Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-8bbf57454-2p2tb Total loading time: 0.211 Render date: 2022-01-23T08:59:08.263Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Legal Interventions to Counter COVID-19 Denialism

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 January 2022

Abstract

A series of denialist state laws thwart efficacious public health emergency response efforts despite escalating impacts of the spread of the Delta variant during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Type
Columns: Public Health and the Law
Copyright
© 2021 The Author(s)

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

About This Column

James G. Hodge, Jr., J.D., LL.M., serves as the section editor for Public Health and the Law. He is the Peter Kiewit Foundation Professor of Law and Director, Center for Public Health Law and Policy, Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law, Arizona State University (ASU).

References

Aguirre, P., “‘We’ve Had Enough’: Judge Grants San Antonio Temporary Restraining Order Against Gov. Abbott,” My San Antonio, Aug. 10, 2021, available at <https://www.mysanantonio.com/news/local/article/San-Antonio-officials-file-lawsuit-against-Abbott-16376868.php> (last visited Aug. 18, 2021).Google Scholar
Hodge, J.G. Jr. and Piatt, J.L., “COVID’s Counterpunch: State Legislative Assaults on Public Health Emergency Powers,” Brigham Young University Journal of Public Law (forthcoming 2021).Google Scholar
H.B. 2898, 55th Leg., 1st Reg. Sess. (Ariz. 2021).Google Scholar
Taros, M., “Maricopa County Judge Rules Arizona Law Banning Mask Mandates in School Is Not Yet in Effect,” AZ Central, Aug. 16, 2021, available at <https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/phoenix-education/2021/08/16/judge-sides-phoenix-union-school-district-arizona-mask-mandate-lawsuit/8152414002/> (last visited Aug. 19, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+19,+2021).>Google Scholar
Ariz. Const. art. IV, pt. 1, § 1.Google Scholar
Ariz. Const. art. IV, pt. 2, § 13.Google Scholar
Hester v. Phx. Union High Sch. Dist., No. CV2021012160 (Maricopa Cnty. Super. Ct. Aug. 16, 2021).Google Scholar
Tex. Exec. Order No. GA-36 (May 18, 2021), available at <https://lrl.texas.gov/scanned/govdocs/Greg%20Abbott/2021/GA-36.pdf> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
Palacios, J. and Creedon, K., “District Court Judge Sides with San Antonio, Bexar County in Lawsuit Against Gov. Abbott’s Mask Mandate Ban,” Houston Public Media, Aug. 16, 2021, available at <https://www.houstonpublicmedia.org/articles/news/politics/2021/08/16/406120/district-court-judge-sides-with-san-antonio-bexar-county-in-lawsuit-against-gov-abbotts-mask-mandate-ban/> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+20,+2021).>Google Scholar
“Temporary Restraining Order Issued on Gov. Greg Abbott’s Executive Order Banning Mask Mandates,” CBS DFW, Aug. 10, 2021, available at <https://dfw.cbslocal.com/2021/08/10/temporary-restraining-order-issued-gov-greg-abbott-executive-order-banning-mask-mandates/> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+20,+2021).>Google Scholar
Associated Press, “Texas Supreme Court Declines to Back Governor’s Ban of School Mask Mandates,” NBC News, Aug. 19, 2021, available at <https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/politics-news/texas-supreme-court-declines-back-governor-s-ban-school-mask-n1277226> (last visited Aug. 24, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+24,+2021).>Google Scholar
LeBlanc, P., “Texas Gov. Greg Abbott Tests Positive for COVID-19,” CNN, Aug. 17, 2021, available at <https://www.cnn.com/2021/08/17/politics/texas-governor-greg-abbott-covid-19/index.html> (last visited Aug. 18, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+18,+2021).>Google Scholar
Chamberlain, S., “Texas Gov Vows Court Fight with Officials Defying Mask Mandate Bans,” New York Post, Aug. 12, 2021, available at <https://nypost.com/2021/08/12/texas-gov-greg-abbott-vows-court-fight-with-officials-defying-mask-mandate-bans/> (last visited Aug. 19, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+19,+2021).>Google Scholar
Kendall, B., “Supreme Court Rejects Request to Block Indiana University’s Vaccine Mandate for Students,” Wall Street Journal, Aug. 12, 2021, available at <https://www.wsj.com/articles/supreme-court-rejects-request-to-block-indiana-universitys-vaccine-mandate-for-students-11628809855> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+20,+2021).>Google Scholar
