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On the Trail and Trial of a Palestinian Diaspora: Mapping South America in the Arab–Israeli Conflict, 1967–1972

Abstract
Abstract

Centred around a May 1970 shooting at the Israeli embassy in Asunción, this article traces a chain of actions and reactions that began with Israel's victory in the Six-Day War in June 1967 and ended after the June 1972 verdict of a Paraguayan court regarding two Palestinians. Situated among Israeli officials, Palestinian refugees and Syrian-Lebanese elites, authoritarian Paraguay was not only encompassed by but also accommodated the post-1967 Arab–Israeli conflict, revealing the connection between the ‘areas’ of South America and the Middle East through ideas about relocating Palestinians as well as their actual displacement.

Spanish Abstract

Concentrándose en los disparos contra la embajada israelí en Asunción en mayo de 1970, este artículo rastrea una cadena de acciones y reacciones que empezaron con la victoria israelí en la ‘Guerra de los Seis Días’ en junio de 1967 y terminaron con un veredicto paraguayo en relación a dos palestinos en junio de 1972. Rodeado por las autoridades israelíes, los refugiados palestinos y las élites sírio-libanesas, el Paraguay autoritario logró contener el conflicto árabe-israelí después de 1967, revelando la conexión entre las ‘áreas’ de Sudamérica y el Medio Oriente a través de las ideas acerca de la reubicación de palestinos así como de su verdadero desplazamiento.

Portuguese abstract

Focalizando no tiroteio ocorrido na embaixada israelense em Assunção em maio de 1970, este artigo traça uma sequência de ações e reações que começou com a vitória de Israel na ‘Guerra dos Seis Dias’ em junho de 1967 e terminou após o veredicto da justiça paraguaia sobre dois palestinos em junho de 1972. Cercado por autoridades israelenses, refugiados palestinos e elites sírio-libanesas, o Paraguai autoritário conseguiu conter o conflito árabe-israelense pós-1967, revelando assim as conexões entre as ‘áreas’ da América do Sul e do oriente médio através de idéias sobre o reassentamento de palestinos e sua diáspora real.

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1 Kaufman Edy, Shapira Yoram and Barromi Joel, Israeli–Latin American Relations (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1979).

2 Bahbah Bishara, ‘Israel's Military Relationship with Ecuador and Argentina’, Journal of Palestine Studies, 15: 2 (1986), pp. 76101; Bahbah Bishara and Butler Linda, Israel and Latin America: The Military Connection (New York: St Martin's Press, 1986); Beit-Hallahmi Benjamin, The Israeli Connection: Who Israel Arms and Why (London: I. B. Tauris, 1987); Jamail Milton and Gutiérrez Margo, It's No Secret: Israel's Military Involvement in Central America (Belmont, MA: Association of Arab-American University Graduates, 1986); Pieterse Jan, ‘State Terrorism on a Global Scale: The Role of Israel’, Crime and Social Justice, 21/22 (1984), pp. 5880; Rubenberg Cheryl, ‘Israeli Foreign Policy in Central America’, Third World Quarterly, 8: 3 (1986), pp. 896915.

3 Mualem Yitzhak, ‘Between a Jewish and an Israeli Foreign Policy: Israel–Argentina Relations and the Issue of Jewish Disappeared Persons and Detainees under the Military Junta, 1976–1983’, Jewish Political Studies Review, 16: 12 (2004); Leonardo Senkman, ‘Israel y el rescate de las víctimas de la represión: una evaluación preliminar’, in Leonardo Senkman and Mario Sznajder, with the collaboration of Edy Kaufman, El legado del autoritarismo (Buenos Aires: Nuevohacer, 1995), pp. 283–324; Sznajder Mario and Roniger Luis, ‘From Argentina to Israel: Escape, Evacuation and Exile’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 37: 2 (2005), pp. 351–77.

