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Educational Television in El Salvador and Modernisation Theory*

  • HÉCTOR LINDO-FUENTES (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

This article investigates the introduction of educational television in El Salvador in the late 1960s, an Alliance for Progress project, in light of the preoccupations of the Cold War, the application of modernisation theory, the growing influence of a development community grounded in the social sciences and the Salvadorean elite's particular obsession with communism. The top-down approach used by the military regime to introduce a flurry of changes in the education system was facilitated by the extensive resources provided by international aid agencies and the US government. However, the reforms alienated Salvadorean teachers and fuelled teachers' strikes that are still remembered as pivotal moments in the urban mass movements of the 1970s which preceded the civil war of the 1980s.

Abstract

Este artículo investiga la introducción de la televisión educativa en El Salvador a finales de los años 60. Tal iniciativa fue un proyecto de la Alianza para el Progreso, bajo las preocupaciones de la Guerra Fría, la aplicación de la teoría de la modernización, la creciente influencia de una comunidad desarrollista basada en las ciencias sociales, y la particular obsesión con el comunismo de la élite salvadoreña. El enfoque de arriba-abajo utilizado por el régimen militar para introducir gran cantidad de cambios en el sistema educativo fue facilitado por los extensos recursos otorgados por agencias internacionales de ayuda y por el gobierno estadounidense. Sin embargo, las reformas alienaron a los profesores salvadoreños y alentaron las huelgas de maestros que aún se recuerdan como momentos fundamentales en los movimientos de masas urbanos de los años 70 y que precedieron a la guerra civil una década después.

Abstract

O artigo analisa a introdução da televisão educativa em El Salvador no final da década de 1960, um projeto da Alianza para el Progreso, e considera as preocupações acerca da Guerra Fria, o emprego da teoria da modernização, a influência crescente de uma comunidade desenvolvimentista baseada nas ciências sociais, e a obsessão especial da elite salvadorenha com o comunismo. A abordagem impositiva do regime militar ao introduzir uma rajada de mudanças no sistema educacional facilitou-se pelos extensos recursos fornecidos por agências internacionais de assistência e pelo governo dos Estados Unidos. No entanto as reformas alienaram professores salvadorenhos, dando munição a greves, ainda lembradas como momentos críticos dos movimentos de massa urbanos da década de 1970 que antecederam a guerra civil da próxima década.

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John K. Mayo , Robert C. Hornik and Emile G. McAnany , ‘Instructional Television in El Salvador's Educational Reform’, Prospects: Quarterly Review of Education, vol. 5, no. 1 (1975), p. 120.

John W. Riley Jr., Wilbur Schramm and Frederick W. Williams , ‘Flight from Communism: A Report on Korean Refugees’, Public Opinion Quarterly, vol. 15, no. 2 (1951), p. 274.

Robert H. Holden , ‘Securing Central America against Communism: The United States and the Modernisation of Surveillance in the Cold War’, Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs, vol. 41, no. 1 (1999), pp. 130.

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Journal of Latin American Studies
  • ISSN: 0022-216X
  • EISSN: 1469-767X
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-latin-american-studies
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