Fla. Stat. § 381.00316 (2021).Google Scholar
Order on Preliminary Injunction at 16, 38-39, 54, Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd. v. Rivkees, No. 1:21-CV-22492 (S.D. Fla. Aug. 8, 2021).Google Scholar
Fischels, J., “Arkansas Governor Wants to Reverse a Law That Forbids Schools to Require Masks,” NPR, Aug. 4, 2021, available at < https://www.npr.org/2021/08/04/1024939859/arkansas-governor-reverse-law-let-schools-require-masks> (last visited Aug. 18, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+18,+2021).>Google Scholar
Schnell, M., “Indiana Governor Breaks with GOP Peers, Allows Local Mask Mandates,” The Hill, Aug. 16, 2021, available at <https://thehill.com/homenews/state-watch/568118-indiana-governor-breaks-with-gop-peers-allows-local-mask-mandates> (last visited Aug. 19, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+19,+2021).>Google Scholar
J. Hoffman, “Statement from Legislative Republicans on School Districts’ Refusal to Follow State Law,” Arizona House of Representatives, Aug. 11, 2021, available at <https://www.azleg.gov/press/house/55LEG/1R/210811HOFFMAN.pdf> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
H.R. 1319, 117th Cong. (1st Sess. 2021).Google Scholar
Pitzl, M.J., “Federal Agencies, Public-School Advocates Push Back on Ducey’s Plan for COVID-19 Money,” AZ Central, Aug. 19, 2021, available at <https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/politics/arizona/2021/08/18/arizona-gov-duceys-covid-19-schools-plan-opposed-federal-agencies/8169338002/> (last visited Aug. 19, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+19,+2021).>Google Scholar
LaFraniere, S. and Mandavilli, A., “Biden Says Some Americans Will Be Eligible for Booster Shots in September,” New York Times, Aug. 18, 2021, available at <https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/08/18/world/covid-delta-variant-vaccine#booster-shot-8-months> (last visited Aug. 23, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+23,+2021).>Google Scholar
Hodge, J.G. Jr.National Legal Paradigms for Public Health Emergency Responses,” American University Law Review 71, no. 1 (forthcoming 2021).Google Scholar
Stolberg, S.G. and Green, E.L., “The Biden Administration Will Use a Federal Civil Rights Office to Deter States from Banning Masks in Schools,” New York Times, Aug. 19, 2021, available at <https://www.nytimes.com/2021/08/18/us/politics/biden-masks-schools-civil-rights.html> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+20,+2021).>Google Scholar
Letter from Miguel Cardona, Secretary of U.S. Department of Education, to Governor DeSantis and Commissioner Corcoran, Florida (Aug. 13, 2021), available at <https://oese.ed.gov/files/2021/08/Letter-from-Secretary-Cardona-FL-08-13-21.pdf>..>Google Scholar
LaFraniere, S. et al., “Biden Ramps Up Virus Strategy for Nursing Homes and Schools, and Urges Booster Shots,” New York Times, Aug. 19, 2021, available at <https://www.nytimes.com/2021/08/18/us/politics/biden-schools-nursing-homes-booster.html?campaign_id=2&emc=edit_th_20210819&instance_id=38145&nl=todaysheadlines&regi_id=72831090&segment_id=66651&user_id=3030eb2f30a2a78dd0d19041cb80308c> (last visited Aug 20, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug+20,+2021).>Google Scholar
Hodge, J. G. Jr.Nationalizing Public Health Emergency Legal Responses,” Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 49, no. 2 (2021): 315320.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
U.S. Const. art. VI.Google Scholar
Hodge, J.G. Jr., Public Health Law in a Nutshell (3d ed. 2018): at 45–48.Google Scholar
Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness (PREP) Act, 42 U.S.C. § 247d–6d (2012).Google Scholar
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act (last updated Aug. 3, 2021), available at <https://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/legal/prepact/Pages/default.aspx> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
42 U.S.C. § 247d-6d(b)(8) (2018).Google Scholar
85 Fed. Reg. 52,136, 52,140 (Aug. 24, 2020).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Guidance for Licensed Pharmacists and Pharmacy Interns Regarding COVID-19 Vaccines and Immunity under the PREP Act (Sept. 3, 2020), available at <https://www.hhs.gov/guidance/sites/default/files/hhs-guidance-documents/licensed-pharmacists-and-pharmacy-interns-regarding-covid-19-vaccines-immunity.pdf> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