4 Masalha Nur, ‘The 1967 Palestinian Exodus’, in Karmi Ghada and Cotran Eugene (eds.), The Palestinian Exodus, 1948–1998 (Reading: Ithaca Press, 1999), pp. 63108; Segev Tom, 1967: Israel, the War, and the Year that Transformed the Middle East (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007); Shahak Israel, ‘A History of the Concept of “Transfer” in Zionism’, Journal of Palestine Studies, 18: 3 (1989), pp. 2237.

5 Abugattas Juan, ‘The Perception of the Palestinian Question in Latin America’, Journal of Palestine Studies, 11: 3 (1982), pp. 117–28; Irving T. B., ‘Relations Between Latin America and the Islamic World’, Islamic Culture: An English Quarterly, 110: 3 (1986), pp. 2134; Saddy Fehmy, Arab–Latin American Relations (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1983); Selcher Wayne, The Afro-Asian Dimension of Brazilian Foreign Policy, 1956–1972 (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1974); Sharif Regina, ‘Latin America and the Arab–Israeli Conflict’, Journal of Palestine Studies, 7: 1 (1977), pp. 98122.

6 de Góes Walder, O Brasil do general Geisel: estudo do processo de tomada de decisão no regime militar-burocrático (Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1978), p. 30; Vizentini Paulo, A política externa do regime militar brasileiro: multilateralização, desenvolvimento e a construção de uma potência média (1964–1985) (2nd edition, Porto Alegre: Editora da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2004), pp. 333–4. Engaging with these and other works, a recent article by Cecília Baeza represents a major advance in understanding the Palestine question in South American foreign policies since the mid-twentieth century: see Baeza Cecília, ‘América Latina y la cuestión palestina (1947–2012)’, Araucaria, 14: 28 (2012), pp. 111–31.

7 By referring to ‘the Palestinians’, I mean ‘the indigenous inhabitants of the territories that became Mandatory Palestine in 1922’, with the qualification that ‘the erasure of Palestinians as a political community … predate[s] the existence of the Palestinians as a people in the modern sense of the word’: see Doumani Beshara, ‘Palestine Versus the Palestinians? The Iron Laws and Ironies of a People Denied’, Journal of Palestine Studies, 36: 4 (2007), pp. 50–2.

8 ‘Atentado hecho criminal perpetrado esta mañana contra funcionarias de la embajada israelí’, La Tarde, 4 May 1970, pp. 1–2; ‘Atentaron contra la embajada de Israel en nuestra capital’, ABC Color, 5 May 1970, p. 1; ‘Editorial: Agresión a nuestra paz’, Patria, 5 May 1970, p. 3.

9 Leibovitch-Dar Sara, ‘Transfer: The 70's Version’, Sofshavua Ma'ariv, 13 Aug. 2004, pp. 1826. The quotations given here are the words of Moshe Peer. Leibovitch-Dar's article builds on prior news reporting by Yossi Melman and Dan Raviv, who found in 1988 that the Palestinians ‘had been “resettled” in Paraguay as part of the secret Israeli relocation plan and were unhappy at what they believed was a raw deal from the Israelis’: see Melman Yossi and Raviv Dan, ‘Expelling Palestinians’, Washington Post, 7 Feb. 1988, p. C1.

10 ‘Arabs Invade Israeli Embassy in Paraguay, Kill Envoy's Wife’, Chicago Tribune, 5 May 1970; ‘Arabs Shoot 2 in Israeli Embassy in Paraguay’, Los Angeles Times, 5 May 1970; ‘Arabs Kill Wife of Israeli Envoy’, The Blade (Toledo, OH), 5 May 1970; ‘Israeli Slain in Attack at Embassy in Paraguay’, New York Times, 5 May 1970.

11 Lewis Paul, Paraguay under Stroessner (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1980); Nickson Andrew, ‘Tyranny and Longevity: Stroessner's Paraguay’, Third World Quarterly, 10: 1 (1988), pp. 237–59.

12 Appadurai Arjun, ‘Grassroots Globalization and the Research Imagination’, in Appadurai Arjun (ed.), Globalization (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001), p. 8.

13 Farsoun Samih and Aruri Naseer H., Palestine and the Palestinians (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2006); Makdisi Saree, Palestine Inside Out (New York: W. W. Norton, 2008); Morris Benny, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004); Masalha Nur, Imperial Israel and the Palestinians: The Politics of Expansion (Sterling, VA: Pluto Press, 2000); Masalha, ‘The 1967 Palestinian Exodus’; Masalha Nur, A Land Without a People: Israel, Transfer and the Palestinians, 1949–96 (London: Faber and Faber, 1997); Pappé Ilan, A History of Modern Palestine: One Land, Two Peoples (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).

14 Segev, 1967.

15 Poblete Juan, ‘Introduction’, in Poblete (ed.), Critical Latin American and Latino Studies (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2003), p. xxxv.

16 Cabán Pedro, ‘The New Synthesis of Latin American/Latino Studies’, in Bonilla Frank et al. (eds.), Borderless Borders: U. S. Latinos, Latin Americans, and the Paradox of Interdependence (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1998); Flores Juan and Yúdice George, ‘Living Borders/Buscando America: Languages of Latina/o Self-Formation’, Social Text, 24 (1990), pp. 5784; Flores Juan and Rosaldo Renato (eds.), A Companion to Latina/o Studies (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007); Saldívar José David, The Dialectics of Our America: Genealogy, Cultural Critique, and Literary History (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991).

17 Dávila Arlene, Latino Spin: Public Image and the Whitewashing of Race (New York: New York University Press, 2008), p. 9.

18 This article addresses how Syrian-Lebanese and Jews in the Southern Cone interacted with Palestinians and Israelis after 1967. For the much longer, and intertwined, history of Arabs and Jews in South America, see Klich Ignácio and Lesser Jeffrey (eds.), Arab and Jewish Immigrants in Latin America: Images and Realities (London: Frank Cass, 1998); and a special issue of Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies, 6: 2 (2011), co-edited by Jeffrey Lesser and Raanan Rein, entitled ‘Together Yet Apart: Arabs and Jews in Latin America’.

19 Moshe Dayan made the statement quoted in this heading: see Segev, 1967, p. 531.

20 Masalha, Imperial Israel and the Palestinians, p. 69.

21 Masalha, ‘The 1967 Palestinian Exodus’, p. 77.

22 Ibid.

23 Shahak, ‘A History of the Concept of “Transfer”’, p. 31.

24 Segev, 1967, pp. 532, 536; Shahak, ‘A History of the Concept of “Transfer”’, p. 31.

25 Segev, 1967, p. 536.

26 Ibid.

27 Ibid., p. 537.

28 Ibid., p. 534.

29 Ibid.

30 The following are the 11 sworn statements that are referred to in the next several pages: ‘Declaración Indagatoria del detenido Salah Abu Kamal’, ‘Declaración Indagatoria del detenido Said Saleh’, ‘Declaración Indagatoria del detenido Abdel Kader El Isardi’, ‘Declaración Indagatoria del detenido Subhi Yadala’, ‘Declaración Indagatoria del detenido Abderahman Abd Rabbuh’, ‘Declaración Indagatoria del detenido Ahmed Abdalla’, ‘Declaración Indagatoria del detenido Abdala El Abdala’, ‘Declaración Indagatoria del detenido Ahmed Salahel El Assar’, ‘Declaración Indagatoria del detenido Fadel Shaiah’, ‘Declaración Indagatoria del detenido Fared Shain’ and ‘Declaración Indagatoria del detenido Foud Farwook’, Sept. 1969, Departamento de Investigaciones, LL61-62-63-64, Centro de Documentación y Archivo para la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos, Asunción.

32 Morris Benny, ‘Operation Dani and the Palestinian Exodus from Lydda and Ramle in 1948’, Middle East Journal, 40: 1 (1986), pp. 82109.

33 Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, p. xix.

34 Ibid., p. 116.

35 Ibid., p. xix.

36 Segev, 1967, p. 534.

37 ‘Atentado hecho criminal perpetrado esta mañana contra funcionarias de la embajada israelí’, La Tarde, 4 May 1970, pp. 1–2; ‘Atentaron contra la embajada de Israel en nuestra capital’, ABC Color, 5 May 1970, p. 1; ‘Editorial: Agresión a nuestra paz’, Patria, 5 May 1970, p. 3.

38 Interview with Fadel Abd AlRahman, Asunción, 19 Feb. 2009.

39 Leibovitch-Dar, ‘Transfer’, p. 20.

40 ‘Transfer of 100,000 without Anybody Saying a Single Word’, Ha'aretz, 25 Oct. 1988, cited in Masalha, ‘The 1967 Palestinian Exodus’, pp. 77–8, 105f.

41 Varon Benno Weiser, Professions of a Lucky Jew (New York: Cornwall Books, 1992), pp. 390–1.

42 ‘Causas políticas tuvo el atentado de ayer’, ABC Color, 5 May 1970, p. 23; see also ‘Arabs Invade Israeli Embassy in Paraguay, Kill Envoy's Wife’, Chicago Tribune, 5 May 1970, p. 12; and ‘Armas brasileiras no terror árabe’, O Estado de S. Paulo, 6 May 1970, p. 4.

43 Varon, Professions of a Lucky Jew, p. 393.

44 Ibid., pp. 360–1.

45 Ibid., p. 363.

46 In ten resolutions under deliberation by the UN Security Council after the Six-Day War, Paraguay voted in accordance with Israeli interests: see UN Security Council Resolutions 248 (1968), 250 (1968), 252 (1968), 258 (1968), 259 (1968), 262 (1968), 265 (1969), 267 (1969), 270 (1969) and 271 (1969).

47 Domínguez Dibb Humberto, Presencia y vigencia árabes en el Paraguay (Asunción: Editorial Cromos, 1977), p. 16.

48 Ibid., p. 34.

49 Ibid., p. 38.

50 ‘El gobierno nacional dispuso ayer tres días de duelo oficial en tributo postumo al Presidente Gamal Nasser’, ABC Color, 1 Oct. 1970, p. 9.

51 Varon, Professions of a Lucky Jew, p. 369.

52 Sondrol Paul, ‘Totalitarian and Authoritarian Dictators: A Comparison of Fidel Castro and Alfredo Stroessner’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 23: 3 (1991), p. 617.

53 ‘Trasladaran a Israel restos de funcionaria’, ABC Color, 6 May 1970, p. 24.

54 Interview with Fadel Abd AlRahman, Asunción, 19 Feb. 2009.

55 Compilación de leyes complementarias al Código Penal: Tratados Bilaterales, vol. 2, book 2, Colección de Derecho Penal (Asunción: Centro Internacional de Estudios Judiciales, 1999); see also Código Procesal Penal de la República del Paraguay, vol. 3, Colección Derecho Penal (Asunción: Centro Internacional de Estudios Judiciales, 1999) pp. 73–4.

56 ‘Dos pedidos del gobierno israelí’, ABC Color, 8 May 1970, p. 26.

57 ‘Abogados defensores de palestinos’, ABC Color, 14 May 1970, p. 27. An earlier remark was made in ‘Trasladaran a Israel restos de funcionaria’, ABC Color, 6 May 1970, p. 24.

58 Franco Alejandro Hamed, Los árabes y sus descendientes en el Paraguay (Asunción: Arandurã Editorial, 2002), p. 180; Lewis, Paraguay under Stroessner, pp. 140–1.

59 Nickson Andrew, ‘The Overthrow of the Stroessner Regime: Re-Establishing the Status Quo’, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 8: 2 (1989), pp. 185209.

60 Montenegro Silvia, ‘La inmigración árabe en Paraguay’, in Akmir Abdeluahed (ed.), Los árabes en América Latina (Madrid: Siglo XXI, 2009), pp. 290, 301–3; Nasta Jose Daniel and Karmy L. Alberto Asbun, La migración árabe y su descendencia en Paraguay (Asunción: Publicitaria Nasta SA, 2007).

61 Interview with Rassi Lahud, Asunción, 14 April 2009.

62 ‘Trasladarán a Israel restos de funcionaria’, ABC Color, 6 May 1970, p. 24; ‘Abogados defensores de palestinos’, ABC Color, 14 May 1970, p. 27.

63 Domínguez Dibb, Presencia y vigencia de los árabes. Syria's Ba'ath Party helped to inspire the original idea of FEARAB for Arabs across the Americas: see Árabes do Brasil Federação de Entidades, II Congresso Panamericano Árabe: São Paulo – Brasil (São Paulo: FEARAB, 1974).

64 Mora Frank O. and Cooney Jerry W., Paraguay and the United States: Distant Allies (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2007), pp. 195–6; Sondrol Paul, ‘The Emerging New Politics of Liberalizing Paraguay: Sustained Civil–Military Control Without Democracy’, Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 34: 2 (1992), p. 141; ‘Atentado en la embajada israelí de Asunción’, ABC Color, 5 May 1970, p. 23.

65 Varon, Professions of a Lucky Jew, pp. 374–8.

66 González de Bosio Beatriz, Periodismo escrito paraguayo, 1845–2001: de la afición a la profesión (Asunción: Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de Asunción and Intercontinental Editora, 2001), p. 231.

67 ‘ABC en sociedad: la Unión Libanesa’, ABC Color, 6 Dec. 1971, p. 13; Elias Fadlala and Ramón Zacur, ‘Aclarando conceptos: nuestra contestación a la Unión Industrial’, ABC Color, 23 Nov. 1973; Franco, Los árabes y sus descendientes en el Paraguay, pp. 189–90; Domínguez Dibb, Presencia y vigencia árabes en el Paraguay, p. 16.

68 Interview, Asunción, 19 April 2009.

69 Segev, 1967, p. 534.

70 Sondrol, ‘The Emerging New Politics of Liberalizing Paraguay’, p. 141.

71 Ibid.

72 Ibid.

73 ‘Israel sob guarda na GB: Assassinato em Assunção alerta Segurança daqui’, Última Hora, 7 May 1970, p. 6; ‘Precaução’, O Estado de S. Paulo, 7 May 1970, p. 5.

74 ‘“Fatah” ataca em Assunção’, O Estado de S. Paulo, 5 May 1970, p. 10; ‘Oriente Médio: Assunção: Árabe mata mulher de um diplomata israelense’, Última Hora, 5 May 1970, p. 6; ‘Armas brasileiras no terror árabe’, O Estado de S. Paulo, 6 May 1970, p. 3; ‘Êstes homens iam matar o Embaixador’, O Globo, 6 May 1970, pp. 1, 7.

75 Karam John Tofik, ‘Anti-Semitism from the Standpoint of its Arab Victims in a South American Border Zone’, Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies, 6: 2 (2011), pp. 144–67.

76 ‘Arribó a Buenos Aires una delegación árabe’, Clarín, 12 May 1970, p. 31; ‘Denúnciase a una misión que arribó a Buenos Aires’, Clarín, 14 May 1970, p. 38; ‘La situación de los árabes en Jerusalén’, Clarín, 14 May 1970, p. 39.

77 Alcaraz authored a book on jurisprudence. He makes no reference to this case. Among the positions he held from 1960 until his retirement in 1974, Alcaraz does not mention this appointment in the segundo turno: see Alcaraz Blas Roque, La oralidad en el proceso penal (Asunción: Editorial La Ley, 1994).

78 ‘Caso Palestinos: se ultiman los detalles para dictarse el fallo – la querella pidió para los procesados 25 anõs de prisión’, ABC Color, 20 March 1972, p. 34.

79 ‘Suspendióse la declaración indagatoria de un palestino: el otro, comparecerá hoy, a las 8, en el juzgado del Crimen’, ABC Color, 19 May 1970, p. 24.

80 Varon, Professions of a Lucky Jew, p. 361.

81 This event was mentioned in a Brazilian newspaper: see ‘Oriente Médio: Assunção: árabe mata mulher de um diplomata israelense’, Última Hora (Rio de Janeiro), 5 May 1970, p. 6.

82 Consejo Representativo Israelita del Paraguay, ‘Declaración’, ABC Color, 5 May 1970, p. 3. In the original Spanish, ‘una ciudadana judía israelí muerta y una ciudadana paraguaya judía gravemente herida’.

83 Mora and Cooney, Paraguay and the United States, pp. 94, 126. Varon reflects that Germans and Arabs were the ‘two powerful foreign colonies’ in Paraguay: see Varon, Professions of a Lucky Jew, p. 363.

84 Mora and Cooney, Paraguay and the United States, pp. 95–6; see also Seiferheld Alfredo, Los judíos en el Paraguay (2nd edition, Asunción: El Lector, 1984); and Nazismo y fascismo en el Paraguay (Asunción: Editorial Histórica, 1986).

85 United Nations, Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (Vienna: United Nations Treaty Series, 2005 [1961]).

86 ‘Caso Palestinos: se ultiman los detalles para dictarse el fallo’, ABC Color, 20 March 1972, p. 34; Código Penal de la República del Paraguay, Article 8 (Asunción: Imprensa de la Penitenciária Nacional, 1968), p. 1.

87 Riquelme Marcial Antonio, ‘Toward a Weberian Characterization of the Stroessner Regime in Paraguay (1954–1989)’, European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 57 (1994), pp. 41–2.

88 Mora and Cooney, Paraguay and the United States, p. 126.

89 González de Bosio, Periodismo escrito paraguayo, p. 231.

90 Pozzo Aníbal Orué, Periodismo en el Paraguay: estudios e interpretaciones (Asunción: Arandurã Editorial, 2007), p. 254.

91 ‘No declaró ayer el palestino acusado’, ABC Color, 20 May 1970, p. 27.

92 ‘Declara hoy un palestino’, ABC Color, 23 July 1970, p. 29.

93 ‘No declaró el palestino’, ABC Color, 24 July 1970, p. 24.

94 ‘Hoy declara el otro palestino’, ABC Color, 27 July 1970, p. 30; ‘Abstuvose de declarar el otro palestino procesado’, ABC Color, 28 July 1970, p. 23.

95 ‘El proceso a palestinos’, ABC Color, 8 July 1970, p. 24.

96 Riquelme, ‘Toward a Weberian Characterization’, pp. 41–2.

97 ‘Caso de palestinos: fíjose fechas de audiencias e inspección ocular’, ABC Color, 15 Aug. 1970, p. 37; ‘Inspección de una embajada’, ABC Color, 20 Aug. 1970, p. 24.

98 Ibid.

99 ‘Palestinos: victima prestó declaración’, ABC Color, 25 Aug. 1970, p. 24.

100 ‘Caso de palestinos al Estado Plenário’, ABC Color, 25 March 1971, p. 26; ‘Defensa de palestinos ofreció varias pruebas’, ABC Color, 27 April 1971, p. 24.

101 ‘Caso de palestinos al Estado Plenário’, ABC Color, 25 March 1971, p. 26.

102 Ibid.

103 ‘Defensa de palestinos ofreció varias pruebas’, ABC Color, 27 April 1971, p. 24.

104 ‘Declaró largamente ayer uno de los palestinos procesados …’, ABC Color, 7 Sep. 1971, p. 24.

105 ‘Siguió ayer declaración indagatoria de palestino’, ABC Color, 8 Sep. 1971, p. 32.

106 Leibovitch-Dar, ‘Transfer’, p. 18.

107 ‘De nuevo no concluyó audiencia de palestino’, ABC Color, 10 Sep. 1971, p. 28.

108 ‘No declaró palestino’, ABC Color, 11 Sep. 1971, p. 28.

109 ‘Concluyó ayer declaración de uno de los palestinos’, ABC Color, 26 Oct. 1971, p. 25.

110 ‘Palestino reo de crímenes de la embajada concluyó declaración’, ABC Color, 15 Dec. 1971, p. 32.

111 ‘ABC en sociedad: diplomaticas’, ABC Color, 12 Sep. 1970, p. 19; 18 Sep. 1970, p. 19; 4 June 1971, p. 11; 10 Sep. 1971, p. 13; 12 Sep. 1971, p. 11; 23 Sep. 1971, p. 13; 24 Sep. 1971, p. 11; 30 Dec. 1971, p. 17; and 12 April 1972, p. 17.

112 ‘Canciller recibió ayer al embajador de Israel’, ABC Color, 13 Nov. 1970, p. 9; ‘El canciller recibió al embajador Benjamin Varon’, ABC Color, 28 Nov. 1970, p. 12; ‘ABC en sociedad: diplomaticas’, ABC Color, 16 April 1971, p. 11; 25 May 1971, p. 11; 27 Oct. 1971, p. 13; and 15 Feb. 1972, p. 11.

113 ‘Interés de Israel’, ABC Color, 25 June 1970, p. 26; ‘Dos becarios a Israel’, ABC Color, 21 July 1970; ‘ABC en sociedad: diplomaticas’, ABC Color, 29 April 1971, p. 11; ‘Israel interesado en adquirir carne vacuna…’, ABC Color, 13 May 1971, p. 10; ‘ABC en sociedad: diplomaticas’, ABC Color, 26 May 1971, p. 13; ‘La universidad hebrea de Jerusalén y cultura judía’, ABC Color, 7 Oct. 1971, p. 11; ‘Embajador Israelí’, ABC Color, 12 Oct. 1971, p. 29; ‘Funcionarios Israelíes’, ABC Color, 30 Nov. 1971, p. 11; ‘Proyecto israeli a agricultura’, ABC Color, 1 Dec. 1971, p. 11; ‘Técnicos recibió’, ABC Color, 2 Dec. 1971, p. 30; ‘Presentación del libro de Varon’, ABC Color, 5 March 1972, p. 13.

114 ‘Caso palestinos: se ultiman los detalles para dictarse el fallo’, ABC Color, 20 March 1972, p. 34.

115 ‘Caso palestinos: defensa presentó su conclusión’, ABC Color, 22 June 1972, p. 32.

116 I was unable to locate the ABC Color reportage regarding the sentencing, and there is some disagreement among other sources. The Syrian-Lebanese lawyer and the 2004 Ma'ariv article note that the sentences were 13 years. In his memoirs, however, Varon notes that there were two separate sentences of 11 and 8.5 years for each defendant.

117 Leibovitch-Dar, ‘Transfer’, p. 26.

118 ‘Se aleja un embajador’, ABC Color, 3 Aug. 1972, p. 9.

119 Varon, Professions of a Lucky Jew, p. 394.

120 Interview, Asunción, 14 April 2009.

121 Domínguez Dibb, Presencia y vigencia de los árabes; Seiferheld, Los judíos en el Paraguay.

122 ‘“Deseo visa permanente para residir en mi país”: en busca de tranquilidad, un palestino – Fared Shain …’, ABC Color, 21 Jan. 1979, p. 15.

123 ‘¿Se acuerda usted de Los Palestinos?’, Hoy, Sunday magazine, 28 Jan. 1979, p. 11.

124 Appadurai, ‘Grassroots Globalization and the Research Imagination’, p. 8.

* This article is based on research funded by DePaul University. In Asunción, I am indebted to Rose Palau, Zayda Caballero Rodríguez, Alcides Albariño Barrios and the staff members at the Archivo del Terror, the Biblioteca Nacional del Paraguay and the Archivo del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. I should like to express my deepest gratitude to Paraguayans of Arab origin in Asunción, but I have changed the names of the two Palestinian defendants, their Syrian-Lebanese lawyer and a Syrian immigrant from Mohardi. I also want to thank Uri Rosenheck, who translated a 2004 Ma'ariv article for me, as well as several colleagues and the anonymous JLAS reviewers who commented on earlier versions. All shortcomings are my own.

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