Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-7j4dq Total loading time: 0.413 Render date: 2022-10-05T08:27:56.306Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Facilitating sustainable professional part-time work: A question of design?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 July 2015

Natalie Smith
Affiliation:
Deloitte, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
Paula McDonald*
Affiliation:
Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
*
Corresponding author: p.mcdonald@qut.edu.au

Abstract

Despite significant socio-demographic and economic shifts in the contours of work over the past 40 years, there has been surprisingly little change in the way work is designed. Current understandings of the content and structure of jobs are predominantly underpinned by early 20th century theories derived from the manufacturing industry where employees worked independently of each other in stand-alone organisations. It is only in the last 10 years that elaborations and extensions to job/work design theory have been posed, which accommodate some of the fundamental shifts in contemporary work settings, yet these extended frameworks have received little empirical attention. Utilising contemporary features of work design and a sample of professional service workers, the purpose of this study is to examine to what extent and how part-time roles are designed relative to equivalent full-time roles. The findings contribute to efforts to design effective part-time roles that balance organisational and individual objectives.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press and Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2010). Australian labour market statistics (Cat No. 6105.0). Canberra, Australia: ABS.Google Scholar
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013). ABS labour force (Cat No. 6202.0). Canberra, Australia: ABS.Google ScholarPubMed
Bailyn, L. (2011). Redesigning work for gender equity and work-personal life integration. Community, Work & Family, 14(1), 97112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batt, R., & Valcour, P. M. (2003). Human resources practices as predictors of work-family outcomes and employee turnover. Industrial Relations, 42(2), 189220.Google Scholar
Bennetts, L. (2007). The feminine mistake: Are we giving up too much? New York, NY: VoiceHyperion.Google Scholar
Blair-Loy, M. (2003). Competing devotions: Career and family among women executives. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Bourke, J., & Andrews, J. (2010). Getting to the heart of gender equity in executive roles: Using job design principles to expose hidden bias and achieve gender equity outcomes Women at Work. Victoria, Australia: Tilde University Press.Google Scholar
Campbell, I. (2002). Extended working hours in Australia. Labour and Industry, 13(1), 91110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casper, W., Eby, L., Bordeaux, C., Lockwood, A., & Lambert, D. (2007). A review of research methods in IO/OB work-family research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 2843.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charlesworth, S., & Whittenbury, K. (2007). Part-time and part committed? The cultural challenges of part-time work in policing. Journal of Industrial Relations, 23(1), 3147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cordery, J. L. & Parker, S. K. (2012). Work design: Creating jobs and roles that promote individual effectiveness. In S. Kozlowski (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of organizational psychology (1(9), pp. 247284). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Corwin, V., Lawrence, T. B., & Frost, P. J. (2001). Five strategies of successful part-time work. Harvard Business Review, 79(7), 121127.Google ScholarPubMed
Dick, P. (2009). Bending over backwards? Using a pluralistic framework to explore the management of flexible working in the UK police service. British Journal of Management, 20, S182S193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dick, P. (2010). The transition to motherhood and part-time working: Mutuality and incongruence in the psychological contracts existing between managers and employees. Work, Employment and Society, 24(3), 508525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eby, L., Casper, W., Lockwood, A., Bordeaux, C., & Brinley, A. (2005). Work and family research in IO/OB: Content analysis and review of the literature (1980-2002). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(1), 124197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fleetwood, S. (2007). Why work-life balance now? International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18, 387400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grant, A. (2007). Relational job design and the motivation to make a prosocial difference. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 393417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grant, A., Fried, Y., Parker, S., & Frese, M. (2010). Putting job design in context: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(2/3), 145157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grant, A., & Parker, S. (2009). Redesigning work design theories: The rise of relational and proactive perspectives. The Academy of Management Annals, 3(1), 317375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guest, D. (2001). Voices from the boardroom. London: CIPD Publishing.Google Scholar
Hackman, R., & Oldham, G. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2), 250279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and the nature of man. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing.Google Scholar
Hewlett, S. (2010). Keeping engaged parents on the road to success. In K. Christensen & B. Schneider (Eds.), Workplace flexibility: Realigning 20th century jobs for a 21st century workplace (pp. 9899). New York, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Hewlett, S., & Luce, C. (2006). Extreme jobs: The dangerous allure of the 70-hour workweek. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 4959.Google ScholarPubMed
Higgins, C., Duxbury, L., & Johnson, K. (2000). Part-time work for women: Does it really help balance work and family? Human Resource Management, 39(1), 1732.3.0.CO;2-Y>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Humphrey, S., Nahrgang, J., & Morgeson, F. (2007). Integrating motivational, social, and contextual work design features: A meta-analytic summary and theoretical extension of the work design literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5), 13321356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kelly, E., Kossek, E., Hammer, L., Durham, M., Bray, J., Chermack, K., Murphy, L., & Kaskubar, D. (2008). Getting there from here: Research on the effects of work–family initiatives on work–family conflict and business outcomes. The Academy of Management Annals, 2, 305349.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kossek, E., & Lee, M. (2008). Implementing a reduced-workload arrangement to retain high talent: A case study. The Psychological – Manager Journal, 11(1), 4964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawrence, T., & Corwin, V. (2003). Being there: The acceptance and marginalization of part-time professional employees. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(8), 923943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, M. D., Hourquet, P., & MacDermid, S. (2002). Reduced-load work arrangements: The changing nature of professional and managerial work. In C. Cooper & R. Burke (Eds.), The new world of work: Challenges and opportunities (pp. 137156). Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
Lewis, S. (1997). ‘Family friendly’ employment policies: A route to changing organizational culture or playing about at the margins? Gender, Work and Organization, 4, 1323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, S. (2001). Restructuring workplace cultures: The ultimate work-family challenge? Women in Management Review, 16(1), 2129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lirio, P., Lee, M., Williams, M., Haugen, L., & Kossek, E. (2008). The inclusion challenge with reduced-load professionals: The role of the manager. Human Resource Management, 47(3), 443461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDonald, P., Bradley, L. & Brown, K. (2008). Visibility in the workplace: Still an ingredient for career success. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(12), 21982215.Google Scholar
McDonald, P., Bradley, L. & Brown, K. (2009). ‘Full-time is a given here’: Part-time versus full-time job quality. British Journal of Management, 20, 143157.Google Scholar
Maxwell, J. (1996). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
Mills, P., & Morris, J. (1986). Clients as ‘partial’ employees of service organizations: Role development in client participation. Academy of Management Review, 11(4), 726735.Google Scholar
Moen, P. (2008). Its constraints, not choices. Science, 319, 903904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moen, P., Kelly, E., & Hill, R. (2011). Does enhancing work-time control and flexibility reduce turnover? A naturally occurring experiment. Social Problems, 58(1), 6998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morgeson, F., & Campion, M. (2003). Work design. In W. Borman, D. Ilgen, & R. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 423452). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
Morgeson, F., & Humphrey, S. (2006). The work design questionnaire (WDQ): Developing and validating a comprehensive measure for assessing job design and the nature of work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(6), 13211339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morgeson, F., & Humphrey, S. (2008). Job and team design: Toward a more integrative conceptualization of work design. In J. Martocchio (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (pp. 3992). United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
Nentwich, J., & Hoyer, P. (2012). Part‐time work as practising resistance: The power of counter‐arguments. British Journal of Management, 24(4), 557570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neuman, W. (2006). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
Oldham, G. (1996). Job design. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 11, 3360.Google Scholar
Oldham, G., & Hackman, R. (2010). Not what it was and not what it will be: The future of job design research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(2–3), 463479.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2014). OECD employment outlook 2014. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/employment/oecd-employment-outlook-19991266.htm.Google Scholar
Ozbilgin, M. F., Tsouroufli, M., & Smith, M. (2011). Understanding the interplay of time, gender and professionalism in hospital medicine in the UK. Social Science & Medicine, 72(10), 15881594.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perlow, L. (1998). Boundary control: The social ordering of work and family time in a high-tech corporation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43(2), 328357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pocock, B., Skinner, N., & Pisaniello, S. (2010). How much should we work: Working hours, holidays and working life: The participation challenge. The Australian work and life index 2010. Adelaide: University of South Australia.Google Scholar
Ryan, A., & Kossek, E. (2008). Work-life policy implementation: Breaking down or creating barriers to inclusiveness? Human Resource Management, 47(2), 295310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, N., Hutchinson, C., & Pocock, B. (2012). The big squeeze. work, home and care in 2012. Adelaide: University of South Australia Centre for Work+Life.Google Scholar
Stone, P. (2007). Opting out?: Why women really quit careers and head home. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Stone, P., & Hernandez, L. A. (2013). The all-or-nothing workplace: Flexibility stigma and ‘opting out’ among professional-managerial women. Journal of Social Issues, 69(2), 235256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques . Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
Taylor, F. W. (1911). The principles of scientific management. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
Teece, D. (2003). Expert talent and the design of (professional services) firms. Industrial and Corporate Change, 12(4), 895916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Von Nordenflycht, A. (2010). What is a professional service firm? Toward a theory and taxonomy of knowledge-intensive firms. Academy of Management Review, 35(1), 155174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webber, G., & Williams, C. (2008). Mothers in ‘good’ and ‘bad’ part-time jobs: Different problems, same results. Gender and Society, 22(6), 752777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, S., Butler, M., James, K., Partington, D., Singh, V., & Vinnicombe, S. (2004). The fallacy of integration: Work and non-work in professional services. Women in Management Review, 19(4), 186195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Facilitating sustainable professional part-time work: A question of design?
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Facilitating sustainable professional part-time work: A question of design?
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Facilitating sustainable professional part-time work: A question of design?
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *