The differential diagnosis of endolaryngeal mesenchymal neoplasms includes a wide spectrum of benign and malignant pathologies, which have been rarely photo-documented and assessed as a group.
Non-epithelial neoplasms of the endolarynx seen at our centre from 2002 to 2011 (n = 38; 36 treated at our institution) were retrospectively reviewed, with attention to clinical presentation, radiographic imaging, operative management, histology, and pre- and post-operative endoscopy. Submucosal squamous cell carcinomas, mucosal cysts, amyloid and Teflon granulomas were excluded.
Twenty-three of a total of 36 patients underwent definitive endoscopic surgical treatment. Supraglottic pathologies included lymphoma, lipoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, lymphangioma, oncocytoma, haemangioma, synovial cell sarcoma and benign spindle cell neoplasm. Transglottic pathologies included synovial cell sarcoma and granular cell tumour. Glottic pathologies included granular cell tumour, osteoma, rhabdomyoma, rhabdomycosarcoma and myofibroblastic sarcoma. Subglottic pathologies included chondrosarcoma, neurofibroma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and vascular malformation.
The site of origin, degree of malignant behaviour and sensitivity to adjuvant treatment determined the course of surgical management, i.e. endolaryngeal versus transcervical, and limited removal versus wider resection.
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