Skip to main content Accessibility help

A time-lagged study on the moderating role of overall satisfaction in perceived politics: Job outcomes relationships

  • Farooq Ahmed Jam (a1), Magda B L Donia (a2), Usman Raja (a3) and Chong Hui Ling (a1)


In a time-lagged study with independent measures (N=115, paired responses), we examined the interactive effects of perceived organizational politics and overall satisfaction on job stress, interpersonal conflict, job performance, and creativity. The data were collected from a diverse sample of employees from various workplaces in Pakistan. The findings showed that perceived politics had a positive effect on job stress, while overall satisfaction had a negative effect on interpersonal conflict and a positive effect on creative performance. The results also revealed that in the face of high politics, highly satisfied individuals demonstrated higher levels of creativity and job performance. However, in this context of high politics negative effects were also observed, namely that highly satisfied individuals participated in interpersonal conflict and experienced high stress.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author:


Hide All
Abbas, M., Raja, U., Darr, W., & Bouckenooghe, D. (2012). Combined effects of perceived politics and psychological capital on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and performance. Journal of Management, 40(7), 18131830.
Ahmadi, J., Fallahzadeh, H., Salimi, A., Rahimian, M., Salehi, V., Khaghani, M., & Babaeebeigi, M. (2006). Analysis of opium use by students of medical sciences. Journal of clinical nursing, 15(4), 379386.
Allen, R. W., Madison, D. L., Porter, L. W., Renwick, P. A., & Mayes, B. T. (1979). Organizational politics. California Management Review, 22(1), 7783.
Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(2), 357376.
Amabile, T. M. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 10(1), 123167.
Amabile, T. M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the work environment for creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 39(5), 11541184.
Andrews, M. C., & Kacmar, K. M. (2001). Discriminating among organizational politics, justice, and support. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(4), 347366.
Baloch, Q. B. (2009). Effects of job satisfaction on employees motivation & turn over intentions. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 2(1), 121.
Beehr, T. A., & Newman, J. E. (1978). Job stress, employee health, and organizational effectiveness: A facet analysis, model, and literature review. Personnel Psychology, 31(4), 665699.
Bentler, P. M., & Bonnet, D. C. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures,. Psychological Bulletin, 88(3), 588606.
Bozeman, D. P., Hochwarier, W. A., Perrewe, P. L., & Brymer, R. A. (2001). Organizational politics, perceived control, and work outcomes: Boundary conditions on the effects of politics. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(3), 486503.
Brayfield, A. H., & Crockett, W. H. (1955). Employee attitudes and employee performance. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 396424.
Burke, V., Robinson, J. O., Richardson, C. J., & Bundell, C. S. (1991). Longitudinal studies of virulence factors of pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. Pathology, 23(2), 145148.
Butt, A. N., Choi, J. N., & Jaeger, A. M. (2005). The effects of self‐emotion, counterpart emotion, and counterpart behavior on negotiator behavior: a comparison of individual‐level and dyad‐level dynamics. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(6), 681704.
Byron, K., Khazanchi, S., & Nazarian, D. (2010). The relationship between stressors and creativity: A meta-analysis examining competing theoretical models. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 201212.
Chang, C. H., Rosen, C. C., & Levy, P. E. (2009). The relationship between perceptions of organizational politics and employee attitudes, strain, and behavior: A meta-analytic examination. Academy of Management Journal, 52(4), 779801.
Chang, S.-C., Chen, C.-H., Fong, I.-K., & Luh, P. B. (1990). Hydroelectric generation scheduling with an effective differential dynamic programming algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 5(3), 737743.
Chatterjee, S., & Price, B. (1991). Regression diagnostics. New York: Wiley.
Cropanzano, R., Howes, J. C., Grandey, A. A., & Toth, P. (1999). The relationship of organizational politics and support to work behaviors, attitudes, and stress. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(2), 159180.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum.
Drory, A. (1993). Perceived political climate and job attitudes. Organization Studies, 14(1), 5971.
Farrell, D. (1983). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect as responses to job dissatisfaction: A multidimensional scaling study. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 596607.
Ferris, C. F. (1996). Serotonin diminishes aggression by suppressing the activity of the vasopressin system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 794(1), 98103.
Ferris, G. R., Frink, D. D., Gilmore, D. C., & Kacmar, K. M. (1994). Understanding as an antidote for the dysfunctional consequences of organizational politics as a stressor. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24(13), 12041220.
Ferris, G. R., Harrell-Cook, G., & Dulebohn, J. H. (2000). Organizational politics: The nature of the relationship between politics perceptions and political behavior. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 17, 89–130.
Ferris, G. R., Russ, G. S., & Fandt, P. M. (1989). Politics in organizations. Impression Management in the Organization, 143(170), 79100.
Fineman, S. (2006). On being positive: Concerns and counterpoints. Academy of Management Review, 31(2), 270291.
Gandz, J., & Murray, V. V. (1980). The experience of workplace politics. Academy of Management Journal, 23(2), 237251.
Gilmore, D. C., Ferris, G. R., Dulebohn, J. H., & Harrell-Cook, G. (1996). Organizational politics and employee attendance. Group & Organization Management, 21(4), 481494.
Greenberg, J., & Baron, R. A. (2000). Behavior in organizations: Understanding and managing the human side of work. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Greenberg, J., & Scott, K. S. (1996). Why do workers bite the hands that feed them? Employee theft as a social exchange process. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research on organizational behavior (Vol. 18, pp. 111–156). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Hackett, R. D., Bycio, P., & Guion, R. M. (1989). Absenteeism among hospital nurses: An idiographic-longitudinal analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 32(2), 424453.
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1974). The job diagnostic survey: An instrument for the diagnosis of jobs and the evaluation of job redesign projects. DTIC Document. Department of Administrative Sciences: Yale University.
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign (Vol. 72). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Hair, J. F. Jr., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & William, A. (1998). Multivariate data analysis with readings. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Harris, D. K., & Benson, M. L. (1998). Nursing home theft: The hidden problem. Journal of Aging Studies, 12(1), 5767.
Harrison, D. A., Newman, D. A., & Roth, P. L. (2006). How important are job attitudes? Meta-analytic comparisons of integrative behavioral outcomes and time sequences. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2), 305325.
Hirschman, A. O. (1970). Exit, voice, and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6(4), 307324.
Hofstede, G. (1989). Organising for cultural diversity. European Management Journal, 7(4), 390397.
Hofstede, G., & Peterson, M. F. (2000). National values and organizational practices. In N. M. Ashkanasy, C. M. Wilderom, & M. F. Peterson (Eds.), Handbook of organizational culture and climate (pp. 401–414). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for Determining Model Fit. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 5360.
Hoppock, R. (1935). Job satisfaction. New York, NY: Harper and Brothers.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 155.
Huiras, J., Uggen, C., & McMorris, B. (2005). Career jobs, survival jobs, and employee deviance: A social investment model of workplace misconduct. The Sociological Quarterly, 41(2), 245263.
Iaffaldano, M. T., & Muchinsky, P. M. (1985). Job satisfaction and job performance: A metaanalysis. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 251273.
Johns, G. (1993). Constraints on the adoption of psychology-based personnel practices: Lessons from organizational innovation. Personnel Psychology, 46, 569592.
Kacmar, K. M., & Baron, R. A. (1999). Organizational politics: The state of the field, links to related processes, and an agenda for future research. In G. Ferris, G. R. (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Vol. 17. pp. 1–39). Stamford, CT: JAI Press.
Kacmar, K. M., & Carlson, D. S. (1997). Further validation of the perceptions of politics scale (POPS): A multiple sample investigation. Journal of Management, 23(5), 627658.
Kuan, C.-Y., Yang, D. D., Roy, D. R. S., Davis, R. J., Rakic, P., & Flavell, R. A. (1999). The Jnk1 and Jnk2 protein kinases are required for regional specific apoptosis during early brain development. Neuron, 22(4), 667676.
Kay, G., Bryman, A., Dainty, A., & Soetanto, R. (2008). Understanding empowerment from an employee perspective. Job Satisfaction Management, 14, 3955.