Evans, B.J. and Clayton, E.W., “Federal COVID-19 Response Unlawfully Blocks State Public Health Efforts,” Petrie-Flom Center at Harvard Law, Oct. 22, 2020, available at <https://blog.petrieflom.law.harvard.edu/2020/10/22/federal-covid19-response-nevada-preemption/> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+20,+2021).>Google Scholar
Letter from Margaret Honein, Incident Manager, CDC, to Colleague, July 2, 2021, available at <https://ncpa.org/sites/default/files/2021-07/07.02.2021_Dear%20colleague_F-signed.pdf> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
D.A. Lieb, “As Virus Cases Wane, Governors Weigh Ending Emergency Orders,” AP, June 12, 2021, available at <https://apnews.com/article/government-and-politics-joe-biden-coronavirus-pandemic-health-1ecc111678cba61d78b7017e749e66c2> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
Letter from Margaret Honein, supra note 36.Google Scholar
Fla. Exec. Order No. 21-175 (July 30, 2021), available at <https://www.flgov.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/Executive-Order-21-175.pdf> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
J. Lipscomb, “Florida Gov. DeSantis Threatens to Hold School Leaders’ Pay if They Require Masks: ‘Financial Consequences,’” The Washington Post, Aug. 10, 2021, available at <https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2021/08/10/desantis-threatens-school-salaries-mask-mandates-florida/> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+20,+2021).>Google Scholar
Complaint at 29–32, Hayes v. DeSantis, No. 1:21-CV-22863-KMM (S.D. Fla. Aug. 6, 2021).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Complaint at 32–34, Hayes (No. 1:21-CV-22863-KMM).Google Scholar
29 U.S.C. § 794 (2018); 7 C.F.R. § 15b.22 (2021).Google Scholar
Complaint at 34–35, Hayes (No. 1:21-CV-22863-KMM).Google Scholar
Fla. Stat. § 1000.05 (2020). Google Scholar
Complaint, Disability Rights South Carolina v. McMaster, No. 3:21-CV-02728 (D.S.C. Aug. 24, 2021).Google Scholar
Complaint, A.T. v. Abbott, No. 1:21-cv-00717 (W.D. Tex. Aug. 17, 2021).Google Scholar
Texas Education Agency, Public Health Guidance (Aug. 5, 2021), available at <https://www.leonardisd.net/upload/page/0014/Public%20Health%20Guidance%20August%205%202021.pdf> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
Caprariello, A. and Falcon, R., “14 Children with Disabilities File First Federal Lawsuit Against Gov. Abbott over Mask Mandate Ban,” KXAN, Aug. 18, 2021, available at <https://www.kxan.com/news/texas-politics/14-children-with-disabilities-file-first-federal-lawsuit-against-gov-abbott-over-mask-ban/> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).Google Scholar
Texas Education Agency, Public Health Guidance (Aug. 19, 2021), available at <https://tea.texas.gov/sites/default/files/covid/SY-20-21-Public-Health-Guidance.pdf> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
Stolberg and Green, supra note 24.Google Scholar
Strauss, V., “Biden Orders Education Department to Take Action Against Governors Who Ban School Mask Mandates,” The Washington Post, Aug. 18, 2021, available at <https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2021/08/18/biden-school-masks-covid/> (last visited October 29, 2021).Google Scholar
See, e.g., “Emergency State Licensure COVID-19 Response,” American Association of Nurse Practitioners, available at <https://www.aanp.org/advocacy/state/emergency-state-licensure-covid-19-response> (last visited Aug. 23, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+23,+2021).>Google Scholar
Maryland Exec. Order No. 21-06-15-03 (June 15, 2021), available at <https://governor.maryland.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/Nursing-License-Extension-6.15.21.pdf> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
See Midwest Institute of Health, PLLC v. Whitmer, 958 N.W.2d 1 (Mich. 2020) (limiting the Governor’s authority to declare emergencies under the Emergency Management Act).Google Scholar
Resurrection School v. Hertel, No. 20-2256 (6th Cir. Aug. 23, 2021).Google Scholar
Leblanc, B. and Mauger, C., “Michigan Health Department Issues Mask Mandate After High Court Nixes Whitmer’s Orders,” The Detroit News, Oct. 5, 2020, available at <https://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/ michigan/2020/10/05/state-health-department-issues-mask-mandate-after-high-court-nixes-whitmers/3628181001/> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
Gabbatt, A., “Wisconsin: Drinkers Return to Bars After Judges Strike Down Stay-at-Home Order,” The Guardian, May 15, 2020, available at <https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/may/15/wisconsin-bars-coronavirus-stay-at-home-order> (last visited Aug. 23, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+23,+2021).>Google Scholar
