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The Cerebral Associations of Raynaud's Disease

  • Hubert J. Norman (a1)

It was in 1862 that Maurice Raynaud first made public his description of the condition with which his name has since been associated, and his Thesis for the Doctorate in Medicine has now become a classic in medical literature (1). Although there may be meticulous critics who will dispute his claim to priority in the delineation of the disease-complex known as Raynaud's disease, there can be no doubt that it was he who first succinctly and clearly described the condition. To use a phrase which is apposite in dealing with such a subject—it was Raynaud who first drew a “line of demarcation” between the symptoms characteristic of his syndrome and those typical of gangrenes in general. In his own words, he was dealing with “a very limited corner of the general history of gangrenes.” In the present paper it is proposed to remain within still stricter limitations, yet even there the amount of clinical material is not inconsiderable. There is an additional interest, too, from the fact that Raynaud, especially in his later researches (2), became more and more convinced that the explanation of the peripheral symptoms should be sought in some change in the central nervous system.

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(1) Raynaud, , Maurice, A. G.“De l'Asphyxie Locale et de la Gangrène Symétrique des Extrémités,” Thèse pour le Doctorat en Médecine, Paris, 1862.
(2) Idem.“New Researches on the Nature and Treatment of Local Asphyxia of the Extremities,” Selected Monographs (New Sydenham Society), London, 1888, p. 182.
(3) Paris Thesis, p. 18.
(4) De la Gangrène Spontanée produit par Perturbation Nerveuse, Paris, 1857.
(5) “Mémoire sur des nouveaux caractères de la gangrène,” etc. Gazette Médicale de Paris, December, 1849, p. 985. (This reference is stated wrongly in Raynaud's Thesis as 1859; an error which is repeated in Barlow's translation in Selected Monographs, p. 9).
(6) Paris Thesis, p. 19.
(7) Gazette Médicale de Paris, July, 1849, P 544.
(7a) Monro, T. K.Raynaud's Disease, Glasgow, 1889, p. 18.
(8) Landry, O.Recherches sur les causes et les indications curatives des maladies nerveuses, Paris, 1855.
(9) Selected Monographs, p. 52.
(10) Guy's Hospital Gazette, 1844, pp. 121, 143; Clinical Journal, 1894, vol. iii, pp. 369–375.
(11) Monro, .—Op. cit., p. 153.
(12) Church, and Peterson, .—Nervous and Mental Diseases, London, 1901, p. 586.
(13) Brit. Med. Journ., 1882, vol. ii, p. 1155.
(14) Thomas, H. M.“Case of Raynaud's Disease associated with Convulsions and Hæmoglobinuria,” Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports, 1890–91, ii, pp. 114118. (Report of case continued by Osler, Amer. Journ. Med. Sci. (new series), 1896, vol. cxii, p. 522.)
(15) Osler, .—“Cerebral Complications of Raynaud's Disease,” Amer. Journ. Med. Sci. (new series), 1896, vol. cxii, p. 529.
(16) Barlow, .—Trans. Clin. Soc., vol. xviii, 1885, p. 311.
(16a) Fox, T. Colcott.“On Two Cases of Raynaud's Disease,” Ibid., 1885, vol. xviii, p. 300.
(16b) Lévi, L., and Raymond, Archives de Neurologie, No. 95; Journ. Ment. Sci., January, 1896, vol. xlii, p. 193.
(16c) Solis-Cohen, S.“Vasomotor Ataxia: a contribution to the subject of idiosyncrasies,” Amer. Journ. Med. Sci., 1894, vol. cvii, pp. 132134.
(17) Féré, Ch.“Note sur l'Asphyxie Locale des Extérmités, chez les Epileptiques,” Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpêtrière, 1891, vol. iv, p. 354.
(18) Cavafy, J.“Symmetrical Congestive Mottling of the Skin,” Trans. Clin. Soc, 1883, vol. xvi, p. 43.
(19) Bland, .—Lancet, 1889, vol. ii, p. 838.
(20) Bernstein, .—London Medical Record, 1885, vol. xiii, p. 337.
(21) Wiglesworth, .—“Peripheral Neuritis in Raynaud's Disease,” Trans. Path. Soc. Lond., 1887, vol. xxxviii, p. 61.
(22) Southey, .—“Case of Local Asphyxia Symmetrical Gangrene,” Trans. Clin. Soc, 1883, vol. xvi, p. 167.
(23) Selected Monographs, p. 193.
(24) Edgerley, S.“Certain Conditions of the Circulatory System in the Insane,” Journ. Ment. Sci, July, 1896, vol. xlii, p. 504 et seq.
(25) Macpherson, J.“Case of Acute Mania with Symmetrical Gangrene of the Toes,” Ibid., 1889, vol. xxxv, p. 61.
(26) Esquirol, .—Des Maladies Mentales, t. i, pp. 201203.
(27) Ritti, .—“De l'Asphyxie Locale des Extrémités dans la Période de Dépression de la Folie à Double Forme,” Annales Medieo-Psyckologiques (6th series), Paris, 1882, vol. viii; Traité Clinique de la Folie à Double Forme, Paris, 1883, p. 106 et seq.
(28) Urquhart, A. R.“Two Cases of Raynaud's Disease,” Edin. Med. Journ., 1895, vol. 40 (ii), pp. 806813.
(29) Shaw, .—“Raynaud's Disease,” New York Med. Journ., 1886, vol. xliv, pp. 676679.
(30) Targowla, .—“Un cas d'asphyxie locale symétrique intermittente des extrémités chez un lypémaniaque,” Annales Medico-Psychologiques, 1892, vol. XV, pp. 400403.
(31) Urquhart, .—Loc. cit.
(32) Iscovesco, .—“Asphyxie Locale des Extrémités,” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances et mémoires de la Société de Biologie, 1894, vol. i, p. 289.
(33) Hutchinson, J.Arch, of Surg., 1894, vol. v, p. 220.
(34) Zambaco, .—Op. cit.: Selected Monographs, p. 8.
(34a) Barlow, .—Selected Monographs, p. 193.
(35) Ibotson, E. C. B.“Raynaud's Disease in a Phthisical Dement,” Guy's Hospital Gazette (new series), 1889, vol. xii, p. 253.
(36) Raynaud, .—Thesis, p. 97.
(36a) Pitres, et Vaillard, .—Archives de Physiologie normale et pathologique, 1885, p. 106; Selected Monographs, pp. 196–197.
(37) Raynaud, .—Thesis, pp. 5866.
(38) Weiss, .—Wiener Klinik, 1882; Monro, op. cit., p. 156.
(39) Osler, .—Loc. cit., p. 524.
(40) Stockman, R.Edin. Med. Journ., 1903, vol. xiv, p. 252.
(41) Simpson, J. C.“Remarks on Raynaud's Disease, with cases,” Edin. Med. Journ., 1892–93, vol. xxxviii, p. 1030.
(41a) Madden, F. C.“A Case of Marked Temporary Aphasia after Ligature of the Common Carotid Artery for Traumatic Aneurysm,” Brit. Med. Journ., April, 1916, p. 585.
(42) Monro, .—Op. cit., pp. 159160; Raynaud, “New Researches in the Nature and Treatment of Local Asphyxia of the Extremities,” Selected Monographs, pp. 158–167.
(43) Monro, .—Op cit., p. 160.
(44) Stevenson, L. E.“Case of Raynaud's Disease,” Lancet, 1890, vol. ii, p. 917; Monro, op. cit., p. 161.
(45) Calmette, .—Recueil de mémoires de médecine, 1877, vol. xxxiii, p. 24; Monro, p. 161.
(46) Wood, H. C.Trans. Coll. of Physicians, Philadelphia, 1892, vol. xiv, p. 166.
(47) Stewart, , Purves, .—The Diagnosis of Nervous Diseases, 1906, p. 156.
(48) Weir Mitchell, S.Clinical Lessons on Nervous Diseases, 1897, pp. 180184.
(49) Monro, .—Op. cit., p. 157.
(50) Selected Monographs, p. 155.
(51) Barlow, .—Trans. Clin. Soc, 1883, vol. xvi, p. 186.
(52) Monro, .—Op. cit., pp. 188, 196.
(53) Stewart, .—Op. cit., p. 43 (note).
(54) Lévi, and Raymond, .—Archives de Neurologie, No. 95; Journ. Ment. Sci., January, 1896, vol. xlii, p. 193.
(55) Noyes, A. W. F.“Raynaud's Disease,” Austral. Med. Journ., 1893, vol. xv, pp. 265269.
(56) Stockman, .—Loc. cit.
(57) Fox, .—Loc. cit.
(58) Solis-Cohen, .—Amer. Journ. Med. Sci., 1894, vol. cvii, p. 144.
(59) Ritti, .—Annales Medico-Psychologiques (6th series), Paris, 1882, vol. viii, pp. 3649.
(60) Traité clinique et pratique des maladies mentales, p. 515.
(61) Edgerley, .—Loc. cit.
(62) Brunton, .—The Action of Medicines, p. 172.
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The Cerebral Associations of Raynaud's Disease

  • Hubert J. Norman (a1)
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