Khan, T. A., Akbar, A., Jam, F. A., & Saeed, M. M. (2015). A time lagged study of the relationship between big five personality and ethical ideology. Ethics & Behavior. doi:10.1080/10508422.2015.2015.1055493.
LePine, J. A., Podsakoff, N. P., & LePine, M. A. (2005). A meta-analytic test of the challenge stressor – hindrance stressor framework: An explanation for inconsitent relationships among stressors and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 764775.
Lewin, K. (1936). Principles of topological psychology (F. Heider – G. M. Heider, translators). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 1297–1349). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2007). Emerging positive organizational behavior. Journal of Management, 33(3), 321349.
MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H., M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1(2), 130149.
Madjar, N., Oldham, G. R., & Pratt, M. G. (2002). There’s no place like home? The contributions of work and nonwork creativity support to employees’ creative performance. Academy of Management Journal, 45(4), 757767.
McDonald, R. P., & Ho, M.-H. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting statistical equation analyses. Psychological Methods, 7(1), 6482.
Miller, B. K., Rutherford, M. A., & Kolodinsky, R. W. (2008). Perceptions of organizational politics: A meta-analysis of outcomes. Journal of Business and Psychology, 22(3), 209222.
Nor Intan Shamimi, A. A., & Ahmad, M. (2015). Stress management and oncology nurse behaviours: An association in nursing profession. International Journal of Business and Administrative Studies, 1(1), 2934.
Parker, D. F., & DeCotiis, T. A. (1983/10). Organizational determinants of job stress. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 32(2), 160177.
Rosen, C. C., Levy, P. E., & Hall, R. J. (2006). Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 211220.
Poon, J. M. L. (2003). Situational antecedents and outcomes of organizational politics perceptions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(2), 138155.
Rusbult, C. E., Farrell, D., Rogers, G., & Mainous, A. G. (1988). Impact of exchange variables on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: An integrative model of responses to declining job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 31, 599627.
Spector, P. E., & Jex, S. M. (1998). Development of four self-report measures of job stressors and strain: Interpersonal conflict at work scale, organizational constraints scale, quantitative workload inventory, and physical symptoms inventory. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 3(4), 356.
Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S., & Osterlind, S. J. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, US: Allyn and Bacon.
Treadway, D. C., Ferris, G. R., Hochwarter, W., Perrewé, P., Witt, L., & Goodman, J. M. (2005). The role of age in the perceptions of politics-job performance relationship: A three-study constructive replication. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 872.
Tsui, A. S., Nifadkar, S. S., & Ou, A. Y. (2007). Cross-national, cross-cultural organizational behavior research: Advances, gaps, and recommendations. Journal of Management, 33(3), 426478.
Valle, M., & Perrewe, P. L. (2000). Do politics perceptions relate to political behaviors? Tests of an implicit assumption and expanded model. Human Relations, 53(3), 359386.
Vigoda, E. (2000a). Internal politics in public administration systems: An empirical examination of its relationship with job congruence, organizational citizenship behavior, and in-role performance. Public Personnel Management; Public Personnel Management, 29(2), 185210.
Vigoda, E. (2000b). Organizational politics, job attitudes, and work outcomes: Exploration and implications for the public sector. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57(3), 326347.
Vigoda, E. (2002). Stress-related aftermaths to workplace politics: the relationships among politics, job distress, and aggressive behavior in organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(5), 571591.
Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 18, 174.
Whitman, D. S., Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2010). Satisfaction, citizenship behaviors, ad performance in work units: A meta-analysis of collective construct relations. Personnel Psychology, 63, 4181.
Williams, , L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601617.
Withey, M. J., & Cooper, W. H. (1989). Predicting exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34, 521539.
Witt, L. (1998). Enhancing organizational goal congruence: A solution to organizational politics. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(4), 666.
Witt, L., Kacmar, K. M., Carlson, D. S., & Zivnuska, S. (2002). Interactive effects of personality and organizational politics on contextual performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(8), 911926.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Management & Organization
  • ISSN: 1833-3672
  • EISSN: 1839-3527
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-management-and-organization
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed