Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The mediating effect of leader–member exchange on the relationship between Theory X and Y management styles and affective commitment: A multilevel analysis

  • Faruk Şahin (a1)
Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between McGregor's Theory X and Y management styles and affective commitment through the mediating mechanism of the leader–member exchange (LMX). Adopting a multilevel perspective to explain the complex relations among variables, data were collected from 56 supervisors and 173 subordinates from yacht building companies in Turkey. The results indicated that the Theory Y management style related positively to affective commitment and LMX. In addition, the results indicated that LMX partially mediated the relationship between the Theory Y management style and affective commitment. However, the Theory X management style had no relationships with either LMX or affective commitment. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1996). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: An examination of construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 252276.
Aycan, Z., & Paşa, S. (2003). Career choices, job selection criteria, and leadership preferences in a transitional nation: The case of Turkey. Journal of Carrier Development, 30, 129144.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator– mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 11731182.
Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's handbook of leadership. New York, NY: Free Press.
Blau, P. (1967). Exchange and power in social life. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis. In Klein, K. J., & Kozlowski, S. W. J. (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 349381). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bobic, M. P., & Davis, W. E. (2003). A kind word for Theory X: Or why so many newfangled management techniques quickly fail? Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 13(3), 239264.
Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written material. In Triandis, H. C., & Berry, J. W. (Eds.), Handbook of cross cultural psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 349444). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In Bollen, K. A., & Long, J. S. (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Cevriog˘lu, E. (2007). The relationship between leader-member exchange and the individual and organizational outcomes: An empirical study (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Afyonkarahisar Kocatepe Üniversitesi, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.
Cohen, A. (1992). Antecedents of organizational commitment across occupational groups: A meta analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13(6), 539558.
Dansereau, F. Jr., Graen, G., & Haga, W. J. (1975). A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations: A longitudinal investigation of the role-making process. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13, 4678.
Dienesch, R. M., & Liden, R. C. (1986). Leader–member exchange model of leadership: A critique and further development. Academy of Management Review, 11, 618634.
Eisenberger, R., Karagonlar, G., Stinglhamber, F., Neves, P., Becker, T. E., Gonzalez-Morales, M. G., et al. (2010). Leader–member exchange and affective organizational commitment: The contribution of supervisor's organizational embodiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(6), 10851103.
Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I. L., & Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 565573.
French, J. R. P. Jr., & Raven, B. H. (1968). The basis of social power. In Cartwright, D., & Zander, A. (Eds.), Group dynamics: Research and theory (pp. 259269). New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997). Meta-analytic review of leader–member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(6), 827844.
Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25(2), 161178.
Graen, G., & Cashman, J. F. (1975). A role-making model of leadership in formal organizations: A developmental approach. In Hunt, J. G., & Larson, L. L. (Eds.), Leadership frontiers (pp. 143165). Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.
Graen, G. B., & Graen, J. A. (Eds.). (2005). LMX leadership: Global organizing design. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
Graen, G. B., & Scandura, T. A. (1987). Toward a psychology of dyadic organizing. In Cummings, L. L., & Staw, B. M. (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 9, pp. 175208). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader–member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219247.
Heil, G., Bennis, W., & Stephens, D. C. (2000). Douglas McGregor, revisited: Managing the human side of the enterprise. New York, NY: Wiley.
Hitt, M. A., Beamish, P. W., Jackson, S. E., & Mathieu, J. E. (2007). Building theoretical and empirical bridges across levels: Multilevel research in management. Academy of Management Journal, 50(6), 13851399.
Hofmann, D. A. (1997). An overview of the logic and rationale of hierarchical linear models. Journal of Management, 23, 723744.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's consequences: Internationaldifferences in work-related values. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hoyle, R. H. (1995). The structural equation modeling approach: Basic concepts and fundamental issues. In Hoyle, R. H. (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 115). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kabasakal, H., & Bodur, M. (2002). Arabic cluster: A bridge between east and west. Journal of World Business, 37, 4054.
Kopelman, R. E., Prottas, D. J., & Davis, A. L. (2008). Douglas McGregor's theory X and Y: Toward a construct-valid measure. Journal of Managerial Issues, 20(2), 255271.
Kopelman, R. E., Prottas, D. J., & Falk, D. W. (2010). Construct validation of a theory X/Y behavior scale. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(2), 120135.
Krull, J. L., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2001). Multilevel modeling of individual and group level mediated effects. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36, 249277.
Liden, R. C., & Maslyn, J. M. (1998). Multidimensionality of leader–member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development. Journal of Management, 24(1), 4372.
Liden, R. C., Sparrowe, R. T., & Wayne, S. J. (1997). Leader–member exchange theory: The past and potential for the future. In Ferris, G. R. (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Vol. 15, pp. 47119). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Liu, W., Lepak, D. P., Takeuchi, R., & Sims, H. P. Jr. (2003). Matching leadership styles with employment modes: Strategic human resource management perspective. Human Resource Management Review, 13, 127152.
Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 171194.
McGregor, D., & Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J. (2006). The human side of enterprise (annotated edition). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
McGregor, D. M. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
McGregor, D. M. (1966). Leadership and motivation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
McGregor, D. M. (1967). The professional manager. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Meyer, J., Stanley, D., Herscovich, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 2052.
Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1, 6189.
Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Some methodological considerations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 538551.
Miner, J. B. (2003). The rated importance, scientific validity, and practical usefulness of organizational behavior theories: A quantitative review. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 2, 250268.
Morse, J. J., & Lorsch, J. W. (1970). Beyond theory Y. Harvard Business Review, 48(3), 6168.
Mowday, R., Steers, R., & Porter, L. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224247.
O'Reilly, C. III, & Chatman, J. (1986). Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: The effects of compliance, identification and internalization on prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 492499.
Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 372.
Özkaya, M. O., Kocakoç, İ. D., & Karaa, E. (2006). Yöneticilerin örgütsel bağlılıkları ve demografik özellikleri arasındaki ilişkileri incelemeye yönelik bir alan çalışması [The relations between the demographic factors of managers and organizational commitment: A field study]. Yönetim ve Ekonomi, 13(2), 7796.
Özutku, H. (2008). Örgüte duygusal, devamlılık ve normatif bag˘lılık ile is ¸ performansı arasındaki ilis ¸ kinin incelenmesi [An investigation of the relationship between job performance and affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization]. I˙ stanbul Üniversitesi I˙ s¸ letme Fakültesi Dergisi, 37(2), 7997.
Özutku, H., Ağca, V., & Cevrioğlu, E. (2008). Lider-üye etkileşimi teorisi çerçevesinde, yönetici-ast etkileşimi ile örgütsel bağlılık boyutları ve iş performansı arasındaki ilişki: Ampirik bir inceleme [Leader-member exchange, organizational commitment and job performance: An empirical study]. İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 22(2), 193210.
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, T. A. (2002). Hierarchical linear model: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Reddin, W. J. (1969). What's wrong with the style theories? Training and Development Journal, 23, 1417.
Reichers, A. (1985). A review and reconceptualization of organizational commitment. The Academy of Management Review, 10(3), 465476.
Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698714.
Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 825836.
Rousseau, D. M. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Scandura, T. A., & Graen, G. B. (1984). Moderating effects of initial leader–member exchange status on the effects of a leadership intervention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(3), 428436.
Schriesheim, C. A., Castro, S. L., & Cogliser, C. C. (1999). Leader–member exchange (LMX) research: A comprehensive review of theory, measurement, and data-analytic practices. Leadership Quarterly, 10, 63113.
Schyns, B., Paul, T., Mohr, G., & Blank, H. (2005). Comparing antecedents and consequences of leader – Member exchange in a German working context to findings in the US. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 14(1), 122.
Settoon, R. P., Bennett, N., & Liden, R. C. (1996). Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader–member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(3), 219227.
Sherony, K. M., & Green, S. G. (2002). Coworker exchange: Relationships between coworkers, leader– member exchange, and work attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 542548.
Sparrowe, R. T., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Process and structure in leader–member exchange. Academy of Management Review, 22, 522552.
Thomas, J. M., & Bennis, W. G. (1972). The management of change and conflict: Selected readings. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.
Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Tsui, A. S., Pearce, J. L., Porter, L. W., & Hite, J. P. (1995). Choice of employee–organization relationship: Influence of external and internal organizational factors. In Ferris, G. R. (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Vol. 13, pp. 117151). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Uhl-Bien, M., & Maslyn, J. (2003). Reciprocity in manager–subordinate relationships: Components, configurations, and outcomes. Journal of Management, 29, 511532.
Vandenberghe, C., Stinglhamber, F., Bentein, K., & Delhaise, T. (2001). An examination of the cross-cultural validity of a multidimensional model of commitment in Europe. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 322347.
Wasti, S. A. (2003). Organizational commitment, turnover intentions and the influence of cultural values. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 303321.
Wasti, S. A. (2008). Organizational commitment: Complication or clarification? In Smith, P. B., Peterson, M. F., & Thomas, D. C. (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural management research (pp. 95115). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Wayne, S. J., Coyle-Shapiro, J. A.-M., Eisenberger, R., Liden, R. C., Rousseau, D. M., & Shore, L. M. (2009). Social influences. In Klein, H. J., Becker, T. E., & Meyer, J. P. (Eds.), Commitment in organizations: Accumulated wisdom and new directions (pp. 253284). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader–member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 82111.
Yrle, A. C., Hartman, S., & Galle, W. P. (2002). An investigation of relationships between communication style and leader–member exchange. Journal of Communication Management, 6, 257268.
Yukl, G., & Van Fleet, D. D. (1990). Theory and research on leadership in organization. In Dunnette, M. D., & Hough, L. M. (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 147197). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Management & Organization
  • ISSN: 1833-3672
  • EISSN: 1839-3527
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-management-and-organization
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 28 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2940 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.