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The Alliance For or Against Progress? US–Brazilian Financial Relations in the Early 1960s

  • FELIPE PEREIRA LOUREIRO (a1)

Abstract

This paper analyses the role played by US economic assistance during the administrations of Jânio Quadros and João Goulart in Brazil (1961–4). It focuses on the negotiation and implementation of financial agreements associated with the Alliance for Progress, President Kennedy's aid programme for Latin America. It demonstrates that the Alliance had a positive impact during Quadros' administration, providing substantial resources to the country and placing economic growth ahead of economic stabilisation as the principal criterion for aid. Circumstances changed, however, when João Goulart became president, resulting in serious funding constraints. The paper suggests that the main reason for this was political, specifically regarding Washington's perception of Goulart's links with communist groups.

Este artículo analiza el papel jugado por la asistencia económica estadounidense durante los gobiernos de Jânio Quadros y João Goulart en Brasil (1961–4). Se centra en la negociación e implementación de acuerdos financieros asociados con la Alianza para el Progreso, el programa de ayuda para Latinoamérica del presidente Kennedy. Demuestra que dicha Alianza tuvo un impacto positivo durante la administración de Quadros, al proveer de recursos sustanciales al país y al priorizar al crecimiento económico sobre la estabilización económica como el criterio principal de la ayuda. Las circunstancias cambiaron, sin embargo, cuando João Goulart se hizo presidente, lo que desembocó en serias limitaciones financieras. El artículo sugiere que la razón principal para lo anterior fue política, específicamente en relación a la percepción de Washington sobre los vínculos de Goulart con los grupos comunistas.

Este artigo analisa o papel desempenhado pelo programa estadunidense de assistência financeira durante os governos dos presidentes Jânio Quadros e João Goulart no Brasil (1961–4). Foca-se na negociação e implementação dos acordos financeiros associados com a Aliança para o Progresso, programa do governo Kennedy de assistência econômica para a América Latina. Demonstra-se que a Aliança teve um impacto positivo durante a administração de Jânio Quadros, fornecendo recursos substanciais para o país e colocando crescimento econômico antes da estabilização econômica como critério principal para a assistência. No entanto, este quadro muda quando João Goulart assume a presidência, resultando em sérias limitações de recursos. O artigo sugere que a principal razão para tal mudança foi política, particularmente no tangente à percepção por parte de Washington das ligações de Goulart com grupos comunistas.

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1 Although recent studies stress that there was continuity between Eisenhower's and Kennedy's policies towards Latin America, Kennedy's methods were different from Eisenhower's, particularly with regard to the role assigned to foreign aid in fostering development. See Sewell, Bevan, ‘Early Modernization Theory? The Eisenhower Administration and the Foreign Policy of Development in Brazil’, English Historical Review, 125: 517 (2010), pp. 1449–80. For general characteristics of the Alliance for Progress, see Taffet, Jeffrey, Foreign Aid as Foreign Policy: The Alliance for Progress in Latin America (London and New York: Routledge, 2007), chaps. 1–3.

2 ‘Address by President John F. Kennedy at the White House Reception for Members of the Diplomatic Corps of the Latin American Republics’, 3 March 1961, cited in Taffet, Foreign Aid, pp. 199–204. For previous US policies, see Rabe, Stephen, Eisenhower and Latin America: The Foreign Policy of Anti-Communism (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988), chap. 1.

3 Última Hora, 12 Nov. 1963, p. 8.

4 See Black, Jan Knippers, United States Penetration of Brazil (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977), pp. 3942; Green, James, We Cannot Remain Silent: Opposition to the Brazilian Military Dictatorship in the United States (Durham, NC, and London: Duke University Press, 2010), chap. 1; Leacock, Ruth, Requiem for Revolution: The United States and Brazil, 1961–1969 (Kent, OH, and London: Kent State University Press, 1990), chap. 4; and Parker, Phyllis, Brazil and the Quiet Intervention, 1964 (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1979), pp. 4753.

5 Weis, Michael, Cold Warriors and Coups d’État: Brazilian–American Relations, 1945–1964 (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1993), chap. 6; and ‘Twilight of Pan-Americanism: The Alliance for Progress, Neo-Colonialism, and Non-Alignment in Brazil, 1961–1964’, International History Review, 23: 2 (2001), pp. 322–44; Rabe, Stephen, The Most Dangerous Area in the World: John F. Kennedy Confronts Communist Revolution in Latin America (Chapel Hill, NC, and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1999), pp. 64–7, 196–7. Fico, Carlos, O grande irmão: da Operação Brother Sam aos anos de chumbo (Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2008), chaps. 1–2; and Jeffrey Taffet's Foreign Aid, chap. 6, come to similar conclusions, although the latter emphasises the role of Brazilian foreign policy.

6 Leacock, Requiem for Revolution, chap. 5; Brands, Hal, Latin America's Cold War (Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press, 2010), p. 64.

7 Jânio Quadros assumed office in January 1961 and resigned in August 1961. Sectors of the military did not want Vice-President Goulart in power because of his links with leftist groups. In September 1961 a compromise was reached: to amend the Constitution and establish a parliamentary regime. One year later, however, after substantial pressure on Congress, Goulart anticipated the plebiscite that would decide the future of parliamentarianism. At the January 1963 plebiscite, Goulart regained full presidential powers. See Skidmore, Thomas, Politics in Brazil, 1930–1964: An Experiment in Democracy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), chap. 7.

8 On financial constraints in the early 1960s, see Felipe Pereira Loureiro, ‘Empresários, trabalhadores e grupos de interesse: a política econômica nos governos Jânio Quadros e João Goulart, 1961–1964’, unpubl. PhD diss., University of São Paulo, 2012, chap. 1.

9 Weis, ‘Twilight of Pan-Americanism’, p. 340, argues that the United States began to work towards destabilising Goulart in late 1962; for Taffet, Foreign Aid, p. 109, and Leacock, Requiem for Revolution, chap. 8, mid-1963 is the key period; and finally, Fico, O grande irmão, pp. 75–6, stresses early 1964 as the decisive moment.

10 USAID, ‘Policy Considerations Relating to United States Assistance to Brazil’, report to Latin American Policy Committee (LAPC), 10 July 1962, John F. Kennedy Library (hereafter JFKL), National Security Files (hereafter NSF), Papers of Ralph Dungan (hereafter PRD), Box 390, Folder Brazil 3/62-9/62, p. 1.

11 Roberto Toro to Teodoro Moscoso, report, 18 June 1962, National Archives and Records Administration, Maryland (hereafter NARA), Record Group (hereafter RG) 59, Records Relating to Brazil, compiled 1954–63 (hereafter RRB), Box 2, Folder CUL 7, p. 3.

12 Vernon Walters to Major General Alva Fitch, report, 6 March 1963, JFKL, NSF, PRD, Box 390 A, Folder Brazil 1/63-6/63, p. 2.

13 Memorandum for the President (hereafter MemPres), Feb. 1961, JFKL, President Office's Files (hereafter POF), Box 112, Folder 15; MemPres, 1 Feb. 1961, NSF, Box 12, Folder Brazil General 1/26/61-2/24/61.

14 ‘Estatísticas históricas do Brasil’, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Rio de Janeiro, 1990, pp. 583–9.

15 US Embassy, Brazil, to Department of State, report (hereafter Embrep) 781, 8 March 1961, NARA, RG 84, US Embassy, Brazil, Classified General Records, compiled 1941–63 (hereafter CGR), Box 125, Folder 350.

16 ‘Foreign Financial Assistance’, Feb. 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 129, Folder 501.

17 Herbert K. May to John M. Cabot, 17 March 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 129, Folder 501; K. Weston to R. Isaacson, 2 Mar 1961, National Archives, London (hereafter UKNA), Foreign Office Papers (hereafter FO), 371/155829; Treasury Papers (hereafter T), 312/21.

18 Barro, Robert and Lee, Jong-Wha, ‘IMF Programs: Who is Chosen and What are the Effects?’, Journal of Monetary Economics, 52 (2005), pp. 1245–69.

19 Casimiro Ribeiro to Clemente Mariani, Centro de Pesquisa e Documentação em História Contemporânea do Brasil, Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Rio de Janeiro (hereafter CPDOC-FGV), Papers of Clemente Mariani (hereafter CMa), mfc 1961.01.31/4; Moreira Salles and Herbert May, Memorandum of Conversation (hereafter MemCon), 6 March 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 128, Folder 400.1.

20 US Embassy, Brazil, to Department of State, telegram (hereafter Embtel) 1579, 12 May 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 121, Folder 320. See also Keith Storrs, ‘Brazil's Independent Foreign Policy, 1961–1964: Background, Tenets, Linkage to Domestic Politics, and Aftermath’, unpubl. PhD diss., Cornell University, 1973.

21 Victor, Mário, Cinco anos que abalaram o Brasil (Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 1965), chap. 12.

22 See Quadros' meeting with Douglas Dillon, US Secretary of Treasury. Embtel 1384, Section I, 13 April 1961, JFKL, POF, Box 112, Folder 15.

23 K. Weston to L. Petch, 2 May 1961, UKNA, T 312/23.

24 British Embassy, Brazil, to Foreign Office, telegram (hereafter Embtel UK) 103, 24 April 1961, UKNA, T 312/22.

25 Executive Board Documents (hereafter EBD), Minutes of the Executive Board Meeting (hereafter MEBM), IMF Archives, 17 May 1961, 61/25, p. 7.

26 Douglas Dillon to Selwyn Lloyd, 11 May 1961; R. Carter to L. Crick, 15 May 1961; Weston to Petch, 2 May 1961, UKNA, T 312/23.

27 IMF Press Release 352, 17 May 1961, CPDOC-FGV, CMa, mfc 1961.01.31/4. The terms of Argentina's 1959 standby agreement with the IMF are outlined in Manzetti, Luigi, The International Monetary Fund and Economic Stabilization: The Argentine Case (New York: Praeger, 1991), pp. 3843.

28 Embrep 139, 22 Aug. 1961; Embrep 193, 14 Sep. 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 131, Folder 560.

29 See Weis, Cold Warriors, p. 146; and Casimiro Ribeiro, ‘Depoimento I, 1975–1979’, interview, CPDOC-FGV, p. 82.

30 Hilton, Stanley, ‘The United States, Brazil, and the Cold War: End of a Special Relationship’, Journal of American History, 68: 3 (1981), pp. 602–6.

31 Ibid., pp. 608–13.

32 Sewell, ‘Early Modernization Theory’, pp. 1469–71; Weis, Cold Warriors, chap. 5.

33 USAID, US Overseas Loans and Grants 2010 (The Greenbook) (Washington, DC: USAID, 2011), available at http://gbk.eads.usaidallnet.gov.

34 For the importance of Rômulo Betancourt and Lleras Camargo, see Rabe, The Most Dangerous Area in the World, pp. 99–116; and Taffet, Foreign Aid, chap. 7.

35 Embtel UK 103, 24 April 1961, UKNA, T 312/22.

36 Kofas, Jon, The Sword of Damocles: U. S. Financial Hegemony in Colombia and Chile, 1950–1970 (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002), pp. 45–7.

37 Embrep UK, 3 May 1961, UKNA, FO 371/155829.

38 Embtel 1579, 12 May 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 121, Folder 320.

39 Storrs, ‘Brazil's Independent Foreign Policy’, pp. 304–85; Victor, Cinco anos, pp. 245–68.

40 Embtel 92, 1 Sep. 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 131, Folder 560, p. 1.

41 Embtel 205, 25 July 1961, JFKL, NSF, Box 12, Folder Brazil General 6/61-07/61.

42 Embrep 139, 22 Aug. 1961; Embrep 193, 14 Sep. 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 131, Folder 560.

43 Embtel 22, 1 Sep. 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 131, Folder 560, p. 1.

44 Leacock, Requiem for Revolution, pp. 25–6; Taffet, Foreign Aid, p. 99.

45 Embtel 1384, Section I, 13 April 1961, JFKL, POF, Box 112, Folder 15.

46 Embtel Santiago 25, 14 June 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 121, Folder 30; ‘Kennedy e o Brasil’, CPDOC-FGV, Papers of Roberto Campos (hereafter RC), d/emb 61.10.19, Folder VII, pp. 3–4; US Labor Report 1033, 18 May 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 131, Folder 560.

47 Field, Thomas Jr., ‘Ideology as Strategy: Military-Led Modernization and the Origins of the Alliance for Progress in Bolivia’, Diplomatic History, 36: 1 (2012), pp. 153, 165–9.

48 John Kennedy and George Ball, telecom, 31 Aug. 1961, JFKL, Personal Papers of George Ball (hereafter PPGB), Box 1, Folder Brazil 4/20/61-7/10/63, pp. 1–2.

49 George Ball and Woodward, telecom, 7 Sep. 1961, JFKL, PPGB, Box 1, Folder Brazil 4/20/61-7/10/63.

50 Labaki, Almir, 1961: a crise da renúncia e a solução parlamentarista (São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1986), p. 63; Rabe, The Most Dangerous Area in the World, p. 66.

51 Embtel 92, 1 Sep. 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 131, Folder 560.

52 Department of State to US Embassy, Brazil, telegram (hereafter Deptel) 815, 13 Sep. 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 131, Folder 560.

53 Roberto Campos to Herbert May, 19 Sep. 1962, CPDOC-FGV, Papers of Hermes Lima (hereafter HL), c 62.09.19/2, pp. 1–2.

54 Embtel 764, 15 Sep. 1961; Embtel 1068, 27 Oct. 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 131, Folder 560.

55 Embtel 1023, Section I, 22 Oct. 1961, JFKL, NSF, Box 12, Folder Brazil General 10/61-11/61, p. 2.

56 Dias Carneiro, Roberto Campos and Harold Linder, MemCon, 7 Nov. 1962, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 131, Folder 560, p. 2.

57 For Goulart's relations with the labour movement, see Timothy Harding, ‘The Political History of Organized Labor in Brazil’, unpubl. PhD diss., Stanford University, 1973, chaps. 4 and 8. According to the 1946 Brazilian Constitution, presidential and vice-presidential elections were held separately.

58 Embtel 157, 8 Sep. 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 131, Folder 560, p. 1.

59 CIA Memorandum 5064, 27 Sep. 1961, JFKL, NSF, Box 12, Folder Brazil General 8/61-9/61.

60 Embtel 92, 1 Sep. 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 131, Folder 560, p. 1.

61 Embtel 946, 11 Oct. 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 121, Folder 30, pp. 1–2.

62 Embtel 1353, 6 Dec. 1961, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 124, Folder 350.

63 Colistete, Renato, ‘Trade Unions and the ICFTU in the Age of Developmentalism in Brazil, 1953–1962’, Hispanic American Historic Review, 92: 4 (2012), pp. 690–2; Ioris, Rafael R., ‘“Fifty Years in Five” and What's in It for Us? Development Promotion, Populism, Industrial Workers and Carestia in 1950s Brazil’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 44: 2 (2012), pp. 271–2; Timothy Harding, ‘The Political History of Organized Labor’, chap. 10.

64 Labour Report 5/61, Sep. 1961, UKNA, LAB 13/1490; Renato Colistete, ‘Trade Unions and the IFCTU’, pp. 695–8; O Estado de São Paulo, 29 Aug. 1961, p. 8.

65 Deptel 1677, 13 March 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 13A, Folder Brazil General 3/12/63-3/21/63, pp. 7–10.

66 Haines, Gerald, The Americanization of Brazil: A Study of U. S. Cold War Diplomacy in the Third World, 1945–1954 (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1989), p. 31.

67 Embtel 1488, 6 Feb. 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 13A, Folder Brazil General 2/63, pp. 1–2.

68 ‘Brazil, Short-Term Action Paper’, July 1962, JFKL, NSF, PRD, Box 390, Folder Brazil, p. 2; ‘Brazil as an Instrument of Western Influence in Africa’, position paper, undated, JFKL, NSF, Box 12, Folder Brazil General 2/25/61-5/31/61.

69 Taffet, Foreign Aid, pp. 100–1.

70 CIA Memorandum, ‘The Situation in Brazil’, 2 April 1962, JFKL, Box 112, Folder 16, p. 4.

71 Taffet, Foreign Aid, p. 100.

72 Embtel 1213, Section III, 15 Nov. 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 12, Folder Brazil General 10/61-11/61.

73 Embtel 1280, Section II, 24 Nov. 1961, JFKL, NSF, Box 12, Folder Brazil General 10/61-11/61, p. 2.

74 ‘Background Paper’, Sep. 1961, JFKL, POF, Box 112, Folder 15, p. 2; Goulart, Gordon and John Fishburn, MemCon, 20 March 1962, NARA, RG 59, RRB, Box 2, Folder ECO 2.

75 Kennedy and Goulart, MemCon, 4 April 1962; Moreira Salles, Douglas Dillon and John Leedy, MemCon, 4 April 1962, JFKL, NSF, Box 12A, Folder Brazil General 4/62.

76 Page, Joseph, The Revolution that Never Was: Northeast Brazil, 1955–1964 (New York: Grossman, 1972), pp. 73–4; Roett, Riordan, The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Brazilian Northeast (Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 1972), pp. 82–6.

77 George Meany, Walter Reuther and Clodosmith Riani, MemCon, 4 April 1962, JFKL, PRD, Box 390, Folder Brazil 3/62-9/62.

78 Embtel 2818, Section II, 7 June 1962, JFKL, NSF, Folder Brazil General 6/62, p. 2.

79 Embrep A-87, 20 July 1962, Folder Brazil General 7/62; Embtel 634, 17 Sep. 1962, JFKL, NSF, Box 13, Folder Brazil General 9/62, p. 2.

80 Loureiro, Empresários, chap. 6.

81 Memorandum for McGeorge Bundy, 28 July 1962, JFKL, POF, Box 112, Folder 16, p. 2.

82 Naftali, Timothy, The Presidential Recordings: John F. Kennedy – The Great Crises, vol. 1 (New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001), p. 17.

83 Embtel 171, 19 July 1962, JFKL, NSF, Box 13, Folder Brazil General 7/62, p. 4; Toro to Moscoso, report, 18 June 1962, NARA, RG 59, RRB, Box 2, Folder CUL 7, pp. 5–6.

84 ‘Brazil, Short-Term Action Paper’, July 1962, JFKL, NSF, PRD, Box 390, Folder Brazil, p. 1; Deptel 243, 19 Aug. 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 8/21/63-8/31/63, pp. 2–3.

85 H. Wellman to Edwin Martin, memo, 8 Nov. 1962, NARA, RG 59, RRB, Box 3, Folder Mis 5d, p. 1; Naftali, The Presidential Recordings, p. 17. Fico, O grande irmão, pp. 75–6, reaches similar conclusions, although the concept he employs to define the US–Brazilian relationship from mid-1962 onwards (‘US destabilization campaign’) is not accurate.

86 Frank Sloan to Edwin Martin, memo, 14 Nov. 1962, NARA, RG 59, RRB, Box 3, Folder Mis 5d, pp. 2–6.

87 Deptel 1147, 15 Nov. 1962, JFKL, POF, Box 112, Folder 16, pp. 1–3.

88 Embtel 977, Section I, 19 Nov. 1962, JFKL, POF, Box 112, Folder 16, p. 2.

89 See particularly Leacock, Requiem for Revolution, chap. 5.

90 Kofas, The Sword of Damocles, pp. 54–6, 146–7.

91 These are somewhat different from Walcher's conclusions regarding the impacts of the November 1963 law (which cancelled oil contracts in Argentina) on the relationship between Argentina and United States. Although Walcher recognises that ‘political calculations worked in tandem with, rather than at the exclusion of, economic factors’, he emphasises the primary role of economic interests in shaping US policy on Arturo Illia's Argentina. See Walcher, Dustin, ‘Petroleum Pitfalls: The United States, Argentine Nationalism, and the 1963 Oil Crisis’, Diplomatic History, 37: 1 (2013), pp. 26, 41.

92 Deptel, 29 June 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 6/63, p. 2.

93 Embtel 1702, Section II, 9 March 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 13A, Folder Brazil General 3/1/63-3/11/63, p. 2.

94 Kofas, The Sword of Damocles, chap. 7; O'Brien, Thomas, Making the Americas: The United States and Latin America from the Age of Revolutions to the Era of Globalization (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 2007), pp. 184–5, 190–1.

95 Deptel, 27 Nov. 1962, JFKL, POF, Box 112, Folder 16, p. 2; O Estado de São Paulo, 24 Oct. 1962, p. 2; Weis, ‘Twilight of Pan-Americanism’, p. 339.

96 Embtel 1001, Section II, 23 Nov. 1962, JFKL, POF, Box 112, Folder 16, pp. 2–3.

97 ‘Brazil's Economic Alternatives’, Dec. 1963; ‘Counterpoise to Brazilian Threat to Turn to the Bloc’, Dec. 1963, JFKL, NSF, PRD, Box 390, Folder Brazil.

98 Embtel A-710, 19 Dec. 1962, JFKL, NSF, Box 13A, Folder Brazil General 12/16/62-12/31/62, pp. 2–3, 12–16.

99 ‘Outline of Brazil's Presentation’, Dec. 1962, JFKL, NSF, PRD, Box 390, Folder Brazil 11/62-12/62.

100 Department of State to US Embassy, Brazil, report (hereafter Deprep) A-1284, 9 May 1963, p. 5, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 7/16/63–7/31/63; Embrep A-941, 18 Feb. 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 13A, Folder Brazil General 2/3.

101 The seriousness of the Three-Year Plan was widely recognised by US officials. See MemPres, 7 March 1963, JFKL, NSF, Folder Brazil General 3/1/63-3/11/63.

102 Deprep, 13 May 1963, UKNA, FO 371/168152; ‘Background Paper’, March 1963, JFKL, POF, Box 112, Folder 17.

103 Embrep A-941, 18 Feb. 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 13A, Folder Brazil General 2/3; ‘Histórico da operação de compra das ações e direitos da AMFORP’, 1966, CPDOC-FGV, RC e/ag 61.02.10 IV-21, pp. 15–16.

104 Embtel 106, Section II, 17 July 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 7/16/63-7/31/63.

105 Brands, Latin America's Cold War, p. 64.

106 Embrep A-474, 26 Oct. 1962; Embtel 1436, 29 Jan. 1963, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 136, Folder 501.

107 Embtel 1767, 19 March 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 13A, Folder Brazil General 3/12/63-3/21/63.

108 ‘Brazilian Proposal for Debt Re-Scheduling’, Appendix III, CPDOC-FGV, RC d/emb 61.10.19, Folder V; Bell, Dantas and Herbert May, MemCon, 15.03.1963, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 134, Folder 350, pp. 7–8.

109 Dantas to David Bell, 25 March 1963, POF, Box 112, Folder 17, pp. 2–4; Deptel 1312, March 1963; memo for McGeorge Bundy, 24 March 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 13A, Folder Brazil General 3/22/63-3/31/63.

110 ‘Kennedy e o Brasil’, CPDOC-FGV, RC, d/emb 61.10.19, Folder VII, pp. 14–18.

111 Novos Rumos, 214, 29 March–4 April 1963, Centro de Documentação e Memória da Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, p. 3.

112 Embtel 2331, 1 June 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 6/63.

113 Loureiro, Empresários, chap. 7.

114 Deptel 1865, 13 April 1963; Embtel 2328, 31 May 1963, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 136, Folder 501.

115 Embtel 2112, Section III, 30 April 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 4/63.

116 Embtel 2320, 30 May 1963, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 136, Folder 501.

117 IMF British Director to Foreign Office, report, 9 June 1963, UKNA, FO 371/172354, pp. 6–7; EBD, MEBM, 5 June 1963, IMF Archives, 63/29, pp. 15–16.

118 Embtel 246, 2 Aug. 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 8/1/63-8/20/63; Deptel 2184, 7 June 1963, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 136, Folder 500.8.

119 Deptel (unnumbered), 29 June 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 6/63, p. 2.

120 Embtel 20, Section I, 3 July 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 7/11/63-7/15/63.

121 Embtel A-254, 21 Aug. 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 8/21/63-8/31/63, pp. 5–6.

122 Embtel 2112, Section II, 30 April 1963, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 4/63; Embtel 982, 2 Nov. 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14A, Folder Brazil General 11/1/63-11/15/63.

123 Embtel 2184, 7 June 1963, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 136, Folder 500.8.

124 US funding to the Brazilian federal government in January (US$ 30 million) and April (US$ 84 million) 1963 compounded residual credits from the May 1961 agreements.

125 ‘Agency for International Development and Alliance for Progress’, 1965, Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, NSF, Box 3, Folder AID & Alliance for Progress, p. 67.

126 Embtel 2, 16 July 1963, NARA, RG 84, CGR, Box 136, Folder 500.8; Embtel 631, Section II, 20 Sep. 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 9/63.

127 Embtel 374, Sections II and III, 21 Aug. 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 8/21/63-8/31/63.

128 Deptel 234, 14 Aug. 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 8/1/63–8/20/63.

129 Memo for Mr. Bundy, 13 Dec. 1962, Papers of Arthur Schlesinger, JFKL, Box WH-26, Folder Brazil 9/62–2/63, pp. 1–2.

130 ‘Brazil’, 2 Oct. 1963, JFKL, NSF, PRD, Box 390A, Folder Brazil 7/63–10/63.

131 Embtel A-254, 21 Aug. 1963, p. 3; Embtel 373, Section I, 21 Aug. 1963, JFKL, NSF, Box 14, Folder Brazil General 8/21/63-8/31/63, p. 2.

132 Walters to Fitch, report, 6 Mar. 1963, Folder Brazil 1/63-6/63; CIA Memo, 27 Aug. 1963, JFKL, NSF, PRD, Box 390A, Folder Brazil 7/63-10/63.

133 ‘Proposed Short-Term Policy, Brazil’, 30 Sep. 1963, JFKL, POF, Box 112, Folder 17.

134 Taffet, Foreign Aid, p. 10.

135 Paulo Contreras, ‘Struggles for Modernization: Peru and the United States, 1961–1968’, unpubl. PhD diss., University of Connecticut, 2010, pp. 102–5.

136 Taffet, Foreign Aid, chap. 4.

137 Rabe, The Most Dangerous Area in the World, p. 56.

* This paper was written during a Visiting Doctoral Fellowship at the Institute for the Study of the Americas, University of London, and sponsored by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq). This research is also part of a research project funded by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP). I would like to thank Amâncio Oliveira, Carlos Brando, Carmen Sepúlveda, Colin Lewis, Francesca Brizi, Gustavo Barros, Janina Onuki, Joe Francis, Libia Villazana, Paulo Drinot, Matthew Hill, Renato Colistete, Robert Coates, Tayna Harmer and the four anonymous JLAS reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions.

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