R. Gordon, Director, Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, Emergency Order Under MCL 333.2253 — Gathering Prohibition and Face Covering Order (Oct. 9, 2020), available at <https://www.michigan.gov/documents/coronavirus/MDHHS_epidemic_order_-_Gatherings_masks_bars_sports_-_FINAL_signed_704740_7.pdf> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
S.B. 22, 134th Gen. Assemb., Reg. Sess. (Ohio 2021), available at <https://www.legislature.ohio.gov/ legislation/ legislation-summary?id=GA134-SB-22> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+20,+2021).>Google Scholar
Gridley, W. H., Ohio Legislative Service Commission Staff, “Municipal Home Rule,” LSC Members Only Brief 133, no. 5 (2020), available at <https://www.lsc.ohio.gov/documents/reference/current/membersonlybriefs/133Municipal%20Home%20Rule.pdf> (last visited October 29, 2021).Google Scholar
Behrens, C., “Athens Masks Up Again: Council Amends Indoor Mandate to Include the Vaccinated,” The Athens News, Aug. 18, 2021, available at <https://www.athensnews.com/news/local/athens-masks-back-up-council-amends-indoor-mandate-to-include-the-vaccinated/article_ceefddfa-9d5d-5b51-80ad-edc749f9db7d.html> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).Google Scholar
Zuckerman, J., “Ohio Cities Revive Mask Mandates As New State Law Stops Health Departments,” News 5 Cleveland, Aug. 19, 2021, available at <https://www.news5cleveland.com/news/state/ohio-cities-revive-mask-mandates-as-new-state-law-stops-health-departments> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+20,+2021).>Google Scholar
“Paris ISD Board of Trustees Amends Current Dress Code,” Paris ISD, Aug. 17, 2021, available at <https://www.parisisd.net/16068?articleID=82085&> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+20,+2021).>Google Scholar
Stolberg and Green, supra note 24.Google Scholar
Healy, C., “Civil Litigation Arising from the Flint Water Crisis,” Network for Public Health Law, July 2016, available at <https://www.networkforphl.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Flint-Litigation-Summary-Table.pdf> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+20,+2021).>Google Scholar
M. Kennedy, “Lead-Laced Water in Flint: A Step-By-Step Look at the Makings of a Crisis,” NPR, Apr. 20, 2016, available at <https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/04/20/465545378/lead-laced-water-in-flint-a-step-by-step-look-at-the-makings-of-a-crisis> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+20,+2021).>Google Scholar
In Re Flint, 960 F.3d 303,334 (6th Cir. 2020).Google Scholar
Schneider, J. and Riess, R., “A $600 Million Settlement in the Flint Water Crisis Will Provide Fund for City Residents,” CNN, Aug. 20, 2020, available at <https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/20/us/flint-michigan-water-crisis-settlement-reports/index.html> (last visited Aug. 20, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+20,+2021).>Google Scholar
See In Re Flint, 960 F.3d 303 (6th Cir. 2020).Google Scholar
See., e.g., H.B. 606, 133d Gen. Assemb. (Ohio 2020), available at <https://search-prod.lis.state.oh.us/solarapi/v1/general_assembly_133/bills/hb606/EN/07?format=pdf> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
See, e.g., S.B. 1377, 55th Leg., 1st Reg. Sess. (Ariz. 2021), available at <https://www.azleg.gov/legtext/55leg/1R/laws/0179.pdf> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
A.B. 3397, 2021–2022 Legis. Sess. (N.Y. 2021), available at <https://nyassembly.gov/leg/?default_fld=&leg_video=&bn=A03397&term=&Text=Y> (last visited October 29, 2021).+(last+visited+October+29,+2021).>Google Scholar
Michel, L., “Lawsuit over Couple’s Covid-19 Deaths Challenges Nursing Homes’ Immunity,” Buffalo News, Aug. 3, 2021, available at <https://buffalonews.com/news/local/state-and-regional/lawsuit-over-couple-s-covid-19-deaths-challenges-nursing-homes-immunity/article_2d2ab78a-c559-11eb-88e1-27b627db9aa3.html> (last visited Aug. 23, 2021).+(last+visited+Aug.+23,+2021).>Google Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Legal Interventions to Counter COVID-19 Denialism
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Legal Interventions to Counter COVID-19 Denialism
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Legal Interventions to Counter COVID-19 Denialism
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *