of Neoascaris vitulorum infection in calves. Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases, Africa 17, 171178.
FAO (1974) Pakistan: a livestock sector survey report, No. 32/74/Pak/7. 11 pp. Rome, FAO/World Bank Cooperative program.
Gordon, H.McL. (1953) The epidemiology of helminthosis in sheep in winter-rainfall regions of Australia. I. Preliminary observations. Australian Veterinary Journal 29, 237248.
Grant, J.L. (1981) The epizootiology of nematode parasites of sheep in a high-rainfall area of Zimbabwe. Journal of South African Veterinary Association 52, 3337.
Gulland, F.M.D. & Fox, M. (1992) Epidemiology of nematode infections of Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) on St Kilda. Parasitology 105, 481492.
Gupta, G.C., Joshi, B.P. & Rai, P. (1976) Some aspects of biochemical studies in calf diseases ascaridiasis and scour. Indian Veterinary Journal 53, 436441.
Gupta, R.P., Yadav, C.L. & Chaudhri, S.S. (1987) Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats in Haryana, India. Veterinary Parasitology 24, 117127.
Hayat, C.S., Malik, A.A., Anwar, A.H. & Iqbal, Z. (1990) Effect of experimentally induced coccidiosis on some blood parameters and productivity of lambs. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 10, 6062.
Hayat, C.S., Khalid, M., Iqbal, Z. & Akhtar, M. (1999) Haematological and biochemical disturbances associated with Toxocara vitulorum infection in buffalo calves. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 1, 247249.
Hunter, A.G. & Heath, P.J. (1984) Ovine internal parasitism in the Yemen Arab Republic. Tropical Animal Health and Production 16, 95106.
Hussain, M.Z. & Akram, M. (1967) Host–parasite relationship. I. Studies on the productivity of sheep as affected by haemonchosis. Pakistan Journal of Science 5, 247251.
Iqbal, N.C., Durrani, M.S. & Tariq, A. (1984) The incidence of gastrointestinal parasite in buffalo and cattle of Azad Kashmir. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 4, 6061.
Iqbal, Z., Akhtar, M., Khan, M.N. & Riaz, M. (1993) Prevalence and economic significance of haemonchosis in sheep and goats slaughtered at Faisalabad abattoir. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture and Sciences 30, 5153.
Iqbal, Z., Rasool, G., Hayat, C.S. & Akhtar, M. (1998) Biochemical disturbances associated with haemonchosis in sheep. Agricultural Sciences (Oman) 3, 3539.
Iqbal, Z., Lateef, M., Khan, M.N., Muhammad, G. & Jabbar, A. (2005) Temporal density of trichostrongylid larvae on a communal pasture in a sub-tropical region of Pakistan. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 25, 8791.
Jacquiet, P., Colas, F., Cabaret, J., Dia, M.L., Cheikh, D. & Thiam, A. (1995) Dry reas: an example of seasonal evolution of helminth infection of sheep and goats in southern Moauritania. Veterinary Parasitology 56, 137148.
Jorgensen, L.T., Leathwick, D.M., Charleston, W.A.G., Godfrey, P.L., Vlassoff, A. & Sutherland, I.A. (1998) Variation between hosts in the developmental success of the free-living stages of trichostrongyle infections of sheep. International Journal for Parasitology 28, 13471352.
Kates, K.C. (1950) Survival on pasture of free-living stages of some common gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Proceedings of Helminthological Society, Washington 17, 3958.
Khan, M.Q., Hayat, C.S., Ilyas, M., Hussain, M. & Iqbal, Z. (1988) Effect of haemonchosis on body wieght gain and blood values in sheep. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 8, 6267.
Khan, M.N., Hyat, C.S., Chaudhry, A.H., Iqbal, A. & Hayat, B. (1989) Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth in sheep and goat at Faisalabad abattoir. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 9, 159161.
Knox, D.P. (2000) Development of vaccines against gastrointestinal nematodes. Parasitology 120, S43S61.
Komoin, O.C., Zinsstag, J., Pandey, V.S., Fofana, F. & Depo, A.N. (1999) Epidemiology of parasites of sheep in the southern forest zone of Cote d'Ivoire. Revue d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux 52, 3946.
Lateef, M., Iqbal, Z., Jabbar, A., Khan, M.N. & Akhtar, M.S. (2005) Epidemiology of trichostrongylid nematode infections in sheep under traditional husbandry system in Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 7, 596600.
MAFF (1979) Parasitological laboratory techniques. Technical Bulletin No. 18. London, HMSO.
Maqsood, M., Iqbal, Z. & Chaudhry, A.H. (1996) Prevalence and intensity of haemonchosis with reference to breed, sex and age of sheep and goats. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 16, 4143.
McCulloch, B. & Kasimbala, I. (1968) The incidence of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats in Sukumaland, Tanzania. British Veterinary Journal 124, 177195.
MINITAB (2000) MINITAB release 13.1. BCIS Lab., St. Cloud State University, Minnesota, USA.
Mohiuddin, A., Khan, M.M., Mugha, F.A. & Sheikh, M.A. (1984) Taxonomy, incidence and seasonal variation of helminth parasites of sheep and goats of Sind. Pakistan Journal Zoology 16, 2530.
Mondal, M.M., Islam, M.K., Hur, J., Lee, J.H. & Baek, B.K. (2000) Examination of gastrointestinal helminths in livestock grazing in grassland of Bangladesh. The Korean Journal of Parasitology 38, 187190.
Mourad, M.I., Abdullah, S.A. & Allowy, T.E. (1985) Comparative study on the gastrointestinal parasitism of cattle and buffalo with special reference to haematological changes at Assiut Governorate. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 15, 163166.
Ouattara, L. & Dorchies, P. (2001) Gastro-intestinal helminths of sheep and goats in subhumid and sahelian areas of Burkina Faso. Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 152, 165170.
Pal, R.N. & Balakrishnan, P. (1987) Prevalence of GIT helminthiasis in cattle in the Andaman island, India. Journal of Andaman Scientific Association 3, 813.
Pal, R.A. & Qayyum, M. (1992) Breed, age and sex-wise distribution of gastro-intestinal helminths of sheep and goats in and around Rawalpindi region. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 12, 6063.
Pandey, V.S., Ndao, M. & Kumar, V. (1994) Seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in communal land goats from the highland of Zimbabwe. Veterinary Parasitology 51, 241248.
Patnaik, M.M. & Pande, B.P. (1963) Notes on the helminthic infestations encountered in one-month-old buffalo calves. Indian Veterinary Journal 40, 128133.
Pino, L.A., Morales, G., Perdomo, L. & Aldana, E. (1988) The epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in arid zones of Venezuela. Turrialba 38, 1318.
Radostits, O.M., Blood, D.C. & Gay, C.C. (1994) Diseases caused by helminth parasites. pp. 12231230in Veterinary medicine: A text book of diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses. 8th edn. London, Ballière Tindall.
Rajapakse, R.P.V.J., Lloyd, S. & Fernando, S.T. (1994) The effect of serum and colostrum immunoglobulins from buffaloes infected with Toxocara vitulorum on T. vitulorum larvae in vitro and in vivo in mice. Parasitology Research 80, 426430.
Roberts, J.A. (1990) The egg production of Toxocara vitulorum in Asian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). International Journal for Parasitology 37, 113120.
Sajid, M.S., Anwar, A.H., Iqbal, Z., Khan, M.N. & Qudoos, A. (1999) Some epidemiological aspects of gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 1, 306308.
Shah, M., Hussain, S.A. & Siddiqui, I.D. (1980) Incidence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep slaughtered in Municipal corporation abattoir, Lahore. Journal of Animal Health and Production 1, 7275.
Siddiqi, M.N. & Ashraf, M. (1980) Helminthiasis in goat slaughtered in the abattoirs of Peshwar. NWFP. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research 1, 6475.
Soulsby, E.J.L. (1982) Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domestic animals. 7th edn. London, Baillière Tindall and Cassel Ltd.
Specht, E.J.K. (1982) Seasonal incidence of helminths in sheep and goats in South Mozambique. Veterinary Parasitology 11, 317328.
Starke, W.A., Machado, R.Z., Honer, M.R. & Zocoller, M.C. (1983) Natural course of gastrointestinal helminthic infections in buffaloes in Andradina County (SP), Brazil. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 40, 758762.
Stear, M.J., Bairden, K., Bishop, S.C., Gettinby, G., McKellar, Q.A., Park, M., Strain, S. & Wallace, D.S. (1998) The processes influencing the distribution of parasitic nematodes among naturally infected lambs. Parasitology 117, 165171.
Taylor, S.M. & Cawthorne, R.J.G. (1972) Species of gastrointestinal helminths of lambs in Northern Iceland. Journal of Helminthology 46, 285290.
Terblanches, H.I.J. (1979) Trials with febental to determine the effect on breeding ewes and their offspring. Veterinary Medicine Review 79, 118125.
Valcárcel, F. & García Romero, C. (1999) Prevalence and seasonal pattern of caprine trichostrongyles in a dry area of central Spain. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 6, 673.
Van Aken, D., De Bont, J., Vercruysse, J. & Dorny, P. (1990) Gastrointestinal nematode infections in a goat breeding farm in North-Western Sri Lanka. Tropical Animal Health and Production 22, 231–238.
Vercruysse, J. (1983) A survey of seasonal changes in nematodes faecal egg count levels of sheep and goats in Senegal. Veterinary Parasitology 13, 239244.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Helminthology
  • ISSN: 0022-149X
  • EISSN: 1475-2697
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-helminthology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed